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Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development Jaelson Castro* Centro de Informatica - CIN Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE.

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Presentation on theme: "Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development Jaelson Castro* Centro de Informatica - CIN Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development Jaelson Castro* Centro de Informatica - CIN Universidade Federal de Pernambuco - UFPE / Brazil * Visiting Assoc. Prof. at University of Toronto - Canada

2 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 2 A bit of geography

3 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 3 Outline Introduction Early Requirements Late Requirements Architectural Design Detailed Design Implementation Research Issues Conclusion

4 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 4 Team University of Toronto: John Mylopoulos, Eric Yu, Manuel Kolp, Ariel Fuxman University of York: Yves Lespérance Universidade Federal de Pernambuco: Jaelson Castro University of Trento/IRST: Paolo Bresciani, Paolo Giorgini, Fausto Giunchiglia, Anna Perini, Marco Pistore, Paolo Traverso Warning: Work in Progress!! TROPOS at the AGE of 15 months

5 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 5 Software Development Techniques Software development techniques offer concepts, tools and methods for building software systems. Traditionally, such techniques have been implementation-driven. This means that the programming paradigm of the day dictated the design and requirements paradigms. So, structured programming led to structured design and structured (requirements) analysis, while object-oriented programming led to object-oriented design and analysis. Aligning the paradigms used for requirements, design and implementation makes perfect sense. But why start with implementation? What would requirements-driven software development look like?? What would requirements-driven software development look like??

6 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 6 A Multi-Perspective View of Software We are working towards an agent-oriented software development methodology, founded on the key concepts of actor, goal, (goal, task, resource) dependency, etc. Software ca be viewed from four perspectives: –Organizational –Organizational -- who are the relevant actors, what do they want? What are their obligations? …capabilities?? –Intentional –Intentional -- what are the relevant goals and how they interrelate? How are they being met? … by whom?? –Process-oriented –Process-oriented -- what are the relevant business/computer processes? Who is responsible for what? –Object-oriented –Object-oriented -- relevant objects We are focusing on organizational and intentional perspectives because they are novel.

7 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 7 Tropos* Ontology Structuring Actors, social dependencies, goals, resources,... Applicationarea (Requirements-driven) Software development Contexts (+generalization, aggregation, classification and attribution) Tools Software development, process analysis, enactment support, goal and softgoal analysis Troposmanner * Tropos, in Greek, means manner (as in “manner of doing things”) Guiding Principle: Push concepts as far down as possible (…and see what happens!)

8 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 8 Where Do We Want to Be?? Earlyrequirements Laterequirements Architecturaldesign Detaileddesign AgentImplementation i* KAOS Z UML & co. i* AUML TROPOS GAIA The GAP !! Agent-Oriented Programming Programming

9 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 9 Early vs Late Requirements We need to distinguish between early phases of requirements analysis, when the analyst is trying to understand an organizational setting, from late phases when the analyst formulates a solution Organization System Organizational model Contractual requirements Requirements

10 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 10 Early vs Late Requirements Early requirements amount to the definition of a search space (“scoping”) and a search among alternatives within that space. Late requirements amount to refining, disambiguating and completing the description of the chosen alternative. Structuredobject-oriented analyses Structured and object-oriented analyses are OK for late requirements. Goal-oriented analysis Goal-oriented analysis is more appropriate for early requirements analysis because it focuses on the definition and exploration of a space of alternatives

11 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 11 Goal-Oriented Analysis Goal-oriented analysis focuses on early requirements phases, when alternatives are being explored and evaluated. During goal-oriented analysis, we start with initial goals such as “Increase Market Share”, “Handle Customer Orders”, “Buy Media Items”, “Easily maintainable system”, “Good performance” etc. and keep decomposing them until we have reduced them to alternative collections of design decisions each of which can satisfy the initial goals. Initial goals may be organization- or system-oriented; they may also be conflicting, so the analysis must facilitate the discovery of tradeoffs and the search of the full space of alternatives, rather than a subset.

12 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 12 Goal-Oriented Analysis is not New! Specification of composite systems -- [Feather87] Goal-oriented elaboration of requirements -- ALBERT [Dubois94] Goal-oriented requirements acquisition -- KAOS [Dardenne93] Knowledge representation and reasoning in the design of composite systems -- Critter [Fickas92] Goal-oriented requirements analysis -- Potts, Anton i* and Non-Functional Requirements framework -- Yu, Chung NATURE -- [Jarke93] F3 -- [Bubenko93]...and many others...

