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10/30/2012 Question Index Learning Scenario Observation Checklist ReflectionReferences.

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Presentation on theme: "10/30/2012 Question Index Learning Scenario Observation Checklist ReflectionReferences."— Presentation transcript:

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2 10/30/2012 Question Index Learning Scenario Observation Checklist ReflectionReferences

3 Question Index  What is Social Cognitive Theory? What is Social Cognitive Theory?  What is reciprocal causation? What is reciprocal causation?  What is modeling? What is modeling?  How does reinforcement and punishment affect learning? How does reinforcement and punishment affect learning?  What cognitive factors affect learning? What cognitive factors affect learning?  What is self efficacy? What is self-regulation? What is self efficacy? What is self-regulation?  Who are the major theorists? Who are the major theorists?  What types of instruction were inspired by this theory? What types of instruction were inspired by this theory? 10/30/2012

4 What is Social Cognitive Theory? It is a learning theory that revolves around the idea that learning occurs when learners observe and model other people’s behavior. Followers of this theory also believe that learning can occur without a change in observable behavior from the learner, and that people can consciously affect their own learning through self regulation and self efficacy. 10/30/2012 Ormrod, 2012, p

5 Reciprocal Causation Reciprocal causation is the idea that learning is the communication between a person’s environment(reinforcem ent and punishment), a person’s physical, cognitive and social characteristics, and a person’s actions. 10/30/2012 Ormrod, 2012, p

6 Modeling Modeling is how people learn new ideas and behaviors, but it can also affect how often those behaviors occur and how often similar behaviors occur. 3 types of models –Live Model (see example)see example –Symbolic Model (see example)see example –Verbal Instructions (see example)see example Models tend to be seen as intelligent, powerful, and/or fitting the stereotypical gender roles. They are also usually relevant to a specific person’s situation. In addition to attention and retention, the learner must reproduce the action that the model is demonstrating in order to fully learn that action. They also have to honestly want to learn the action. 10/30/2012 Ormrod, 2012, p

7 Example of a Symbolic Model 10/30/2012 Created with Pixton.com

8 Example of a Live Model 10/30/2012 Retrieved from I have permission to use this clip.

9 10/30/2012 Clip Art Example of Verbal Instructions

10 Reinforcement and Punishment People copy the actions of others because other people—the model or a third person—reinforce them when they do so, but the reinforced behavior may not show immediately (delayed imitation). Sometimes the consequences of a modeled behavior can be reinforcing or punishing. Sometimes the consequences of the model’s behavior can act as either a deterrent or a reinforcement to model that behavior (vicarious reinforcement, punishment). 10/30/2012 Ormrod, 2012, p

11 Cognitive Factors Behavior is the performance of a learned action or idea, but you do not need a performance to learn material. Learning doesn’t necessarily have to have behavior change. Paying attention, rehearsing, and forming memory codes are important to the learning process. Learners are aware that certain behaviors lead to reinforcement or punishment, and so they can predict the outcome of an action before they perform said action (outcome expectations).Learners are also aware of their own track record, so they can predict whether or not they can perform an action (efficacy expectations). Outcome expectations and efficacy expectations can affect learning in other ways as well. If the expected reinforcement or punishment does not happen after a behavior, then that consequence in itself can act as punishment or reinforcement. 10/30/2012 Ormrod, 2012, p

12 Self Efficacy and Self Regulation Learners develop ideas about what and how they are able to learn based on past experiences and current emotions. People are more likely to engage in behaviors that they believe they are capable of doing correctly (self efficacy). Learners tend to set their own goals based on what they learn about themselves through self- observation, self-evaluation and self-reflection. They also tend to reinforce themselves (self reaction) as they complete the task. All of these processes are included in self- regulation. 10/30/2012 Clip Art & Ormrod, 2012, p

13 Major Theorist Albert Bandura was born in Canada on December 4, 1925 to a Polish father and a Ukrainian mother. He started teaching at Stanford University in He is a psychologist who is famous for his studies on modeling and aggression (i.e. Bobo doll experiment). He is the original theorist of Social Learning Theory(now more commonly known as Social Cognitive Theory). 10/30/2012 Albert Bandura, 2012

14 Instruction Inspired by Collaborative Learning Group Work Students and teachers are on the same level, but the teacher takes the lead in the discussion Knowledge is not acquired or absorbed, but rather created by the learners Students learn to accept and tolerate the different opinions of others Observational Learning Inspired by Albert Bandura’s (see Major Theorist) research on modeling and aggression and his famous “Bobo Doll” experiments. People can learn just by watching other people do things. Requires the learner to pay attention and remember the material. 10/30/2012 Imel, 1991; Huitt, 2004

15 Examples of Collaborative and Observational Learning 10/30/2012 Created with Pixton.com Collaborative Observational

16 Learning Scenario 10/30/2012

17 Observation Checklist 10/30/2012

18 Reflection 10/30/2012

19 References 10/30/2012


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