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Zuyd University University of Professional Education Utrecht Saxion University of Professional Education Enschede Flevo Future Henk Smeijsters, PhD,,

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Presentation on theme: "Zuyd University University of Professional Education Utrecht Saxion University of Professional Education Enschede Flevo Future Henk Smeijsters, PhD,,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Zuyd University University of Professional Education Utrecht Saxion University of Professional Education Enschede Flevo Future Henk Smeijsters, PhD,, head of research Annette Beerens, art therapy Laurien Hakvoort, MA, RMT, music therapy Nanon Janssen, RDMT, dance movement therapy Han Kurstjens, MA, music therapy Gerty Louppen, assistant Marta Mesaros, MA, art therapy Huub Notermans, MA, drama therapy Annemiek Vink, MA, music therapy Jaap Welten, ECP, drama therapy, psychodrama Second circle: Ina van Keulen & Hannah Wischnewski, dance movement therapy K EN V A K – Kenniskring Kennisontwikkeling Vaktherapieën Research Centre for the Arts Therapies

2 SYMPOSIUM - schedule : IntroductionHenk Smeijsters Diagnosis in drama therapyHuub Notermans Improvisation in music therapyHan Kurstjens Drama therapy and psychodramaJaap Welten with traumatized people Arts therapies in forensic Henk Smeijsters psychiatry& Gorry Cleven

3 K EN V A K : Drama therapy Music therapy Art therapy Dance Movement therapy

4 Increasing the body of knowledge of the arts therapies Increasing research competences of educators and arts therapists Developing bachelor & master training programs K EN V A K GOALS

5 K EN V A K RESEARCH Topics: As well as: Observation and diagnosis Indications Goals Treatment modalities, methods, play forms en techniques Effects Rationales, concepts and theories Professional profiles and competences Similarities and differences between arts therapies The professional position of arts therapies in society

6 K EN V A K TRAINING Bachelor: Master: Educating packages including: Bodies of knowledge based on research results Developing student’s reflective competences Developing student’s research competences Research informed education aimed at: Developing the reflective and scientific competences of practitioners, by means of integrating tacit knowledge, theory and research

7 Advising and coaching professionals while developing their profession in clinical practice Coaching master and PhD students Presentations, workshops and publications K EN V A K CONSULTANCY

8 K EN V A K ADVISORY BOARD Prof.dr. Ken Bruscia, USA Prof.dr. Cheryl Dileo, USA Prof.dr. David R. Johnson, USA Prof.dr. Horst Kächele, Deutschland Prof.dr. Robert Landy, USA Dr. Hedda Lausberg, Deutschland Prof.dr. Peter Petersen, Deutschland Prof.dr. Leni Verhofstadt-Denève, België Prof.dr. Diane Waller, UK Prof.dr. Barbara Wheeler, USA


10 Janssen:Similarities and differences between dance- movement therapy and psychomotor therapy K EN V A K RESEARCH PROJECTS 2003 - 2004 Kurstjens:Improvisation in music therapy Louppen:Developing a database for the arts therapies Mesaros:Art therapy in special education

11 Notermans:Diagnosis in drama therapy K EN V A K RESEARCH PROJECTS 2003 - 2004 SmeijstersArts therapies in forensic psychiatry & Cleven: Vink:Research competences of music therapists in education and practice Welten:Drama therapy and psychodrama in the treatment of traumatized people Tanis:Art therapy in the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder

12 K EN V A K PUBLICATIONS SmeijstersVaktherapieën in de forensische psychiatrie. & Cleven:Utrecht: EFP (2004) Smeijsters:Sounding the Self. Analogy in improvisational (2005) music therapy. Gilsum: Barcelona Publishers Smeijsters (ed): Praktijkonderzoek in vaktherapie. (2005) Includes all KenVaK research results of 2003-2004. Bussum: Coutinho See our websites BOOKS: ARTICLES:

