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Measurement and the Factor Label Method Chem 140

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SI base units SI (Système Internationale d’Unites) adopted in 1960 Contains 7 base units: length: meter (m) mass: kilogram (kg) time: second (s) electrical current: ampere (A) temperature: kelvin (K) amount of substance: mole (mol) Luminous intensity: candela (Cd)

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Know Your Metric Prefixes prefix value (exp.) value tera- (T)10 12 1,000,000,000,000 giga- (G)10 9 1,000,000,000 mega- (M)10 6 1,000,000 kilo- (k)10 3 1,000 deci- (d)10 -1 0.1 centi- (c)10 -2 0.01 milli- (m)10 -3 0.001 micro- (µ)10 -6 0.000 001 nano- (n)10 -9 0.000 000 001 pico- (p)10 -12 0.000 000 000 001

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Derived units: speed 10 20 30 4060708090 50 1 meter… …in 1 second 1 m s -1 speed (velocity)

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Derived units: acceleration Start 0 speedometer m s -1

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Derived units: acceleration After 1 second 0 speedometer m s -1 1 1 meter per second per second 1 m s -2

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Acceleration …in 5 s 50 m/s… …to 20 m/s… acceleration = change in speed time = –30 m s 1 5 s = – 6 m s2s2

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Other derived units Force (newton, N): kg m s -2 Work, energy (joule, J): kg m 2 s -2 Power (watt, W): kg m 2 s -3 Pressure (pascal, Pa): kg m -1 s -2 Volume: m 3 Density: kg m -3

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Metric to English (Without Too Much Memorizing) 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 gallon (US) = 231 in 3 1 lb. = 453.59237 g °C = (°F – 32) x 5/9 °F = (°C x 9/5) + 32 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1 gallon (US) = 231 in 3 1 lb. = 453.59237 g °C = (°F – 32) x 5/9 °F = (°C x 9/5) + 32 You can figure out many other conversions from these basic (exact) ones You can figure out many other conversions from these basic (exact) ones

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Factor-label method (on board) Convert 65 mph to m s -1, using the information on the previous slide, and english-to-english conversions. A car gets 35 mpg fuel mileage. What’s this in km/L? 0.0004325 cubic meters to cm 3

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Volume What is the volume of a cube 0.1 m (1 dm) on a side, in m 3 ? 0.001 m 3 Also called a “liter” (L)

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Volume What is the length of each side of a cube with a volume of 1 mL? 0.001 L = 0.000 001 m 3 = (0.01) 3 m 3 = 0.01 m (1 cm) on a side

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1 m 3 = 1 kL Length and Volume 10 20 30 4060708090 50 1 dm 3 = 1 L 1 Mg of water 1 kg of water 1 cm 3 = 1 mL 1 g of water

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Volume and Mass LinearCubicLitersWater 1 m10 0 m1 m 3 10 0 m 3 1 kL10 3 L1 Mg 1 dm10 -1 m1 dm 3 10 -3 m 3 1 L10 0 L1 kg 1 cm10 -2 m1 cm 3 10 -6 m 3 1 mL10 -3 L1 g 1 mm10 -3 m1 mm 3 10 -9 m 3 1 µL10 -6 L1 mg

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