13 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 13 An E-commerce Case Study Media taxonomy –on-line catalog –DBMS E-Shopping Cart –Check In –Buying –Check Out Search Engine –catalog browser –Keywords –full-text Secure –$ transactions –orders

14 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 14 Early Requirements Analysis with TROPOS Understanding the problem by studying an existing organizational setting; Output : Organizational model with relevant actors and respective goals.

15 Means-Ends Analysis & Functional Alternatives

16 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 16 Late Requirements with TROPOS The (software) system is now represented as one or more actors which participate in a strategic dependency model. Resource, task and softgoal dependencies correspond naturally to functional and non-functional requirements. Functional Goals generally operationalized during Late Requirements

17 Late Requirements (Strategic Relationships) Specifications describing functional and non functional requirements for the system-to-be within its environment

18 Late Requirements (Strategic Rational Model)

19 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 19 Assigning Responsabilities to Subactors Availability Adaptability

20 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 20 Late Requirements with TROPOS Leaving (some) goal dependencies between software system actors and other actors is a novelty. Traditionally, functional goals are “operationalized” during late requirements, and quality softgoals are either operationalized or “metricized”. Removing goals early on leads to fragile software systems Leaving goal dependencies with system actors as dependees makes sense whenever there is a foreseeable need for flexibility in the performance of a task on the part of the system. –We have left 3 goals : Availability, Security and Adaptability

21 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 21 Architectural Design Global system architecture defined in terms of subsystems, interconnected through data, control and other dependencies. 3 Steps –1 Macro level : Architectural Styles (Organizational Styles) : “From Late Requirements to Architectural Design” Vertical Integration, Pyramid, Joint Venture, Structure in 5, Bidding, Hierarchical Contracting, Co-optation, Takeover –2 Micro level : Patterns (Agent Community) Contract-Net, Broker, Matchmaker,, Mediator, Monitor, Embassy, Wrapper, Master-Slave,... –3 Assigning Actors to Agents, Positions, Roles: “From Actors to Agents” In Progress

22 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 22 Organizational Architectures (Macro Level) Joint Venture

23 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 23 Quality Attributes for Agent Systems

24 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 24 A Joint-Venture E-commerce Architecture

25 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 25 Patterns (Micro level) Contract-Net

26 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 26 Detailed Design The skills of all actors and their input/output data are refined using some specification technique. As with detailed design for other techniques, the idea here is to specify completely the behaviour and I/O of each actor. (A)UML [Odell00] Plan Diagrams [Kinny96]

27 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 27 Detailed Design: Shopping Cart Actor

28 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 28 Agent Interaction Protocol with AUML The Checkout Dialogue CustomerShopping Cart

29 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 29 Plan Diagram for checking out

30 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 30 Implementing Agent-Oriented Software Agents are implemented using some agent-oriented implementation platform (ex. JACK). Such platforms offer a communication protocol, possibly a negotiation protocol, perhaps some generic planning facility, a generic agent architecture, knowledge base management facilities, and more [Coburn00]. If there are dangling goal dependencies, I.e., goal dependencies for which no one has undertaken the responsibility to fulfill, build into the responsible agent skills for meeting these goals. E.g., a communication goal might be met through repeated , asking a third party to communicate etc. If there are dangling softgoal dependencies, build into the responsible agent skills for addressing such softgoals. E.g., a security agent would have a number of ways of meeting security goals

31 From TROPOS to JACK Java Agents

32 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 32 Partial JACK Implementation for checking out

33 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 33 Formality Entity Order Has orderId: Number, cust: Customer, date: Date, items: SetOf [MediaItem] Entity MediaItem Has itemId: Number, itemTitle: String, description: Text, editor: String … Actor Customer Has customerId: Number, name: Name, address: Address, tel: PhoneNumber, … Capable of MakeOrder, Pay, Browse, … Goal  order:Order  buy:BuyMediaItems[order] (order.cust=self  ◊ Fulfil(buy)) Actor MediaShop Has name: {MediaLive}, address: {“735 Yonge Street”}, phone#: Capable of Sell, Ship, SendInvoice, … Goal  ms:IncreaseMarketShare(Fulfil(ms)) GoalDependency BuyMediaItems Mode Fulfil Has order: Order Defined ItemsReceivedOK(order) Depender Customer Dependee MediaShop Necessary Fulfil( PlaceOrder(order)) SoftGoalDependency IncreaseMarketShare Mode Maintain Depender MediaShop Dependee Customer Necessary  cust:Customer  place:PlaceOrder[order] (order.cust=cust )  ◊ Fulfil(place)) Action MakeOrder Performed By Customer Refines PlaceOrder Input cust : Customer, date : Date, items : SetOf [MediaItem] Output order : Order Post order.cust = cust  order.date = date  order.items  items

34 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 34 Research Issues An agent-oriented software development methodology with clear guidelines on what decisions are made when. Applications of planning paradigms to agent-oriented software development. Modeling (multi-agent) processes with coordination and exceptions. Simulation and invariant analysis for agent and goal models. Viability and workability analysis for dependencies. Filling and managing positions and roles. Goal and softgoal means-ends analysis.