13 K EN V A K RESEARCH PROJECTS 2005 - 2006 See our websites

14 Drama therapist Mental health scientist Lecturer University of Professional Education, Utrecht Researcher KenVaK DIAGNOSIS IN DRAMA THERAPY HUUB NOTERMANS, MA



17 PROCESS ASPECTS Structure a situation Cope with anxiety Make contact Reflect on the experience Give meaning THE CLIENT’S POSSIBILITY TO:

18 FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS To make contact with the inner world To present the self The possibility to transform

19 INNER WORLD To reflect  To be aware of thoughts and feelings To be a guide for oneself  To work out an idea, make choices, invent a scene Flow of fantasy  Imagination, fantasy, spontaneity Themes / conflicts  Can be the content of reflection or fantasy

20 To be the centre of your own world  The presentation of feelings, needs and wishes Role repertoire  Patterns, stability The quality of the dramatic  The expression of the inner: - under distanced - over distanced - illustration - flow - intensity PRESENT THE SELF

21 Reciprocity  To manipulate and be manipulated Problem solving skills  To experiment, develop alternative behavior To play with space  To take initiative, use the space (distance and proximity) and the body POSSIBILITY TO TRANSFORM

22 A DIAGNOSIS IN DRAMA THERAPY It describes the client’s possibility to: is a descriptive diagnosis -make contact with the inner world -show the inner world through dramatic expression -transform in the dramatic expression & It describes the conditions in which the client can: -make contact with the inner world -show the inner world through dramatic expression -transform in the dramatic expression CONCLUSION:

23 Music therapist Clinical psychologist Lecturer University of Professional Education, Utrecht Researcher KenVaK IMPROVISATION IN MUSIC THERAPY HAN KURSTJENS, MA


25 Some thoughts about improvisation Improvisation is a wide spread working form It is a rebellious phenomenon How to deal with the un-expected? There are many theoretical concepts

26 Design  Naturalistic inquiry RESEARCH METHOD Research techniques  - Repeated member checking -Peer debriefing -Qualitative content analysis Data sources  - Desk study -Transcripts of interviews

27 RESULTS Improvisation has the potential to create an open space, free of conventions and standards CHARACTERISTICS OF IMPROVISATION Improvisation sets someone in an experimental situation where one is thrown back to oneself to create meaning How this is done in music is analogues to ones structuring of life events

28 RESULTS The structuring of improvisation can be observed in 3 main categories: - Form - Interaction - Affects RATIONALE In observation, Form (how the music is structured), has much foreground Therapy goals are much more defined in terms of interaction and/or expression of affects The therapist is mostly an involved active playing partner

29 Drama therapist Psychodramatherapist Lecturer Zuyd University Researcher KenVaK DRAMA THERAPY AND PSYCHODRAMA WITH TRAUMATIZED PEOPLE JAAP WELTEN, ECP



32 RESULTS Controlled, embedded exposure with trauma-related content is possible As-if creates exposure in vitro The difference between drama therapy and psychodrama is related to context, not to interventions

33 TWO TYPES OF TRAUMATIZED PEOPLE I:I: & Sufficient stability, motivated to confrontation and willing to get insight II : Less stability, fragmented, often co- morbidity, low cognitive capacities

34 Transitional object Thematic play Enact different scenarios of the traumatizing situation Rituals Dramatic projection as distancing technique Role of therapist: coach and stage director INTERVENTIONS GROUP I

35 Avoid enacting intra-personal conflicts Techniques to improve interpersonal communication Play to relax, sound and movement play Indirect approach of traumatic content Role of therapist: initiating, facilitating, supportive in scenery, on the play space in supportive roles INTERVENTIONS GROUP II Story-telling techniques

36 Associate professor Zuyd University Head of research of KenVaK Head of studies of Master Programm ARTS THERAPIES IN FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY HENK SMEIJSTERS, PhD Drama therapist Senior Professional GGzE Chair of the Dutch Association for Creative Therapy GORRY CLEVEN, RDT

