Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

UHECRs & GRBs Eli Waxman Weizmann Institute, ISRAEL.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "UHECRs & GRBs Eli Waxman Weizmann Institute, ISRAEL."— Presentation transcript:

1 UHECRs & GRBs Eli Waxman Weizmann Institute, ISRAEL

2 The acceleration challenge R B v v 2R  t RF =R/  c) l =R/   22 22 [Hillas, ARA&A (1984); Waxman 04]

3 The suspects Active Galactic Nuclei (steady):  ~ few requires L>10 47 erg/s Few, brightest AGN Gamma Ray Bursts (transient):  ~ 300 requires L>10 51 erg/s Average L  ~10 52 erg/s

4 The Suspects losses 1/  [Hillas 84; Arisaka 02]

5 Comments on “ Magnetars ” Newborn Neutron stars (Hypothesis) with: B~10 14 G,  ~10 4 /sec L EM ~10 50 erg/s for t<1 min. Some difficulties: Wind should penetrate envelope with < M sun entrainment Acceleration mechanism: Unknown NS ~1 M sun envelope EM wind [e.g. Blasi, Epstein, Olinto 00; Arons 02] [Waxman 04]

6 Gamma-ray Bursts M on ~1 Solar Mass BH Relativistic Outflow e - acceleration in Collisionless shocks MeV  ’s: L  ~10 52 erg/s  ~300 [Piran, Phys. Rep. 99; Meszaros, ARA&A 02; Waxman, Lec. Notes Phys. 598 (2003).] e - Synchrotron X-ray, UV Radio UHE p Acceleration

7 Proton/electron acceleration: ‘ 95 Protons Acceleration/expansion: Synchrotron losses: Particle spectrum: p energy production: Electrons MeV  ’ s: Optical depth:  spectrum:  energy production [Waxman 95, PRL 75, 386; ApJ 452, L1; Note: Constraints independent of details of acceleratiomn model (e.g. Gialis & Pelletier 04)]

8 1997: BeppoSAX (GRB afterglows) Detection of (predicted) X-ray, Optical & Radio “ afterglow ” Identification of “ host ” galaxies, ~2 Detailed tests of the model Size measurements [scintillation, VLBI, sub-rel.] X-ray to radio (synchrotron) spectra [e.g. Meszaros, ARA&A 02] [Waxman, Kulkarni & Frail 98; Taylor, Frail, Berger & Kulkarni 04; Frail, Waxman & Kulkarni 00; Berger, Kulkarni & Frail04] [e.g , Wijers & Galama 98]

9 Afterglow: UHECR implications L  =10 51 erg/s -> L  =10 52 erg/s Early optical afterglow: u B /u e ~1,  ~ Revised rates, energy 10/Gpc 3 yr -> 0.5/Gpc 3 yr E  =10 52 erg -> E  = erg [Zhang,Kobayashi, Meszaros 03; Soderberg, Ramirez-Ruiz 03] [Schmidt 01; Guetta, Piran, Waxman 03]

10 Proton/electron acceleration Protons Acceleration/expansion: Synchrotron losses: Particle spectrum: p energy production: Electrons MeV  ’ s: Optical depth:  spectrum:  energy production [Waxman 04] [Waxman 95] Afterglow

11 UHECR generation Galactic heavy nuclei X-Galactic protons X-Galactic protons Generation spectrum & rate (z evolution follows SFR): <10 19 eV Galactic heavy nuclei Fly ’ s Eye fit: J G ~E [Waxman 95; Bahcall & Waxman 03] [Watson 91, Nagano & Watson 00] ~10 19 eV

12 Model vs. Data [Bahcall & Waxman 03] Ruled out at 5 

13 “ GZK sphere ” AGN, Radio-galaxies  GRBs : For R GRB (z=0)~0.5/Gpc 3 yr Prediction: p  D B [Waxman 95; Miralda-Escude & Waxman 96, Waxman 03]

14 GRB Model Predictions >3x10 20 eV: Few, narrow spectrum sources; Fluctuations (no homogeneous GZK). Auger AGASA multiplets- statistical significance? [Miralda-Escude & Waxman 96] [Teshima 03; Finley & Westerhoff 04] [Watson 91, Cronin 93]

15 “ Generic ” GRB ’ s Weak dependence on model parameters [Waxman & Bahcall 97, 99; Rachen & Meszaros 98; Alvarez- Muniz & F. Halzen 99; Guetta, Spada & Waxman 01; Guetta, Hooper, Alvarez-Muniz, Halzen & E. Reuveni 04]

16 Summary GRBs >10 19 eV protons (acceleration, rate) Predictions 10 3 km 2 area detectors experiments: HiRes, Auger, T.A., EUSO/OWL GRBs 100TeV ’ s Flux 1Gton detectors Experiments: Baikal, AMANDA IceCube, Antares, Nestor, NEMO detection GRBs: CR puzzle, GRB progenitors & physics physics:     appearance Lorentz Inv. ( ), Weak equivalence principle (10 -6 )

17 Direct size measurement: Scintillation Finite size, cosmological source: h crit. ~few x cm nene  d  d > Diffractive scintillation h [Frail, Waxman & Kulkarni 00]

18 “ Cannon balls ” Proper motion: D&D 2003: >1.4 mas for Obs.: Inconsistent with scintillation suppression [ Dado, Dar & De Rujula 02]


Download ppt "UHECRs & GRBs Eli Waxman Weizmann Institute, ISRAEL."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google