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The Affect of Homework on Student Achievement By: Michael Dantona

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Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between student homework averages and student performance on Mathematics assessments, quizzes and class participation averages. The data analyzed was from a middle school in Queens, which is comprised of 1,550 students. One of the common struggles at I.S.5 is ensuring that our students are completing their homework assignments on a daily basis. The purposes of the assignments our students receive are meant to reinforce and stretch the knowledge attained during school hours. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the positive relationship between homework completion and performance in class, on tests and quizzes.

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Significance of the Study Middle school offers a series of challenges which educators face on a day to day basis. Lack of homework is often one of the more common complaints of educators and parents. The goal of this study is to provide transparent information to the parent community regarding the correlation between homework averages and performance on school-wide standardized quizzes and tests. In addition to our parents, it is important that our student population recognizes the correlation of homework to performance on quizzes and assessments to encourage positive work behaviors.

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Research Questions The focus of this study will be on the correlation of student homework performance and performance on tests, quizzes and class work. The following questions will guide the study: – How will a students average homework grade affect the performance on mathematics unit assessments? – How will a students average homework grade affect the performance on mathematics unit quizzes? – How will a students average homework grade affect the class participation average?

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Limitations Homework is just one variable that may contribute to a students performance on a given quiz or assessment. This study is limited in that the amount of time spent on ones homework is not taken into account and may play a role in the overall performance in class and on assessments. This study merely looks at the relationship of homework grades to quiz, assessment and class participation grades.

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Literature Review The literature reviewed within this mini-study had varied results as to the impact of homework on student achievement. The chart to the right is evidence from an article by Marzano which indicates positive percentile gains for students who complete homework.

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Methodology In order to effectively frame and analyze the data sets it was important to utilize a framework which poses essential questions that will support the analysis of the data. Below is five point framework, which is being used to guide the analysis of the data (Hughes, 2006).

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Methodology Cont. Who Are We? All I.S. 5 students in grades 6-8 were included in this study. Data collected was from student homework averages, standards-based unit assessment data and quizzes. The data for this study was downloaded into Microsoft Excel and merged in Microsoft Access so that each data point was represented in the study.

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Methodology Cont. How Are We Similar? The homework data served as the independent variable and the assessment data, quiz data and class work data served as the dependent variables. Each of these variables was included in a regression analysis to determine if there was a correlation between the variables and the variability of one variables affect on another.

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Methodology Cont. Why Are We Unique? A distribution analysis was conducted for each of the variables by the development of a histogram and descriptive table. The purpose was to identify the central tendency and the spread of the distribution. Data were then looked at for the relationship between the variables by applying a scatter plot to analyze the direction, shape and strength of the relationships and correlation to determine the coefficient of determination. A regression analysis was then applied to estimate the relationship between independent and dependent variables.

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Methodology Cont. Where Will We Change? When Do We Change? After the data has been analyzed recommendations and next steps will be established to foster change.

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Sample Results The data represented in Figure 2 below, represents a scatter plot with a regression analysis of student math homework averages to math unit assessment performance. The data below demonstrates that for every unit increase in homework average the overall performance on the mathematics unit assessment would increase by.5359. Moreover, the two data points demonstrate a positive relationship which is depicted by the positive slope of the linear relationship, which indicates a positive correlation.

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Conclusions The findings included in chapter four demonstrate that there is moderate-strong correlation between a students average homework grade and the performance on mathematics unit assessments. Similarly to the correlation found with test grades, student quiz grades demonstrated a positive correlation which was moderate in nature.

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Future Research Questions How does the amount of time spent on completing homework impact student achievement? How will the rigorousness of a homework assignment impact student achievement? Will the implementation of an online grading system impact student homework completion?

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References Marzano, R., & Pickering, D. J. (2007). The Case For and Against Homework Cooper, H., Robinson, J. C., & Patel, E. A. (2006). Does Homework Improve Academic Achievment? A Synthesis of Research, 1987 - 2003. Review of Educational Research, 76, 1-62. Retrieved from Educational Leadership, 64(6), 74-79. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational- leadership/mar07/vol64/num06/The-Case-For-and-Against-Homework.aspx Kralovec, E., & Buell, J. (2001). End Homework Now []. Educational Leadership, 58(7), 39-42. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational- leadership/apr01/vol58/num07/End-Homework-Now.aspx Mulhlenbruck, L., Cooper, H., Nye, B., & Lindsey, J. J. (2000). Homework and achievement: Explaining the different strengths of relation at the elementary and secondary school levels. Social Psychology of Education, 295-317. Trautwein, U., & Koller, O. (2003). The Relationship Between Homework and Achievement-Still Much a Mystery. Educational Psychology Review, 15, 115-145.

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