Presentation on theme: "Fastening and Prying Tools"— Presentation transcript:
1Fastening and Prying Tools Unit 10Fastening and Prying ToolsFastening Tools • Hammers • Hammering Technique • Nailing Method • Hatchets • Staplers • Screwdrivers • Wrenches and Pliers • Prying Tools
2The main parts of a hammer are the head, face, claw, and handle The main parts of a hammer are the head, face, claw, and handle. The hammer face may be smooth or milled.Hammers are striking tools used to drive and remove nails. The main parts of a hammer are the head, face, claw, and handle. See Figure A hammer head is forged of high-quality steel and its face may be bell-shaped or flat. A bell-shaped face is slightly curved so nails can be driven flush to the surface, leaving only light marks on the lumber.
3Carpenters use both straight-claw and curved-claw hammers. Straight‑claw and curved-claw hammers are used by carpenters. See Figure The size of either hammer is determined by the weight of its head. Always use the proper weight hammer for the job.
4In addition to driving nails, straight-claw hammers are used to pry boards apart and to split pieces of lumber.A straight-claw, or ripping, hammer is used for rough work such as framing or concrete form construction. In addition, a straight-claw hammer can be used to pry boards apart and to split pieces of lumber. See Figure 10-3.
5Curved-claw hammers provide better leverage when pulling nails than straight-claw hammers. A block of wood placed under the hammer head increases leverage and helps in removing the fastener.A curved-claw hammer is commonly used for finish work. Some carpenters feel that the curved-claw design pro-vides better balance and control when driving finish nails. Curved-claw hammers also provide better leverage for pulling nails. See Figure Curved-claw hammers range in weight from 7 oz to 20 oz, with a 16-oz hammer being the most popular choice.
6Proper use of a hammer results in more efficient driving of nails. The proper hammering technique results in faster work with less effort. See Figure Keep your wrist loose at all times while driving nails. The blow is delivered through the wrist, elbow, and/or shoulder, depending on the strength of blow to be struck. Rest the hammer face on the nail and draw the hammer back. Start the nail with a light tap and drive the nail. Strike the nail squarely to avoid bending it and to prevent the hammer head from bouncing off the nail and scarring the wood surface.
7When possible, nail from a thinner piece into the thicker piece. Nails provide a strong tie between building materials. Improper nailing methods result in weak ties between materials. The following nailing methods should be used:• When possible, always drive a nail from the thinner piece of material into the thicker piece. The nail should be long enough so the upper third of the nail is in the thinner piece and the rest of the nail is driven into the thicker piece. See Figure 10-6.
8Stagger nails when nailing near the end of a board Stagger nails when nailing near the end of a board. Placing the nails in a straight line may split the board.Nails provide a strong tie between building materials. Improper nailing methods result in weak ties between materials. The following nailing methods should be used:• Stagger the nails when driving nails near the end of a board. See Figure Aligning the nails may split the board.
9To avoid splits in harder wood, blunt the end of the nail with a hammer, cut off the point of the nail, or drill a pilot hole for the nail.Nails provide a strong tie between building materials. Improper nailing methods result in weak ties between materials. The following nailing methods should be used:• To avoid splits in harder wood, either blunt the end of the nail with a hammer, cut off the point of the nail, or drill a pilot hole for the nail. See Figure The blunt end of a nail forces the wood fibers ahead of it and reduces the possibility of splitting the wood.
10If necessary to nail into end grain, drive the nails in at an angle to increase their holding power. Nails provide a strong tie between building materials. Improper nailing methods result in weak ties between materials. The following nailing methods should be used:• Whenever possible, drive nails across the grain rather than into the end grain. Nails driven into end grain have less holding power. If it is necessary to nail into the end grain, drive nails in at an angle to increase their holding power. See Figure 10-9.
11Toenails should be driven in at an angle so that approximately half of the nail is in each piece of wood.Nails provide a strong tie between building materials. Improper nailing methods result in weak ties between materials. The following nailing methods should be used:• When it is not possible to end-nail two pieces together, toenail them by driving the nail at an angle so approximately half the nail is in each piece of wood. See Figure
12Tacking is a procedure for temporary nailing Tacking is a procedure for temporary nailing. The head of the nail should stick out so that it can be easily withdrawn.Nails provide a strong tie between building materials. Improper nailing methods result in weak ties between materials. The following nailing methods should be used:• For temporary nailing, tack the nails so they stick out from the material and can be easily withdrawn. See Figure
13Driving nails at an angle increases the holding power between two pieces fastened face-to-face. Nails provide a strong tie between building materials. Improper nailing methods result in weak ties between materials. The following nailing methods should be used:• To increase holding power between two pieces fastened face-to-face, drive nails at an angle. See Figure
14A nail set is used to drive a nail head below the surface of the wood. A nail set is used to drive a nail head below the wood surface. See Figure Nails are usually set when installing finish materials such as molding, paneling, or siding. Holes left by the set nails are filled by a painter. Nail sets are typically 4″ long and their tips range in diameter from 1/32″ to 5/32″.
15Hatchets used in the carpentry trade have a nail-pulling slot at the side of the blade. Hatchets are striking tools that have a nailing face as well as a cutting edge. Three types of carpenter hatchets are the half-hatchet, wallboard hatchet, and shingling hatchet. See Figure All carpenter hatchets have slots at the side of the blade for pulling nails.
