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The Effects of Antioxidants in Spirulina on the Immune Response of Pond Snails Infected with e.coli Manhasset Science Research Regan McCooey.

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Presentation on theme: "The Effects of Antioxidants in Spirulina on the Immune Response of Pond Snails Infected with e.coli Manhasset Science Research Regan McCooey."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Effects of Antioxidants in Spirulina on the Immune Response of Pond Snails Infected with e.coli Manhasset Science Research Regan McCooey

2 Need Figure 1: This pie chart shows the percentage of deaths related from bacterial infection present in major countries in January The U.S has the greatest percentage of 44.6%

3 Knowledge Base Figure 2: bacteria which are the cause of bacterial infections and are known as pathogens

4 Knowledge Base Figure 3: adaptive immune response

5 Knowledge Base Figure 4: Three ways antibodies work against antigens or foreign invaders

6 Knowledge Base Figure 5: the physiology of a mollusk and the main parts the of organism

7 Knowledge Base Figure 6: Antioxidant replacing free radicals

8 Knowledge Base Figure 7: Nutrition facts of Spirulina

9 Knowledge Base Figure 8: the evolutionary path of immune-neuroendocrine response between mammals and invertebrates (Ottaviani, 2004)

10 Literature Review Figure 9: schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata that was exposed to one group of the pond snails When the snails that were exposed and unexposed to Trichobilharzia ocellata were compared their immune responses to an infection of Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteria differed. (Van der Knaap, et al, 1986)

11 Literature Review (Van der Knaap, et al, 2004) the humoral defense activities of a Lymnaea stagnalis agglutination, oposonisation, and inhibition of bacterial growth.

12 Literature Review (Brambilla, et al, 2008)
Antioxidants are used on a large scale to try to maintain health Antioxidants may be used to prevent free radical related health disorders

13 Purpose/Hypothesis Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to show the effect that antioxidants have on immune responses to bacterial infections Null Hypothesis: There will be no increase or decrease between the immune response to the E.coli when the pond snail is exposed or not exposed to the antioxidants Alternate Hypothesis: There will be a decrease in the immune response to the E.coli when the pond snail is exposed to the antioxidant.

14 Methodology Methodology Pond Snails: 36
Control – neither exposed to e.coli or bacteria Sample Size: 12 Variable 1 - infected with e.coli but no anti oxidant exposure Sample Size: 12 Variable 2 – infected with e.coli with antioxidant exposure Sample Size: 12 Measurement Immune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snails Measurement Immune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snails Measurement Immune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snails Statistical Analysis

15 Protocols for Measurement
Differences in the reaction to the e.coli between the snails exposed to antioxidants and the unexposed snails Survival Rate of Snails

16 Do-Ability Freshwater pond snails: easy to keep alive and maintain
No expensive equipment needed Some equipment needed is available in the lab Qualitive data is obtained by observation of the pond snails immune response to the bacterial infection

17 Budget vendor catolog # page description quantity unit price
total price carolina 141212 pond snails 3 $10.75 $32.25 wards 85 V 1860 Escherichia coli 1 $15.50 86 V 0700 Spirulina $6.75 86 V 0126 Chlorella 671226 Aquarium Tank, Glass, 2 1/2 gal $17.16 $51.48 671227 Tank Cover, Glass, for 2 1/2 gal 2 $8.27 $16.54 researchsupply.net 10 syringes $2.20 total $131.47

18 Bibliography "Bacterial infection of unspecified site by country. Definition, graph and map." NationMaster - World Statistics, Country Comparisons. 02 June 2009 <http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/mor_bac_inf_of_uns_sit-mortality-bacterial-infection-unspecified-site>. Best, Ben. "GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS." BEN BEST's HOME PAGE. 02 June 2009 <http://www.benbest.com/nutrceut/AntiOxidants.html>. "BIL Lecture 12." University of Miami Department of Biology. 04 June 2009 <http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/106/106F06_12.html>. Brambilla, Daria, Cesare Mancuso, Mariagrazia R. Scuderi, Paolo Bosco, Giuseppina Cantarella, Laurence Lempereur, Giulia D. Benedetto, Salvatore Pezzino, and Renato Bernardini. "The role of antioxidant supplement in immune system, neoplastic, and neurodegenerative disorders: a point of view for an assessment of the risk/benefit profile." Nutrition Journal 7 (2008). BioMed Central. 30 Sept June 2009 <http://www.nutritionj.com/content/7/1/29>. Lockyer, Anne E., Jennifer N. Spinks, Anthony J. Walker, Richard A. Kane, Leslie R. Noble, David Rollinson, Emmanuel Dias-Neto, and Catherine S. Jones. "Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: Identification of cell-signalling, transcriptional control and immune-related genes from open reading frame expressed sequence tags (ORESTES)." Development and Comparitive Immunology 8 (2007): PubMed Central June 2009 <http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid= >. Maule, Aaron. Parasitic flatworms molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology and physiology. Cambridge, MA: CABI Pub., Pacheco-Lopez, Gustavo, Maj-Britt Niemi, Harald Engler, and Manfred Schedlowski. "Neuro-Immune Associative Learning." Neural Plasticity and Memory (2007). CRC Press June 2009 <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=frplas&part=ch14>. Ottaviani, Enzo. "The mollusc as a suitable model for mammalian immune-neuroendocrine." 1 (2004): 2-4. Visions and Perspectives May 2009 <http://www.isj.unimo.it/articoli/ISJ001.pdf>. Pacheco-López, Gustavo, Maj-Britt Niemi, Harald Engler, and Manfred Schedlowski. "Neuro-Immune Associative Learning." Neural Plasticity and Memory. Frontiers in Neuroscience CRC Press. 5 June 2009 <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=frplas&part=ch14>. "Spirulina Earthrise - Nutrition and Technical Information." Spirulina Earthrise - Health Benefits of Spirulina, The World's Healthiest Superfood,. 04 June 2009 <http://www.spirulina.com/nutrition_tech_info.html>. Van der Knaap, W. P. W., E. A. Meuleman, and T. Sminia. "Alterations in the internal defence system of the pond snail Lynmaea stagnalis induced by infection with the schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata." Parasitology Research 73 (1987): SpringerLink. 12 Dec June 2009 <http://www.springerlink.com/content/v8277uj42hh24hm8/>. Van der Knaap, W.P.W, C. M. Adema, and T. Sminia. "Invertebrate blood cells: Morphological and functional aspcts of the haemocytes in teh pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis." Comparative Haematology International 3 (1993): SpringerLink. 11 Dec June 2009 <http://www.springerlink.com/content/n527t8272l616372/>.


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