Presentation on theme: "During the 1790’s the policies of the Federalists dominated the central government, discuss the effects the Federalists had on the central government and."— Presentation transcript:
During the 1790’s the policies of the Federalists dominated the central government, discuss the effects the Federalists had on the central government and American public.
Characteristics of America Population – double every 25 years (1790 = 4 million), 90% rural, 95% East of Appalachians. Farmers in KY, TN and OH being bribed by Britain and Spain. Government – Weak, in debt, people had a general distrust – a “necessary evil,” Affected by French Revolution. First President – George Washington - 2 terms , VP – John Adams. Took oath on April 30, 1789 on Wall Street First Cabinet – Not in the Constitution, but needed a series of advisers. Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson Secretary of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War – Henry Knox Attorney General – Edmund Randolph (Created by Judiciary Act of 1789)
Bill of Rights - feared another Constitutional Convention James Madison wrote the Amendments and then proposed them to Congress. (Madison will be our fourth president, ) First – freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly and to petition Second – Right to bear arms Third – No quartering of troops Fourth - No unreasonable search and seizure Fifth – Right to trial by jury for life, liberty and property Sixth – Rights of the accused Seventh – No double jeopardy Eighth – No cruel and unusual punishment Ninth – Rights not listed are not excluded – protect minorities and individuals Tenth – Those powers not listed as Federal powers, go to the states Judiciary Act of Created the Federal Court System Supreme Court – 1 Chief and 5 judges (First Chief Justice – John Jay) Federal Courts Circuit Courts Attorney General
1794 The Whiskey Rebellion – group of whiskey distillers from SW Pennsylvania. “Liberty and no excise!” Washington’s response – called up military of 13,000 to put down rebellion *Significance – Shows strength of new government, but looks bad.
The Two-Party System - The founders of the Constitution believed it was dangerous to have an organized opposition to the government. Federalists – claiming victory with Hamilton’s economic plan and end to Whiskey Rebellion. Democratic Republicans – unhappy about the lack of state’s rights. Champion of the small, western farmer.
French Revolution – The democratic republicans championed the rights of the underdog and were therefore in support of the French Revolution. This would come back to hurt them in the end. ( “Reign of Terror”). They believed we owed France our freedom and we should be prepared to help in time of need. Britain enters the war for domination of the seas. Does the US step up and help France? If we enter the war Britain will attack our supply ships that are supplying the French with food, etc. in the West Indies. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 – Proclaimed US neutrality in war and advised the citizens to stay out of any discussions. The beginnings of “Isolationism.” Reason – America is too weak politically, militarily and economically! Hamilton and Jefferson both agreed. Citizen Genet – Representative from France who wrongly believed Americans were ready to fight and recruited privateers and troops to invade Spanish Florida and Louisiana. (Embarrassment to Federalists)
Hamilton’s Plan of Action “Trickle Down Economics” – Shape government spending and taxes to favor the wealthy, they would then start new businesses and hire new employees. #1 Goal – Credit worthiness overseas. By creating a large public debt the states and American people would work hard to make sure the Federal government was a success.
1790 FUNDING AT PAR – PAY OFF ALL DEBTS AT FACE VALUE PLUS INTEREST. ASSUMPTION – THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WOULD ASSUME ALL STATE DEBTS ($54M), EVENTUALLY THE TOTAL DEBT WOULD REACH $75 MILLION. “DEBT = BLESSING” HOW TO PAY FOR THE DEBT? A SERIES OF TAXES; BUT WHO BEARS THE BURDEN OF TAX? * CUSTOMS DUTY –TAX ON IMPORTS TO GENERATE INCOME AND PROTECT US BUSINESSES. HAMILTON GUESS IND REV. WOULD BE HITTING US SOON. COTTON GIN *EXCISE TAX – 7 CENT TAX ON WHISKEY. FARMERS COULDN’T AFFORD TO SHIP THE GRAIN, SO THEY WERE DISTILLING AND SELLING WHISKEY. (WHISKEY WAS ALSO USED AS MONEY) ALEXANDER HAMILTON – “HIGH FEDERALIST”
Bank of the United States – a private bank in which the government would be a major stockholder and keep its money. Could print money and would create stability. Creation of new money – government puts money in bank, that money then gets loaned out, and spent. 1791 a 20 year charter in Philadelphia with $10 million in capital stock, 1/5 owned by government. The rest for sale, which sold out quickly. (Jefferson is anti-bank)
Hamilton – Federalists (Wealthy merchants) What the Constitution did not forbid, it allowed. Congress may pass any laws necessary and proper. Government controlled taxes and trade and needed a place to put their money – The Elastic Clause Loose Construction Jefferson – Democratic Republicans (Backcountry settlers, farmers) No authorization in Constitution. Amend X states all powers not listed as Federal, were states rights. Strict Construction
Problems with Britain British Forts – NW territories for trade and Indian Relations At Sea – raided US ships, jailed sailors, made them serve in Royal Navy. Impressment Do we go to war? Democratic Republicans – strike against King George, a strike against our liberties – Embargo? Federalists – Needed the trade with Britain, must not go to war.
Jay’s Treaty – Fearing the repercussions of a war with Britain, President George Washington sided with Hamilton and sent pro-British Chief Justice John Jay to negotiate with the British Government. Jay looked to Hamilton for specific instructions for the treaty. Hamilton recommended an approach that would both stabilize relations with Great Britain and guarantee increased trade between the United States and Great Britain. Jay’s only significant bargaining chip in the negotiations was the threat that the United States would join the Danish and the Swedish governments in defending their neutral status and resisting British seizure of their goods by force of arms. In an attempt to guarantee good relations with Britain, Hamilton independently informed the British leadership that the United States had no intention of joining in this neutral armament. Hamilton’s actions left Jay with little leverage to force the British to comply with U.S. demands.
