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Y-chromosome DNA on this is passed down the paternal line with usually no change. Every few hundred years however there may be a change in one of the repeated.

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Presentation on theme: "Y-chromosome DNA on this is passed down the paternal line with usually no change. Every few hundred years however there may be a change in one of the repeated."— Presentation transcript:

1 Y-chromosome DNA on this is passed down the paternal line with usually no change. Every few hundred years however there may be a change in one of the repeated sequences of DNA called “”Short tandem repeats” or “STRs”. We can analyse these STRs using techniques known as “PCR” and electrophoresis to produce a DNA “fingerprint”.

2 STRs 391 390 393 392 388 19 Z710 22 15 11 16 14 Z2412 25 13 13 12 14 Z34 10 23 13 11 13 13 Z3610 24 13 13 12 15 Z38 10 22 13 11 14 15 Z4010 24 13 14 12 14 Z4210 25 13 11 10 16 Z4510 22 13 11 14 14 Z5009 23 12 11 16 16 The rows Z7, Z24 etc correspond to particular individuals. The columns 391, 390 etc correspond to the different number of STRs in 6 markers or parts of the Y- chromosome. The sequence of numbers 10 22 15 11 16 14 etc. is known as a persons “haplotype”. We can enter this data into a database known as YHRD to look for matches with over 13000 other people tested in Europe.

3 http://www.yhrd.org/

4 HIT MISS 17 The numbers refer to the place. E.g. 17 = Croatia Here are a few examples….

5 Kevin Sampson267 matches/13003

6 Kevin Sampson267 matches/13003 So Kevin’s paternal ancestor “may” have come from this area

7 Chris Westhead, John Aindow, Roger Martlew, Alan Scarisbrick, Gordon Ashcroft, Tom Howard, John Rosbotham, Norman Penketh, Edward Webster, Ole Christiansen

8 Michael Fletcher166 matches/13003

9 Keith Rimmer89 matches/13003

10 Stanley Lunt339 matches/13003

11 John Risley 8 matches/13003

12 Michael Welch441 matches/13443

13 Tony Tottey166 matches/13003

14 Brian Totty166 matches/13003

15 STRs 391 390 393 392 388 19 Z710 22 15 11 16 14 Z2412 25 13 13 12 14 Z34 10 23 13 11 13 13 Z3610 24 13 13 12 15 Z38 10 22 13 11 14 15 Z4010 24 13 14 12 14 Z4210 25 13 11 10 16 Z4510 22 13 11 14 14 Z5009 23 12 11 16 16 YHRD now allows “nearest neighbour” analysis”: during the course of 1000 years it is possible that there has been a single mutation of one of the Y-chromosome STRs along a man’s paternal ancestral line. e.g. for the man “Z7” the marker 391 could have originally been 9 or 11 repeats. Some mutations are rare and yield no matches.

16 Richard Harding’s Y-chromosome group One step mutation of one of his STR’s: Top matches for each mutation: West Norway (2ce) Oslo Puglia (followed by Central Norway) Vasterbotten, Sweden Uppsala Denmark No mutation, top matches: Ostgotland-Jonköping, Sweden and Gröningen, Friesland: ~8% of men have a match. Where the top matches for Richard’s Y-chromosome are to be found


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