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Tomohiko Fukushima SOF Institute for Ocean Policy, Ship and Ocean Foundation, JAPAN Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Abundances.

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Presentation on theme: "Tomohiko Fukushima SOF Institute for Ocean Policy, Ship and Ocean Foundation, JAPAN Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Abundances."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tomohiko Fukushima SOF Institute for Ocean Policy, Ship and Ocean Foundation, JAPAN Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Abundances of Megabenthic Organisms in Areas of Manganese Nodules, Cobalt-Rich Crust and Polymetallic Sulphide

2 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica 1. Megabenthos distributions (abundances, faunal compositions, feeding habitats) ・・・・・. 2. Manganese nodule areas, Cobalt-Rich Crust areas and Polymetallic Sulphide areas ・・・・・・・・. 3. Photo-transect methods (recommended by the environmental guideline for manganese nodules development) ・・・・・・・. 4. As results, simple outputs were obtained, however problems remained. 5. Take into considerations of the problems ・・・・・・. For contractors ( also for the LTC) ・・・・ another quantitative methods should be considered, or different types of a regulation is required. Outline

3 Contents 1.Introduction: backgrounds, rationales 2. Methods and Materials: data source, data collection, study sites, rules of identification etc. 3. Results and Discussion characteristics of megabenthos distribution in each sites, sediment property in each sites, duties of contractors, 4. Conclusions * Japanese Approach Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica

4 Introduction Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica

5 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Introduction Human activities in deep sea Compliant Piled Tower Gas-hydrate Scientific American 2000, 30 Underwater oil production TotalFinaelf website

6 Manganese Nodules (Metal Mining Agency of Japan) Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Introduction Deep-Sea Mineral Resources Cobalt-Rich Crust (Metal Mining Agency of Japan) Polymetallic Sulphide (Metal Mining Agency of Japan)

7 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Introduction Environmental Protection 1962 “Silent Spring” Rachel Carson 1966 “The Limits to Growth” Roman Club 1972 “Polluter-Pays Principle” OECD 1992 “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: UNCLOS” adoption 1992 “Convention on Biological Diversity” 1994 International Seabed Authority 2000 Mining Code (by the ISA) 2001 Environmental Guideline (the ISA)

8 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Introduction Environmental “Unknown World” Basket star Agassiz, 1888 RV Challenger

9 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September Kingston Jamaica Introduction Abundances of deep-sea benthic organisms in a Pacific Ocean after Fukushima, 2004

10 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September Kingston Jamaica Introduction Corporative Research between SOPAC and Metal Mining Agency of Japan JAPANSOPAC International Technical Cooperative Project ○ Camera/video observations for exploration of mineral resources ○ After finish the projects, photographic data can be used for the aims of Megabenthos observation.

11 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica In environmental study, include assessment studies, it is important to quantity the abundance of the community being studied. Deep-sea environmental studies is not exception. However, our knowledge is so little that it is fair to call the deep sea areas an “unknown world”. Even the present, information regarding abundance is much less than that of shallower water. Metal Mining Agency of Japan conducted a basic survey of exploration of mineral resources in the South Pacific Ocean for the SOPAC. Photographic data of exploration can be re-used for an environmental study. In this presentation, abundances of megabenthic organisms in the areas of manganese nodules, cobalt rich crusts and polymetallic sulphides are compared. And the problems to estimate abundances of megabenthos are addressed. Introduction

12 Materials and Methods -photo transect methods- Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Recommended by the environmental guideline prepared for a manganese nodules development

13 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Materials and Methods Still photographs / Continuous Deep- Sea Camera System (CDC) Period: Presented by JOGMEC and SOPAC

14 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Materials and Methods Continuous Deep- Sea Camera System (CDC)

15 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Materials and Methods Observation sites

16 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Materials and Methods Table Number of Materials and covered area

17 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Materials and Methods Identification

18 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Materials and Methods White Spots Xenophyophorea Left: Tendal, 1972, Right: Blum, H. Motile fauna; Shrimp

19 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Materials and Methods Feeding Types a. Suspension feeder: Porifera, Cnidaria, Crinoidea, Ascidiacea b. Deposit feeder: Holothuroidea, Echinoidea, Hemichordata c. Others: Annelida, Mollusca, Asteroidea, Ohiuroidea,

20 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Materials and Methods Sediment Types a. Clay or Ooze (CO): most of the part of seabed was covered by clay or ooze. b. Poor Manganese Nodules area (PM): less than 30% of manganese nodules. c. Rich Manganese Nodules area (RM): more than 30% of manganese nodules. d. Rocky or Cobble area (CR): rocks or cobbles are lying on the seafloor. e. Crust area (CR): covered by crust.