35 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 35 Research Tasks Management of commitments and obligations, individual and global issues. Case studies -- doing early and late requirements, architectural and detailed design in Tropos; Modelling issues for late requirements, architectural design, detailed design: diagrams, annotations, formal specs; An environment for building and analyzing Tropos specs; …more...

36 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 36 Conclusions From a Software Engineering perspective, this framework, however speculative, has advantages: Leads to more flexible, robust and open software architectures; Offers a coherent framework which encompasses all phases of software development, from early requirements to implementation Is consistent with the next generation programming paradigm, I.e., agent- oriented programming, which is already gaining a foothold in key application areas, such as telecommunications, electronic commerce and web-based systems.

37 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 37...More Conclusions As well, from an Agent-Based Systems perspective the proposal Suggests a comprehensive methodology for building agent-oriented software; Offers a design dimension along which one decides how to accommodate tradeoffs among qualities such as flexibility, robustness, and performance.

38 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 38 References [Bubenko93] Bubenko, J., “Extending the Scope of Information Modelling”, Proceedings Fourth International Workshop on the Deductive Approach to Information Systems and Databases, Costa Brava, [Chung93] Chung, L., Representing and Using Non-Functional Requirements: A Process- Oriented Approach, PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, June [Coburn00] Coburn, M., “Jack Intellignet Agents: User Guide version 2.0,” AOS Pty Ltd, [Dardenne93] Dardenne, A., van Lamsweerde, A. and Fickas, S.,”Goal-Directed Requirements Acquisition”, in The Science of Computer Programming 20, [Feather87] Feather, M., “Language Support for the Specification and Development of Composite Systems”, ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 9(2), [Fickas92] Fickas, S. and Helm, R., “Knowledge Representation and Reasoming in the Design of Composite Systems”, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 18(6), June [Greenspan84] Greenspan, S., Requirements Modelling: A Knowledge Representation Approach to to Software Requirements Definition, PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, 1994.

39 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 39 References (cont’d) [Kinny96] Kinny, D and Georgeff M., “Modelling and Design of Multi-Agent System”, Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Agent Theories, Architectures and Languages (ATAL-96). [Odell00] Odell, J., Paranuk, V., and Bauer, B., “Extending UML for Agents”, Proceedings Agent- Oriented Information System Workshop at 17 National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, [Singh99] Singh, M., “Synthesizing Requirements for Heterogeneous Autonomous Agents”, Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Kluwer, (to appear). [Wooldridge00] Wooldridge, M., Jennings, N., Kinny, D., “The Gaia Methodology for Agent- Oriented Analysis and Design”, Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 3(3), [Yu94] Yu, E., “Modelling Strategic Relationships for Process Reengineering”, PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto, December [Yu95] Yu, E., Du Bois, P., Dubois, E. and Mylopoulos, J., “From Organization Models to System Requirements: A ‘Cooperative Agents’ Approach”, Proceedings Third International Conference on Cooperative Information Systems, Vienna, May 1995.

40 Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development 40 Tropos references Mylopoulos, J. and Castro, J., “Tropos: A Framework for Requirements-Driven Software Development”, Brinkkemper, J. and Solvberg, A. (eds.), Information Systems Engineering: State of the Art and Research Themes, Springer-Verlag, June Castro, J., Kolp, M. and Mylopoulos, J., Developing Agent-Oriented Information Systems for the Enterprise, Proceedings of the Second International Conference On Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS00), Stafford, UK, July Mylopoulos, J. and Fuxman, A. and Giorginei, P. “From Entities and Relationships to Social Actors and Dependencies”, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, Castro, J., Kolp, M. and Mylopoulos, J., “A Requirments Driven Development Methodology”, November 2000 (submitted for publication). Kolp, M. and Mylopoulos, J., “Architectural Styles for Information Systems: An organizational Perspective”, November 2000 (submitted for publication).


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