Provisions of Treaty 1. Britain would evacuate forts and pay damages to US ships 2. US would pay debts to British merchants from Pre-Revolution. Reactions to Treaty – South would have to pay the debts (most from farmers) and the merchants in the North would benefit from British payments. Pinckney’s Treaty of Thomas Pinckney, U.S. minister to Britain, was dispatched to Spain and won two highly desirable concessions: Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel (the northern border of Florida, a Spanish possession) Spain granted Americans the right to deposit goods for transshipment at New Orleans.
Miami War – , The Miami Conference – a league of 8 nations in American West. Little Turtle Vs. US – US lost Battle of Fallen Timbers – 1794 General “Mad Anthony” Wayne beat Indians and Britain refused to help. Treaty of Greenville – August 1795 – US got areas of OH & IN, we gave them $20,000 plus $9000 annually, with hunting rights. *Indians felt it “checked” some US power.
Achievements 1. Strong central Government 2. Sound fiscal policy 3. Expansion in the West 4. Increase in naval power 5. Isolationism Farewell Address – printed 1796 – a further warning to avoid permanent alliances. “temporary alliances for extreme emergencies.”
Extolls the benefits of the federal government. "The unity of government...is a main pillar in the edifice of your real independence...of your tranquility at home, your peace abroad; of your safety; of your prosperity; of that very liberty which you so highly prize." Warns against the party system. "It serves to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble the Public Administration....agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one....against another....it opens the door to foreign influence and corruption...thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another." Stresses the importance of religion and morality. "Where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of religious obligation desert the oaths, which are the instruments of investigation in Courts of Justice?" On stable public credit. "...cherish public credit. One method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible...avoiding likewise the accumulation of debt....it is essential that you...bear in mind, that towards the payments of debts there must be Revenue, that to have Revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised, which are not...inconvenient and unpleasant..." Warns against permanent foreign alliances. "It is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world..." On an over-powerful military establishment. "...avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments, which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty, and which are to be regarded as particularly hostile to Republican Liberty." In saying farewell to the new nation he helped create Washington pointed out that " the name of American, which belongs to you, in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of Patriotism..."
Presidency of John Adams – The tax policies of Hamilton left him too unpopular for Federalists candidate. (High Federalists) 1796 Election - #1 votes = president, #2 – vice president Changed by XII Amendment, 1804 Federalists – John Adams – not likeable, hated by Hamilton Democratic – Republics – Thomas Jefferson Problems with France – began with Jay’s Treaty – France saw this as a violation of Franco-American Alliance of French warships began attacking US merchant ships. Adam’s opinion – needed to avoid war. Sent a diplomat (Pinckney) to France to Negotiate a bargain. Turned away!
In 1797, President John Adams sent Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry and John Marshall to Paris to negotiate a settlement. However, the French Foreign Minister, Talleyrand, refused to receive the Americans. Instead, he designated three unofficial agents to negotiate with them. These agents - - who became known as X, Y, and Z -- demanded that America pay for alleged wrongs done to France, grant a large loan to finance the French war with Britain, and pay a bribe of about $240,000 to Talleyrand.Charles Cotesworth PinckneyElbridge GerryJohn MarshallTalleyrand
The cartoon depicts a five- headed monster, representing the Directory that ruled France in 1797, demanding payment of a bribe from the three American representatives.
Alien and Sedition Acts – Anti-Democratic Republican Laws, designed to help the Federalists party. Alien Acts president has authority to deport dangerous foreigners in time of peace and deport/imprison during war. Naturalization Act - must live in US for 14 years to be citizen Sedition Act – anyone who impeded the policies of the government or falsely defamed officials would be liable to high fines and/or jail. Criticism – violation of first amendment. (high public approval) Federal courts were “packed” with Federalists judges Expired 1801 so the law could not hurt Federalists after election of 1800 if they lost to Democratic Republicans.
Democratic Republican Response – Jefferson and Madison feared more liberties would be taken away, wrote a series of resolutions Compact Theory – The states entered into a compact regarding jurisdiction, so the Federal government was a creation of the states, therefore the states had the power and could declare the federal government had violated the Compact. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions – Due to the Compact Theory, nullification was the only answer. Federalists Response – The people NOT the states held the power and the Supreme Court is the only one with the power of nullification.
Federalists – wealthy, seacoast Ruled by the “best people” – merchants, lawyers Distrust of full-blown democracy Strong central government Protect lives and property of wealthy Promote foreign trade Support, not interfere with private business Loose interpretation of Constitution Pro-British National debt is a blessing High degree of Bureaucracy Central Bank Restrictions of freedom of speech, press Strong Navy
Democratic Republicans – small farmers, west and south Ruled by the masses Extension of democracy Weak central government, state’s rights Agriculture preferred No special treatment for wealthy Strict interpretation of Constitution Pro-France National debt is a curse Small government State banks Freedom of speech, press Small navy
During the 1790’s the policies of the Federalists dominated the central government, discuss the effects the Federalists had on the central government and American public. Thesis sentence – clear, concise declaratory statement! 3 categories (PERMITS) 5 pieces of outside information for ONE category (10 minutes)