Presentation on theme: "Need Figure 1: This pie chart shows the percentage of deaths related from bacterial infection present in major countries in January 2004. The U.S has."— Presentation transcript:
Need Figure 1: This pie chart shows the percentage of deaths related from bacterial infection present in major countries in January The U.S has the greatest percentage of 44.6% mortality-bacterial-infection-unspecified-site
Knowledge Base Figure 2: bacteria which are the cause of bacterial infections and are known as pathogens
Knowledge Base Figure 3: adaptive immune response OrgansCells/WhatisImmunity/WhatisImmunity.htm
Knowledge Base Figure 4: Three ways antibodies work against antigens or foreign invaders OrgansCells/WhatisImmunity/WhatisImmunity.htm
Knowledge Base Figure 5: the physiology of a mollusk and the main parts the of organism
Knowledge Base Figure 6: Antioxidant replacing free radicals
Knowledge Base Figure 7: Nutrition facts of Spirulina ech_info.html
Knowledge Base (Ottaviani, 2004) Figure 8: the evolutionary path of immune- neuroendocrine response between mammals and invertebrates
Literature Review Figure 9: schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata that was exposed to one group of the pond snails When the snails that were exposed and unexposed to Trichobilharzia ocellata were compared their immune responses to an infection of Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteria differed. (Van der Knaap, et al, 1986)
Literature Review (Van der Knaap, et al, 2004) the humoral defense activities of a Lymnaea stagnalis agglutination, oposonisation, and inhibition of bacterial growth.
Literature Review (Brambilla, et al, 2008) Antioxidants are used on a large scale to try to maintain health Antioxidants may be used to prevent free radical related health disorders
Purpose/Hypothesis Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to show the effect that antioxidants have on immune responses to bacterial infections Null Hypothesis: There will be no increase or decrease between the immune response to the E.coli when the pond snail is exposed or not exposed to the antioxidants Alternate Hypothesis: There will be a decrease in the immune response to the E.coli when the pond snail is exposed to the antioxidant.
Methodology Pond Snails: 36 Variable 1 - infected with e.coli but no anti oxidant exposure Sample Size: 12 Variable 2 – infected with e.coli with antioxidant exposure Sample Size: 12 Measurement Immune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snails Statistical Analysis Measurement Immune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snails Control – neither exposed to e.coli or bacteria Sample Size: 12 Measurement Immune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snails
Protocols for Measurement Differences in the reaction to the e.coli between the snails exposed to antioxidants and the unexposed snails Survival Rate of Snails
Do-Ability Freshwater pond snails: easy to keep alive and maintain No expensive equipment needed Some equipment needed is available in the lab Qualitive data is obtained by observation of the pond snails immune response to the bacterial infection
Budget vendorcatolog #pagedescriptionquantityunit pricetotal price carolina pond snails3$10.75$32.25 wards85 V 1860 Escherichia coli1$15.50 wards86 V 0700 Spirulina1$6.75 wards86 V 0126 Chlorella1$6.75 carolina Aquarium Tank, Glass, 2 1/2 gal3$17.16$51.48 carolina Tank Cover, Glass, for 2 1/2 gal2$8.27$16.54 researchsupply.net 10 syringes1$2.20 total$131.47
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