21 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Materials and Methods Sediment Types a. Clay and ooze (CO) b Poor manganese nodules area (PM) c. Rich Manganese Nodules area (RM) d. Rocky or Cobble area (RC) e. Crust area (CR)

22 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Results and Discussion

23 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Results and Discussion Seafloor conditions of manganese nodules area

24 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Seafloor conditions of Cobalt Rich Crust area Results and Discussion

25 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Seafloor conditions of Polymetallic Sulphides area Results and Discussion

26 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Faunae Results and Discussion

27 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Hyalonema spEurete erectum (?) Semperella sp. Caulophacus cf. elatus Sericolophus sp. (?)Hyalonema sp Phylum: Porifera (Sponges) Results and Discussion

28 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Actinaria Results and Discussion

29 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Phylum: Cnidaria Class: gorgonacea Acanthogorgia sp(?)Calyptrophora sp (?) Iridigirgia sp. Results and Discussion

30 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Ellisella sp.Cirrhipathes sp (?)Virgularia sp.(?) Phylum: Cnidaria Class: Pennatulacea Results and Discussion

31 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Crinoidea Proisocrinus sp (?) Results and Discussion

32 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Holothuroidea Benthodytes typica (?) Benthodytes sp(1) Synallactes profundi (?) Results and Discussion

33 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Echinoidea ( burrowing sea urchin) Results and Discussion

34 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Phylum: Arthuropoda Class: Crustacea Aristaemorph sp. (Macrura) ( galathelid crab :Anomura) ( Brachyura ) Results and Discussion

35 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Phylum: Vertebrata Class: Osteichthyes Benthypteris grallator ( Tripodfish ) Typhlonus nasus Results and Discussion

36 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Asteroidea (sea star) Freyella sp (eight arms) Freyella sp (five arms) Hymenaster sp. Results and Discussion

37 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Others Enteropneusta Octopus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda ) Results and Discussion

38 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Abundance 31±23 (inds±SD) 193±329 (inds±SD) 426±418 (inds±SD) Results and Discussion

39 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Feeding Habitat Results and Discussion

40 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Results and Discussion Summary

41 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Problems Results and Discussion Infauna / Protozoa: By means of photo-transect methods, infaunal species and protozoans were ignored. Survey site selection In order to compare between distribution of megabenthos, different ways of the site selection are required.

42 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Recommended subjects by the environmental guideline

43 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Recommended subjects by the environmental guideline

44 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Recommended subjects by the environmental guideline

45 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Conclusions 1. Distributions of megabenthos in areas of manganese nodules, cobalt- rich crust and polymetallic sulphide were surveyed, by the photo transect methods, which was recommended by the environmental guideline prepared for manganese nodules development. 2. Although characteristics of megabenthos distributions in each site was understood in some extents, problems remained. Particularly to an accuracy of quantitative data sets. 3. According to the mining code, contractors must submitted reports on environmental baseline data and prediction of environmental impact resulting from mining. In addition, these results must be reviewed by the LTC. 4. If megabenthos data is included a regulation for CRC and PS development, intercariblational methods would be required for both contractors and the LTC.

46 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Supplement Japanese Approaches for deep-sea mineral resources development

47 Workshop by the ISA 2004 September 6-10 Kingston Jamaica Japanese Approach Manganese nodule: 1975 – 1999 exploration research1975 – 1999 environmental research Cobalt Rich Crust: present exploration research present environmental research Polymetallic Sulphide: present exploration research 1985 – present environmental research not yet

48 Thank you for your kind attention The Fifth (2003) ISOPE Ocean Mining Symposium 2003 September 15-19,Tsukuba, Japan


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