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Need Figure 1: This pie chart shows the percentage of deaths related from bacterial infection present in major countries in January 2004. The U.S has.

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Presentation on theme: "Need Figure 1: This pie chart shows the percentage of deaths related from bacterial infection present in major countries in January 2004. The U.S has."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Need Figure 1: This pie chart shows the percentage of deaths related from bacterial infection present in major countries in January The U.S has the greatest percentage of 44.6% mortality-bacterial-infection-unspecified-site

3 Knowledge Base Figure 2: bacteria which are the cause of bacterial infections and are known as pathogens

4 Knowledge Base Figure 3: adaptive immune response OrgansCells/WhatisImmunity/WhatisImmunity.htm

5 Knowledge Base Figure 4: Three ways antibodies work against antigens or foreign invaders OrgansCells/WhatisImmunity/WhatisImmunity.htm

6 Knowledge Base Figure 5: the physiology of a mollusk and the main parts the of organism

7 Knowledge Base Figure 6: Antioxidant replacing free radicals

8 Knowledge Base Figure 7: Nutrition facts of Spirulina ech_info.html

9 Knowledge Base (Ottaviani, 2004) Figure 8: the evolutionary path of immune- neuroendocrine response between mammals and invertebrates

10 Literature Review Figure 9: schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata that was exposed to one group of the pond snails When the snails that were exposed and unexposed to Trichobilharzia ocellata were compared their immune responses to an infection of Staphylococcus saprophyticus bacteria differed. (Van der Knaap, et al, 1986)

11 Literature Review (Van der Knaap, et al, 2004) the humoral defense activities of a Lymnaea stagnalis agglutination, oposonisation, and inhibition of bacterial growth.

12 Literature Review (Brambilla, et al, 2008) Antioxidants are used on a large scale to try to maintain health Antioxidants may be used to prevent free radical related health disorders

13 Purpose/Hypothesis Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to show the effect that antioxidants have on immune responses to bacterial infections Null Hypothesis: There will be no increase or decrease between the immune response to the E.coli when the pond snail is exposed or not exposed to the antioxidants Alternate Hypothesis: There will be a decrease in the immune response to the E.coli when the pond snail is exposed to the antioxidant.

14 Methodology Pond Snails: 36 Variable 1 - infected with e.coli but no anti oxidant exposure Sample Size: 12 Variable 2 – infected with e.coli with antioxidant exposure Sample Size: 12 Measurement Immune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snails Statistical Analysis Measurement Immune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snails Control – neither exposed to e.coli or bacteria Sample Size: 12 Measurement Immune response compared to variable and length of infection in pond snails

15 Protocols for Measurement Differences in the reaction to the e.coli between the snails exposed to antioxidants and the unexposed snails Survival Rate of Snails

16 Do-Ability Freshwater pond snails: easy to keep alive and maintain No expensive equipment needed Some equipment needed is available in the lab Qualitive data is obtained by observation of the pond snails immune response to the bacterial infection

17 Budget vendorcatolog #pagedescriptionquantityunit pricetotal price carolina pond snails3$10.75$32.25 wards85 V 1860 Escherichia coli1$15.50 wards86 V 0700 Spirulina1$6.75 wards86 V 0126 Chlorella1$6.75 carolina Aquarium Tank, Glass, 2 1/2 gal3$17.16$51.48 carolina Tank Cover, Glass, for 2 1/2 gal2$8.27$16.54 researchsupply.net 10 syringes1$2.20 total$131.47

18 Bibliography " Bacterial infection of unspecified site by country. Definition, graph and map." NationMaster - World Statistics, Country Comparisons. 02 June Best, Ben. "GENERAL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIONS." BEN BEST's HOME PAGE. 02 June "BIL Lecture 12." University of Miami Department of Biology. 04 June Brambilla, Daria, Cesare Mancuso, Mariagrazia R. Scuderi, Paolo Bosco, Giuseppina Cantarella, Laurence Lempereur, Giulia D. Benedetto, Salvatore Pezzino, and Renato Bernardini. "The role of antioxidant supplement in immune system, neoplastic, and neurodegenerative disorders: a point of view for an assessment of the risk/benefit profile." Nutrition Journal 7 (2008). BioMed Central. 30 Sept June Lockyer, Anne E., Jennifer N. Spinks, Anthony J. Walker, Richard A. Kane, Leslie R. Noble, David Rollinson, Emmanuel Dias-Neto, and Catherine S. Jones. "Biomphalaria glabrata transcriptome: Identification of cell-signalling, transcriptional control and immune-related genes from open reading frame expressed sequence tags (ORESTES)." Development and Comparitive Immunology 8 (2007): PubMed Central June Maule, Aaron. Parasitic flatworms molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology and physiology. Cambridge, MA: CABI Pub., Pacheco-Lopez, Gustavo, Maj-Britt Niemi, Harald Engler, and Manfred Schedlowski. "Neuro-Immune Associative Learning." Neural Plasticity and Memory (2007). CRC Press June Ottaviani, Enzo. "The mollusc as a suitable model for mammalian immune-neuroendocrine." 1 (2004): 2-4. Visions and Perspectives May Pacheco-López, Gustavo, Maj-Britt Niemi, Harald Engler, and Manfred Schedlowski. "Neuro-Immune Associative Learning." Neural Plasticity and Memory. Frontiers in Neuroscience CRC Press. 5 June "Spirulina Earthrise - Nutrition and Technical Information." Spirulina Earthrise - Health Benefits of Spirulina, The World's Healthiest Superfood,. 04 June Van der Knaap, W. P. W., E. A. Meuleman, and T. Sminia. "Alterations in the internal defence system of the pond snail Lynmaea stagnalis induced by infection with the schistosome Trichobilharzia ocellata." Parasitology Research 73 (1987): SpringerLink. 12 Dec June Van der Knaap, W.P.W, C. M. Adema, and T. Sminia. "Invertebrate blood cells: Morphological and functional aspcts of the haemocytes in teh pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis." Comparative Haematology International 3 (1993): SpringerLink. 11 Dec June 2009.


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