3General Items about Cats As obligate carnivores, will choose higher protein diets over lower protein diets.More likely than dogs to avoid spoilage aromas.Lack lateral jaw movement; hence, texture and size are very important.Lack molars, and cannot grind their food. Acidification helps salivation.Surface texture plays a role in palatability.Different breeds of cats pick up their food differently with their tongue.In PAL testing, cats tend to consume food from both bowls. First choice is not necessarily linked to total consumption. Feeding time is generally 15 hours.
4Factors Affecting Feline PAL Raw Materials(Fats, oils, meals, palatants, etc.)Texture / Size / ShapeProcessing
5Kibble shape affects the PAL of dry cat food(s). HypothesisKibble shape affects the PAL of dry cat food(s).
6Experimental Design Standard / fixed reference points: A finely ground (#3) 34/13, grain-based mealSame lot of meal used for all shapesAll variables coated with the same componentsFat: 5.0% poultry fatPalatant: 1.5% dry cat palatantSame moisture specification: 6.5% - 9.5%Same density specification: lbs./ft3
7Experimental Design (cont’d) Variable(s) in the study:Kibble shapes“X” Cross / Star“∆” Triangle“O” Flat DiscCylinderTriangle w/ center hole
8Experimental Design (cont’d) What was measured:TextureMax. Load c) Energy to Break Pt.Energy to Yield Pt. d) ToughnessPAL due to kibble shape2 bowl, paired comparison test25 cats x 2 daysSame panel of cats was usedAll possible paired tests were done (10)
10Results In-process data Kibble shape pictures Texture terms & results PAL data terms & results
11In-Process Data Moisture: 6.5% - 9.5% Bulk Density: 19 – 24 lbs. / ft3 ShapeMoisture(%)Density(lbs./ft3)Diameter(cm)Thickness“O” [Disc]7.4021.130.360.19“X” [Cross]8.5922.250.540.18“∆” [Triangle]23.250.45Triangle w/ hole6.9620.000.410.20Cylinder8.5821.370.320.39Moisture: 6.5% - 9.5%Bulk Density: 19 – 24 lbs. / ft3Based on In-Process data, all variables were within target specifications.
12Kibble Shape PicturesUncoated kibble is shown on the top row; comparable commercial products are on the bottom.
13Texture Analysis Terms Maximum Load – maximum amt. of force necessary to “fracture” a kibble (measured in kgs of force).Energy to Yield Point – energy required to reach a point where kibble begins to fracture (measured in gram•inch).Energy to Break Point – energy required to reach a point where kibble finally gives way and fractures completely (measured in gram•inch)Toughness – energy to break point divided by gauge length * kibble width * kibble thickness (measured in g/inch2)
14Texture AnalysisShapeMax. Load(kg-Force)Energy to Yield Pt.(gram-inch)Energy to Break Pt.Toughness(g/inch2)“O” [Disc]5.3941.4656.85227.39“X” [Cross]8.0851.3969.06276.23“∆” [Triangle]7.0663.79100.10400.41Triangle w/ hole2.4814.0720.5482.15Cylinder4.2361.99145.45626.90Measurements done with an Instron Texture Analyzer #3342 and Cherry Pitter Needle probe
19Texture Summary The Triangle w/ hole had the lowest texture numbers. The Cylinder had the highest scores in all categories except maximum load.The “O” [Disc] had the second lowest texture numbers.The “X” [Cross] scored in the middle except for max. load where it had the highest number.The “∆” [Triangle] had the second highest scores.
20PAL Data Interpretation Consumption Ratio (CR): Consumed A / Consumed BIntake Ratio (IR-A): Consumed A(Consumed A + Consumed B)First Choice (FC-A): % Animals eating out of Bowl A firstPreference: Outside the range of IRp-Value (p): Probability that A is significantly different from B (want < 0.05 = 95% confidence level)
25Cylinder Cylinder lost to the other (4) shapes Ration A Ration B IR-A CRFC-APREFp-Value“X” [Cross / Star]0.371.7B0.485A : 17B0.000“∆” [Triangle]0.291.5B0.593A : 12B0.086“O” [Disc]0.361.9B0.612A : 12B0.002Triangle w/ hole0.391.6B5A : 11B0.028Cylinder lost to the other (4) shapes
26ConclusionsKibble shape was the primary driver for PAL - texture across a given range did not drive PAL.Triangle-hole had the lowest texture scores, but few cats preferred this shape.The “O” [Disc] had mid-range texture scores and was the most preferred shape.The Cylinder was outside the range and was least preferred.The “X” [Cross] had slightly more favorable texture scores than the cylinder; however, its PAL was closer to the “O” [Disc]The “∆” [Triangle] had higher texture scores than the “O” [Disc] but similar PAL
27Product Considerations The “O” and the “X” had the best overall PALHead-to-head, the “O” was better.Operations ImplicationsThe “O” is easier to extrudeLess potential for die blockage↓ drag = ↑ throughputThe “O” has lower tooling costsProduct ImplicationsThe “O” is more durableThe “O” had less finesThe “O” has more surface area
28ReferencesRoyal Canin Almond 11 / Persian cat study
29Thank You! Kristopher Figge Other Contributors: AFB International Sr. Scientist; Tech. Service Mgr.Tel: (636)Fax: (636)Other Contributors:Pat Moeller, PhDAmy McCarthy, PhDCheryl MurphyBola Oladipupo, DA