Presentation on theme: "Alcohol Related Harm on Irelands Roads Myths & Facts."— Presentation transcript:
Alcohol Related Harm on Irelands Roads Myths & Facts
Road is safety is about Removing risk factors i.e. risk of being involved is a collision is attributable to many factors Inappropriate speed Non wearing of restraints or helmet Inferior road infrastructure Badly maintained or designed vehicles Impairment (drugs, alcohol, fatigue...etc) Inexperience drivers Vulnerable road users And many others
Inappropriate speed Non wearing of restraints or helmet Inferior road infrastructure Badly maintained or designed vehicles Impairment Inexperience drivers Vulnerable road users And many others Risk factors are not exclusive... Inappropriate speed Non wearing of restraints or helmet Inferior road infrastructure Badly maintained or designed vehicles Impairment Inexperience drivers Vulnerable road users They are interlinked
Road Safety interventions are classified as EngineeringEducationEnforcementEvaluation And like the risk factors must be interlinked.
Ireland Road Safety Performance to date ,601 people have died
The National Picture
The International Situation Ireland has performed well In 1999 Road deaths per million population = = 63 but..... Netherland are at 44 and Sweden are at We need to be striving to reach these international benchmarks
Risk Factor Alcohol The literature on the effects of alcohol on driving is very extensive and very consistent; alcohol in almost any amount impairs driving or driving related skills. In studies, and subsequently in 2000, 112 studies were reviewed in reports by NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) in the USA. The results of the reviews can be summarised by a quotation from the 1988 report which stated there is no lower threshold below which impairment does not exist for alcohol. The combination and alcohol and driving is a deadly mix.
Of the eleven functions required to drive, ten are impaired at a BAC level of 0.04g/dL. How does alcohol effect driving ability ?
Risk Factor Alcohol at what level? In 1964 a study known as Grand Rapids established the link between increased BAC level in driver and increased risk. The study revealed the risk substantially increased above 0.04g/dL. This original study has been verified several times and most recently in 2002
Risk Factor Alcohol at what level? Research in 2000 estimated that the risk of being involved in a fatal collision for drivers at BACs as low as g/dL is anywhere from two to five times higher than for drivers with BACs = 0.00g/dl. The same study concluded that the risk of being killed as driver in a single-vehicle collision is six to seventeen times greater for drivers at BACs between 0.05 and 0.07g/dL than at 0.00g/dL. Another study in 2002 concluded that the risk of being involved in any type of collision for drivers with 0.04g/dL was 18% higher than for drivers at 0.00g/dL. At 0.05g./dL the risk is 38% higher, at 0.06g/dL it is 63% higher and at 0.07g/dL it is 109% higher than for drivers at BAC of 0.00g/dL.
Reducing BAC level Decreases level of impairment in drivers = Reduces errors = Reduces risk of collision involvement = Reduces deaths and serious injuries = Reduce cost to the state.
Will reducing BAC effect fatal traffic collisions Alcohol in Fatal Road Crashes in Ireland In 2003 to D Bedford, N McKeown, A OFarrell, F Howell. Population Health Directorate, Health Service Executive, Naas.
