Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Antioxidants in Spirulina on the Immune Response of Pond Snails Infected with e.coli Manhasset Science Research Regan McCooey."— Presentation transcript:
1The Effects of Antioxidants in Spirulina on the Immune Response of Pond Snails Infected with e.coli Manhasset Science Research Regan McCooey
2NeedFigure 1: This pie chart shows the percentage of deaths related from bacterial infection present in major countries in January The U.S has the greatest percentage of 44.6%
3Knowledge BaseFigure 2: bacteria which are the cause of bacterial infections and are known as pathogens
4Knowledge Base Figure 3: adaptive immune response
5Knowledge BaseFigure 4: Three ways antibodies work against antigens or foreign invaders
6Knowledge BaseFigure 5: the physiology of a mollusk and the main parts the of organism
7Knowledge Base Figure 6: Antioxidant replacing free radicals
8Knowledge Base Figure 7: Nutrition facts of Spirulina
9Knowledge BaseFigure 8: the evolutionary path of immune-neuroendocrine response between mammals and invertebrates(Ottaviani, 2004)
10Literature ReviewFigure 9: schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata that was exposed to one group of the pond snailsWhen the snails that were exposed and unexposed to Trichobilharzia ocellata were compared their immune responses to an infection of Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteria differed.(Van der Knaap, et al, 1986)
11Literature Review(Van der Knaap, et al, 2004) the humoral defense activities of a Lymnaea stagnalis agglutination, oposonisation, and inhibition of bacterial growth.
12Literature Review (Brambilla, et al, 2008) Antioxidants are used on a large scale to try to maintain healthAntioxidants may be used to prevent free radical related health disorders
13Purpose/HypothesisPurpose: The purpose of this experiment is to show the effect that antioxidants have on immune responses to bacterial infectionsNull Hypothesis: There will be no increase or decrease between the immune response to the E.coli when the pond snail is exposed or not exposed to the antioxidantsAlternate Hypothesis: There will be a decrease in the immune response to the E.coli when the pond snail is exposed to the antioxidant.
14Methodology Methodology Pond Snails: 36 Control – neither exposed to e.coli or bacteriaSample Size: 12Variable 1 - infected with e.coli but no anti oxidant exposureSample Size: 12Variable 2 – infected with e.coli with antioxidant exposureSample Size: 12MeasurementImmune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snailsMeasurementImmune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snailsMeasurementImmune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snailsStatistical Analysis
15Protocols for Measurement Differences in the reaction to the e.coli between the snails exposed to antioxidants and the unexposed snailsSurvival Rate of Snails
16Do-Ability Freshwater pond snails: easy to keep alive and maintain No expensive equipment neededSome equipment needed is available in the labQualitive data is obtained by observation of the pond snails immune response to the bacterial infection
17Budget vendor catolog # page description quantity unit price total pricecarolina141212pond snails3$10.75$32.25wards85 V 1860Escherichia coli1$15.5086 V 0700Spirulina$6.7586 V 0126Chlorella671226Aquarium Tank, Glass, 2 1/2 gal$17.16$51.48671227Tank Cover, Glass, for 2 1/2 gal2$8.27$16.54researchsupply.net10 syringes$2.20total$131.47
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