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10 The “New Economic Policy” (NEP) and Bolshevik Culture.

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Presentation on theme: "10 The “New Economic Policy” (NEP) and Bolshevik Culture."— Presentation transcript:

1 10 The “New Economic Policy” (NEP) and Bolshevik Culture

2 Overview A.Themes B.Why the NEP C.Basic Conceptions D.Terms E.Performance F.Problems G.Demography H.Society I.Culture J.Conclusion

3 A. Themes 1.No “NEP”: pragmatic, ad hoc reaction to crises and problems 2.Why? Multi-causal—popular unrest, fading hope of world revolution 3.NEP as “dual economy” with “capitalist” and “socialist” sectors 4.Chronological dynamic: recovery to 1925, then mounting problems 5.Foregoing as background to social tensions, political conflict, and cultural turmoil of Twenties 6.Demographic recovery: population growth and re- urbanization 7.Family revolution 8.Cultural Revolution and cultural construction

4 B. Why the NEP? 1.Worker unrest 2.Peasant rebellion 3.Fading prospects of world revolution 4.Trigger: Kronshtadt insurrection

5 1921-22 Famine

6 Famine of 1921-2

7 Famine 1921-22

8 Russian Committee for Aid to the Starving 1921

9 American Famine Relief: ARA (1921)

10 American Famine Relief: ARA


12 NEP: Transitional

13 Kronshtadt: Insurrection, Repression (1921)

14 C. NEP: Basic Conceptions 1.Dual economy concept 2.Embedded contradictions 3.Politics of NEP 4.Evolving conception

15 1922 Poster: Appeal to Rebuild the Economy

16 1924: Electrification and New World

17 D. Terms of NEP 1.Agriculture 2.Trade 3.Monetary policy 4.Industry 5.Foreign concessions

18 Advertisement: Boots from Rezinotrest (Rubber Trust)

19 Advertisement: Cigarette “Ira”

20 Advertisement: Light Bulbs in GUM

21 Advertisement: “Kremlin” Cigarettes

22 Advertisement: Moscow Village Handicrafts

23 Advertisement: Best Nipples Are from Rezinotrest

24 Advertisement: Chocolate Bars from Pishchetrest (Food Trust)

25 Table 1: Industrial Recovery under NEP Branch1913192119241926 Industrial Output (1926-7 rubles 102512004466011083 Coal (mln tons2991627.6 Electricity (mln kw/hrs 194552015623508 Pig iron (thous. Tons) 42161167552441 Steel (thous tons) 423118311403141 Cotton (mln meters) 25821059632286

26 Table 2: Rate of Economic Growth (as percent of previous year) Fiscal YearAgricultureIndustryGDP 1922-3136.6130.4135.1 1923-4106.9132.8113.3 1924-5116.2147.6124.1 1925-6119.2137.4125.7 1926-7104.1113.7107.6

27 Table 3: Recovery of Prewar Production Levels (percent of 1913) Fiscal YearAgricultureIndustryGDP 1921-246.826.052.3 1922-363.933.952.3 1923-468.445.159.8 1924-579.565.274.2 1925-694.590.893.3 1926-798.6103.3100.3

28 F. Problems 1.Instability: Fluctuations, recurring crises 2.Social dangers: empowering kulaks and bourgeoisie 3.Intra-Party tensions 4.Post 1925: slowdown

29 Demography 1.Population losses 2.Mortality and Fertility 3.Re-Urbanization

30 1926 Poster: Cooperate in Census

31 Demographic Indicators (per 1,000 inhabitants) CountryFertilityMortalityInfant Mortality Russia44.022.9206 Germany21.112.9112 UK19.312.273.8 USA25.011.973.1

32 C. Society 1.Dynamics 2.Social Categories a.Workers b.Peasants c.Sluzhashchie d.“Alien elements”: Bourgeois, Nepman, Clergy e.Outcasts 3.Family revolution

33 Class Structure, 1913-28 Category191319241928 Workers14.610.412.4 Sluzhashchie2.44.45.2 Peasants66.775.474.9 Kolkhozniki and Coop Artisans 1.32.9 “Bourgeoisie”

34 Peasant Strata: Bolshevik Categories CategoryNumber (Millions) Batrak (landless peasant)8 Bedniak (poor peasant)20 Seredniak (middle peasant)80 Kulak (rich peasant)5

35 Nepman License to Trade

36 Nepmany: Market Kiosks

37 Caricature: Nepman and Wife

38 Caricature: Deputy Office Head and Wife (1926)

39 1923 Poster: Women and the New Way of Life

40 1924 Poster: Emancipated Woman

41 Culture 1.Education 2.Religion and Atheism 3.Elite Culture 4.Mass culture

42 Literacy Rates YearCityVillageBothAll MFMFMF 189766463613401728 192081675225583244 192688746735724357

43 Likbez in Village

44 Likbez: Women in Uzbekistan

45 Likbez: Poster on Female Literacy

46 Confiscation of Church Valuables (1922)

47 Uzbek Publishing House Seal

48 Uzbek Film “Basmachi” (1930)

49 E. Conclusion 1.Myths galore: “planning” 2.Rife with tensions, contraditictions 3.Role of external: world revolution or “socialism in one country” 4.Demographic revolution: population growth and re-urbanization 5.Family revolution: patriarchy reasserted and contested 6.Social revolution: anti-elitism, tensions among and between workers and peasants 7.Cultural revolution: education, atheism, and elite vs. mass culture

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