16A strike tacker may be used to fasten floor underlayment. A strike tacker is operated by striking the plunger with a rubber mallet. A strike tacker can be used to fasten floor underlayment to the subfloor. Strike tackers drive 18-ga staples between 7/8″ and 1 1/8″ long. See Figure
17A hammer tacker is used to fasten insulation batts. A hammer tacker allows one-hand operation, since it releases a staple when it is struck against a surface. Hammer tackers are commonly used to install carpet padding, insulation, roofing paper, and vapor barriers. See Figure Hammer tackers use 20-ga staples between 1/4″ and 9/16″ long.
18Heavy-duty staple guns are used to fasten vinyl flooring, insulation, roofing paper, carpet padding, screening, carpet, and ceiling tile.A staple gun tacker is a heavy-duty stapler that also allows one-hand operation. It is used to fasten a variety of materials, including vinyl flooring, insulation, roofing paper, screening, carpet padding, carpet, and ceiling tile. See Figure Staple gun tackers typically drive 20-ga staples between 1/4″ and 9/16″ long.
19Standard, Phillips, and square-drive (Robertson) screwdrivers are used by carpenters to drive screws.Screwdrivers are used to drive or withdraw screws and should not be used to pry pieces apart. The parts of a screwdriver are the head, handle, blade (shank), and tip. See Figure The size of a screwdriver is identified by the length of its blade. More frequently used lengths are 3″, 4″, 6″, 8″, and 10″. Screwdrivers with longer blades have larger handles allowing greater torque to be applied, which is required when driving larger screws. The three basic types of screwdrivers are standard, Phillips, and square-drive (Robertson) screwdrivers.
20Screw shank and pilot holes should be drilled when fastening pieces of hard wood together with wood screws.When driving screws into harder woods, shank and thread pilot holes must be drilled to prevent the wood from splitting. Combination countersink and drill bits are commonly used to drill the pilot hole, shank hole, and countersink at the same time. Figure describes the proper procedure for driving screws in hard wood. If a combination bit is not available, drill a shank hole equal in diameter to the diameter of the screw shank and a pilot hole slightly smaller in diameter than the thread diameter. If a flat-head screw is being installed, countersink the shoulder to accommodate the screw head.
21When driving screws, one hand turns the screwdriver while the other hand holds it in position. Screwdriver accidents can cause puncture wounds in the hand. To avoid hand injuries, hold the screwdriver properly, as shown in Figure
22The screwdriver tip and blade should be properly dressed (ground) to prevent the screwdriver from slipping from the slot.Another important work and safety factor is the condition of the screwdriver tip and blade. A straight screwdriver tip should be straight and square-cornered, not rounded or excessively tapered. See Figure The tip of a Phillips screwdriver should not be chipped or flattened. Other safety rules are as follows:• Screwdrivers are designed to apply a certain amount of torque to a screw. Do not attach a wrench to a screwdriver to increase leverage or torque.• Most screwdriver handles are plastic or wood. Do not drive a screwdriver with a hammer.• Do not use a screwdriver as a punch, chisel, pry bar, or nail-puller.• Always use a screwdriver tip that properly fits the slot.• Do not carry a screwdriver in pants pocket.
23Gripping tools, such as wrenches and pliers, are used to tighten bolts. Various types of bolts are used to fasten structural members together. Gripping tools, such as wrenches and pliers, are used to install bolts and tighten nuts. See Figure Wrenches are available in standard sizes, or they can be adjusted to the nut size. Pliers are a holding device and should not be used to tighten nuts or bolts. Two types of pliers are slip-joint and tongue-and-groove joint (C-joint) pliers.
24When using an adjustable wrench, be sure it is tightly adjusted to the nut. Pull the wrench so that the force is on the side of the fixed jaw.Wrenches should be used only for their intended purpose. Using the wrong type of wrench or improperly using a wrench can cause scraped knuckles, injured muscles, or a fall if the wrench slips. The following safety rules should be followed when using wrenches:• Always try to pull, rather than push, on a wrench. See Figure A greater danger of a wrench slipping and causing a hand injury exists when pushing a wrench.• Never use a wrench as a hammer.…see complete list of wrench safety rules on pages 93–94.
25For power tasks, a pair of pliers with an open grip span no greater than 3 1/2″ and a closed grip span of at least 2″ should be used.Pliers must be carefully selected to minimize the risk of injury. For power tasks, select a pliers with an open grip span no greater than 3 1/2″ and a closed grip span of at least 2″. The grip span is the distance between the thumb and fingers when the tool jaws are open or closed. See Figure If continuous force is required, consider using a clamp or locking pliers. If available, select a pliers with handles that are spring-loaded to return the handles to the open position. In addition, select a pliers without sharp edges or finger grooves on the handle.
26A ripping bar is used to pry boards apart and remove large nails or spikes. One type of prying tool is the ripping bar or pry bar. See Figure Ripping bars are available in lengths ranging from 12″ to 60″, with a 30″ bar being the most popular length since it conveniently fits in most toolboxes.
27A ripping chisel may be used to pry materials apart. A ripping chisel, or flat bar, has a nail slot at the end to pull nails from tightly enclosed areas. A ripping chisel may also be used as a small pry bar. See Figure
28A nail claw is used to pull nails driven flush with the lumber surface so they can be pulled out with a hammer or ripping bar.A nail claw is used solely for nail removal. See Figure The sharpened nail slot is driven under a nail head to pull the nail above the lumber surface. The nail is then pulled completely out with a hammer or ripping bar.