What happened in other countries which reduced BAC to 0.05g/dL Fatal crashes reduced from 100 to 65 in one year after change (Haute-Savoie region) 12% reduction in drink driving 9.4% decrease in alcohol related crashes 9.7% decrease fatal crashes 11% decrease in single vehicle crashes 7% decrease in all crashes
What happened in other countries which reduced BAC to 0.05g/dL Japan Proportion of alcohol related fatal crashes fell from 15% to 11% Queensland 8.2% decrease in serious night-time crashes New South Wales 13% reduction in fatal crashes South Australia 145 reduction in drunk drivers
Arguments against reducing BAC levels Claim : Will reduce employment in the licensed trade What happening after the last reduction in
We already have almost 12,000 licensed premises, resulting in a pub for every 250 adults. This is close to three times the UK pub density on a per capita basis. There are over 17,000 alcohol outlets in the state already. Submission to Minister of Justice Equality and Law Reform 2005 Public houses will close..... Arguments against reducing BAC levels
Are the Irish Public demanding a reduced BAC ?.... Health Promotion Unit 2002 Survey (Department of Health and Children, 2004) Over two thirds (67%) of adults, support the proposal to lower the drink drive limit to 0.5. There is also support for a zero limit from two thirds of drivers. Similarly, 9 out of 10 drivers support such a limit being imposed on new drivers. Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe (SARTRE 3), 2003 The SARTRE 3 study (of 1,000 Irish Drivers) found that 91% of those interviewed supported the idea that penalties for drink-driving should be much more severe Hibernian Motoring Reports, 2007 & 2008 In a survey of 516 motorists 77% said the legal alcohol limit should be reduced (2007). Is Ireland ready for a change in drink-driving legislation?; Ray Fuller and Michael Gormley, School of Psychology, Trinity College, Dublin About three out of every four drivers – an increasing majority – are in favour of the introduction of a lower drink driving limit and two thirds now support a zero limit for all drivers. Irish Times Online Poll, 2 nd May % agreed with the statement that the blood alcohol limit for driving should be reduced. PARC Survey 2008 A survey of 3240 adults aged 15+ in 2008 found that 87% of respondents favoured a reduction in the current limit of 80mg/100 ml.
Reducing BAC – we have been through it before YearAct/ReportBAC level 1961Road Traffic Act None - Section 49 created an offence of drink under the influence of an intoxicant but impairment had to be proved Commission on Driving while under the Influence of Drink or a Drug – DAVITT COMMISSION Recommended the establishment of a BAC of 125 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood 1968Road Traffic Act Established a BAC of 125 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood 1978Road Traffic (Amendment)Act Reduced the BAC to 100 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood 1994Road Traffic Act Reduced the BAC to 80 milligrams of alcohol per 100 millilitres of blood
We are out of step BAC Countries Zero Armenia, Azerbaijan, Czech Republic, Hungary, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Romania, Slovak Republic, (Uzbekistan) (10 countries) 0.01% Albania 0.02% Estonia*, Norway, Poland, (Sudan), Sweden (5) 0.03% China, Georgia*, India, Japan, Moldova, Turkmenistan (6) 0.04% Belarus, Lithuania* (2) 0.05% Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Latvia, Macedonia, Monaco, Namibia, Netherlands, Portugal*, Russia*, Serbia, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Yugoslavia Luxembourg, (36) 0.06% Peru* 0.08% Belize, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Fiji, Ghana, Ireland, Jamaica, Malaysia, Malta, Mauritius, New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Singapore, Tanzania, Uganda, United Kingdom, USA, Zimbabwe (20) 0.10% Possibly Swaziland, but see 0.15%, below. [Many American states had this limit but Delaware was the last to sign up for a 0.08% limit, in July 2004.] 0.15% Swaziland* (1) Northern Ireland and Scotland are committed to reducing to 0.05g/dL
Summary: There is strong evidence in the literature that lowering the BAC limit from.10 to.08 is effective, that lowering the BAC limit from.08 to.05 is effective, and that lowering the BAC limit for youth to.02 or lower is effective. These law changes serve as a general deterrent to drinking and driving and ultimately save lives The Latest Evidence
International Support The World Medical Association The British Medical Association European Commission United Nations
A SOCIETY IN DENIAL Sunday, January 19,
or A Proactive Response Designated Driver Schemes.Key Holding Schemes.Incentivised Local /Community Transport Schemes. Greater Education On Alcohol Intake, Metabolism And Impairment. Promotion of responsible drinking. Incentivise industry to provide low alcohol/ alcohol free options.Disseminate current best practice and initiatives
Thank you very much for your attention Sunday, January 19,