Presentation on theme: "Kibble Shape and its Effect on Feline Palatability Kristopher Figge Senior Scientist, Technical Services Mgr. AFB International."— Presentation transcript:
Kibble Shape and its Effect on Feline Palatability Kristopher Figge Senior Scientist, Technical Services Mgr. AFB International
Presentation Layout Introduction Experimental design Definitions & Results Other related topics Comments / discussion
General Items about Cats As obligate carnivores, will choose higher protein diets over lower protein diets. More likely than dogs to avoid spoilage aromas. Lack lateral jaw movement; hence, texture and size are very important. Lack molars, and cannot grind their food. Acidification helps salivation. Surface texture plays a role in palatability. – Different breeds of cats pick up their food differently with their tongue. In PAL testing, cats tend to consume food from both bowls. First choice is not necessarily linked to total consumption. Feeding time is generally 15 hours.
Factors Affecting Feline PAL Raw Materials (Fats, oils, meals, palatants, etc.) Texture / Size / Shape Processing
Hypothesis Kibble shape affects the PAL of dry cat food(s).
Experimental Design Standard / fixed reference points: – A finely ground (#3) 34/13, grain-based meal – Same lot of meal used for all shapes – All variables coated with the same components Fat: 5.0% poultry fat Palatant: 1.5% dry cat palatant – Same moisture specification: 6.5% - 9.5% – Same density specification: lbs./ft 3
Experimental Design (contd) Variable(s) in the study: – Kibble shapes 1)X Cross / Star 2) Triangle 3)O Flat Disc 4)Cylinder 5)Triangle w/ center hole
Experimental Design (contd) What was measured: – Texture a)Max. Loadc) Energy to Break Pt. b)Energy to Yield Pt.d) Toughness – PAL due to kibble shape a)2 bowl, paired comparison test b)25 cats x 2 days c)Same panel of cats was used d)All possible paired tests were done (10)
Results In-process data Kibble shape pictures Texture terms & results PAL data terms & results
In-Process Data Moisture:6.5% - 9.5% Bulk Density:19 – 24 lbs. / ft 3 Based on In-Process data, all variables were within target specifications. Shape Moisture (%) Density (lbs./ft 3) Diameter (cm) Thickness (cm) O [Disc] X [Cross] [Triangle] Triangle w/ hole Cylinder
Kibble Shape Pictures Uncoated kibble is shown on the top row; comparable commercial products are on the bottom.
Texture Analysis Terms Maximum Load – maximum amt. of force necessary to fracture a kibble (measured in kgs of force). Energy to Yield Point – energy required to reach a point where kibble begins to fracture (measured in graminch). Energy to Break Point – energy required to reach a point where kibble finally gives way and fractures completely (measured in graminch) Toughness – energy to break point divided by gauge length * kibble width * kibble thickness (measured in g/inch 2 )
Texture Analysis Measurements done with an Instron Texture Analyzer #3342 and Cherry Pitter Needle probe Shape Max. Load (kg-Force) Energy to Yield Pt. (gram-inch) Energy to Break Pt. (gram-inch) Toughness (g/inch 2 ) O [Disc] X [Cross] [Triangle] Triangle w/ hole Cylinder
Energy to Yield Point
Energy to Break Point
Texture Summary The Triangle w/ hole had the lowest texture numbers. The Cylinder had the highest scores in all categories except maximum load. The O [Disc] had the second lowest texture numbers. The X [Cross] scored in the middle except for max. load where it had the highest number. The [Triangle] had the second highest scores.
PAL Data Interpretation Consumption Ratio (CR): Consumed A / Consumed B Intake Ratio (IR-A): Consumed A (Consumed A + Consumed B) First Choice (FC-A): % Animals eating out of Bowl A first Preference: Outside the range of IR p-Value (p): Probability that A is significantly different from B (want < 0.05 = 95% confidence level)
O [Discs] Ration ARation BIR-ACRFC-APREFp-Value X [Cross / Star] A0.5710A : 3B0.013 [Triangle] B0.557A : 9B0.222 Cylinder A0.3912A : 2B0.002 Triangle w/ hole A0.5612A : 1B0.000 O > X, Cylinder & Triangle-hole O =
X [Cross / Star] Ration ARation BIR-ACRFC-APREFp-Value [Triangle] A0.5514A : 5B0.007 O [Disc] B0.433A : 10B0.013 Cylinder A0.5217A : 5B0.000 Triangle w/ hole A0.5012A : 6B0.078 X > Cylinder, Triangle & Triangle-hole X < Disc
Triangle w/ Hole Ration ARation BIR-ACRFC-APREFp-Value X [Cross / Star] B0.506A : 12B0.078 [Triangle] A0.439A : 10B0.408 O [Disc] B0.441A : 12B0.000 Cylinder A0.6111A : 5B0.028 Triangle-hole < O Triangle-hole > Cylinder Triangle-hole = & X
Cylinder Ration ARation BIR-ACRFC-APREFp-Value X [Cross / Star] B0.485A : 17B0.000 [Triangle] B0.593A : 12B0.086 O [Disc] B0.612A : 12B0.002 Triangle w/ hole B0.395A : 11B0.028 Cylinder lost to the other (4) shapes
Conclusions Kibble shape was the primary driver for PAL - texture across a given range did not drive PAL. – Triangle-hole had the lowest texture scores, but few cats preferred this shape. – The O [Disc] had mid-range texture scores and was the most preferred shape. – The Cylinder was outside the range and was least preferred. – The X [Cross] had slightly more favorable texture scores than the cylinder; however, its PAL was closer to the O [Disc] – The [Triangle] had higher texture scores than the O [Disc] but similar PAL
Product Considerations The O and the X had the best overall PAL – Head-to-head, the O was better. Operations Implications The O is easier to extrude Less potential for die blockage drag = throughput The O has lower tooling costs Product Implications The O is more durable The O had less fines The O has more surface area
References Royal Canin Almond 11 / Persian cat study
Thank You! Kristopher Figge AFB International Sr. Scientist; Tech. Service Mgr. Tel: (636) Fax:(636) Other Contributors: Pat Moeller, PhD Amy McCarthy, PhD Cheryl Murphy Bola Oladipupo, DA