37 GENERAL RESEARCH QUESTION Wich tacit knowledge of arts therapists working on specific problem areas with clients in forensic psychiatry can be developed as consensus based evidence ? H

38 RESARCH TOPICS Problem areas Observation in/outside arts therapies Indications Goals Interventions Effects Rationales G

39 H Review of literature Research in practice Overview of treatment products Drama therapy Music therapy Art therapy Dance-movement therapy

40 H Design: Naturalistic / constructivistic inquiry Data sources (triangulation): –Individual written treatment reports –Transcripts of interactive individual interviews –Transcripts of panel discussions Respondents: 31 arts therapists from 12 institutions (The Netherlands and Germany) Research techniques: –Member checking –Peer debriefing –Qualitative content analysis –Iterative analyses and cross-analyses Criteria of trustworthiness Outcome: consensus based treatment products RESEARCH METHOD

41 G PROBLEM AREAS Limited perception Limited expression of feelings and empathy Increased emotional tension Impulsivity Distance – closeness: lack of personal borders and limited autonomy Destructive aggression Excessive control

42 BEWARE THAT IN THIS SYMPOSIUM: thus We only can give examples of our findings What you see is only a limited part of the results H

43 DESTRUCTIVE AGGRESSION G DRAMA THERAPY: –To reach insight in stimuli that trigger aggression –To break through the course of aggression –To transform destructive in productive aggression MUSIC THERAPY: –To accept aggression –To express aggression –To regulate aggression ART THERAPY: –To reach insight in aggression –To regulate aggression –To transform destructive in productive aggression DANCE-MOVEMENT THERAPY: –To cope with power and lack of power –To reach insight into tension suppression and increase –To transform destructive in productive aggression GOALS

44 DESTRUCTIVE AGGRESSION G INTERVENTIONS DRAMA THERAPY: status play, aggression history, aggression thermometer, pseudo fights, Joe Blaggs, to arrange and play aggression scenes, to stop aggression scenes, to search and play alternative behaviors MUSIC THERAPY: improvisation on percussion instruments, singing, musical fights, to play levels of aggression (0-100), to release aggression, to express emotions in sound

45 DESTRUCTIVE AGGRESSION G INTERVENTIONS ART THERAPY: to make separated pictures of aspects of the course of aggression, to work with stone, the alternation of making and destroying a work of art, the gradual exposure of different art materials DANCE-MOVEMENT THERAPY: playforms to become aware of the body, the use of power, pseudo fights, to work with themes such as ‘power and lack of power’, ‘being tall and small’

46 DESTRUCTIVE AGGRESSION H EFFECTS DRAMA THERAPY: –Clients are able to behave differently in situations of conflict outside drama therapy MUSIC THERAPY: –Clients feel less tension, frustration and anger ART THERAPY: –Clients are able to perceive risk factors and personal cognitive distortions DANCE-MOVEMENT THERAPY: –Clients are more relaxed, are able to understand personal anger and to cope with it

47 DESTRUCTIVE AGGRESSION H RATIONALES DRAMA THERAPY: techniques of distancing increase the insight and control of aggression and the development of alternative behaviors MUSIC THERAPY: music parameters and music instruments give the opportunity to express aggression in a non-destructive way and to explore alternative behaviors of coping with aggression ART THERAPY: art materials give the opportunity to evoke and release aggression DANCE-MOVEMENT THERAPY: structured movement gives the opportunity to express aggression in a safe way and explore alternative behaviors

48 PUBLICATIONS forensic research Book: Vaktherapieën in de forensische psychiatrie, published by the Dutch Expertise Centre for Forensic Psychiatry Utrecht Two articles in the Tijdschrift voor Creatieve Therapie (2005 1/2) Upcoming: article in The Arts in Psychotherapy BY : Smeijsters & Cleven


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