Presentation on theme: "Perception Is a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation. Perception largely depends upon sense for raw data. The cognitive."— Presentation transcript:
1 PerceptionIs a complicated interaction of selection, organization and interpretation.Perception largely depends upon sense for raw data. The cognitive process filters, modifies or completely changes the data.
2 Nature & Importance of Perception Perception is a unique interpretation of the situation, not an exact recording of it.Recognition of difference between the perceptual world and the real world is vital.
3 Perception Process Cognitions are basically bits of information Cognitive process involve the ways in whichpeople process the informationPeople’s individual differences and unique-ness are largely the result of cognitive process
9 Perceptual Selectivity IntensityThe more intense the external stimulus, the more likely it is to be perceivedSizeLarger the size of object, the more likely it will be perceived.ContrastObjects which stand out against the background or which are not what people are expecting will receive their notice
10 Repeated stimulus is more attention getting than a single one. RepetitionRepeated stimulus is more attention getting than a single one.MotionPeople will pay more attention to moving objects in their field of view than they will to stationary objects.NoveltyA navel or unfamiliar objects can serve as attention getter
11 Perceptual Organization What takes place in the perceptual process once the information from any situation or object is received.Perceptional process organizes the incoming information into a meaningful whole.
12 Figure - GroundThe perceived objects stand out as different and separable from their general back ground.
13 Perceptual GroupingThe process of grouping several different stimuli together into a recognizable pattern.
14 Perceptual GroupingThe process of grouping several different stimuli together into a recognizable pattern.Closure : Perceiving whole when one does not exist.Continuity : Tendency to perceive continuous lines or patterns.Proximity : Group of stimuli that are close together are perceived as a whole pattern of parts belonging together.Similarity : Similar stimuli are perceived as belonging to a common group.
15 Perceptual ConstancyIndividuals demonstrate constancy of perception in a tremendously variable and highly complex world.
16 Perceptual Context All perceptions are based on context of situation. The organizational culture and structure provide primary context in which managers and workers do their perceiving.
17 Perceptual DefenceBlocking or refusing to recognize stimuli or situational events in a particular context that are unacceptable or threateningDenialModification and distortionRecognition, but refusal to changeChange in perception
18 Social PerceptionSocial perception is directly concerned with how one individual perceives other individualsHow we get to know others.
19 Factors influencing how a person perceives others. Knowing one self makes it easier to see other accurately.One’s own characteristics effect the characteristics one is likely to see in others.People who accept themselves are more likely to be able to see favorable aspects of other people.Accuracy in perceiving is not a single skill.
20 Characteristics of person being perceived that influence perception Status of person will greatly influence other’s perception of the person.Role of person will have similar affects on perception.Visible traits will also greatly influence perception.Tall, fat, bald, fair color, attractiveness.
21 Psychological Factors in Perception Attribution.How people explain the cause of another’s or their own behavior.Dispositional AttributionSituational AttributionStereotypingTendency to perceive another person as belonging to a single class or category.Halo Effect.Under the halo effect, the person is perceived on the basis of one trait. (whatever that trait is, it over rides all other traits in forming perception)
22 Impression Management The process by which people attempt to manage or control the perceptions others form of them.People tend to present themselves so as to impress other in a socially desirable way.Impression motivationAs goal that motivates a person to impress others.Impression constructionthe specific type of impression people want to make and how they go about doing it.
23 PERSONALITYThe stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment.
24 PersonalityHow people affect others and how they understand and view themselves, as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person – situation interaction.
25 Personality Traits Extraversion Emotional Stability Agreeableness ConscientiousnessOpenness to experience
26 Sociable, Talktive, Assertive ExtraversionSociable, Talktive, AssertiveThe extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy. High extraverts enjoy social situations, while those low on this dimension (introverts) avoid them.
27 Emotional StabilityRelaxed, Secure, StableThe degree to which a person has appropriate emotional control. People with high emotional stability are self confident and have high self-esteem. Those with lower emotional stability tend to have negative standpoint, be tense and nervous and feel insecure.
28 AgreeablenessGood natured, Cooperative, TrustingThe extent to which a person is friendly and approachable. Agreeable people are warm and considerate. Less agreeable people tend to be cold and aloof.
29 ConscientiousnessResponsible, Dependable, Persistent, Achievement - orientedThe degree to which a person is responsible and achievement-oriented. Conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated. Less conscientious people are unreliable.
30 Openness to Experience Imaginative, artistically sensitive, IntellectualThe extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to new ideas. Open people tend toward creativity and innovation. Less open people favour the status quo.
31 People`s attempts to understand themselves are called self–concept. The self – ConceptPeople`s attempts to understand themselves are called self–concept.The self – esteemPeople`s self concept about their self–perceived competence and self–image is called self-esteemThe self – efficacyPeople`s self concept about themselves as to how they can cope with situation as they arise
32 Person – Situation Interaction Personality dimensions are flexiblePeople are not static, acting the same in all situationsEvery day situations change people
33 Development of Personality Adult Life StagesEntering adult world (ages 22 – 28)Settling down (ages 33 – 40)Entering middle adulthood (ages 45 – 50)End of middle adulthood (ages 55 – 60)Transition PeriodsAge 30 transition (ages 28 – 33)Mid-life transition (ages 40 – 45)Age 50 transition (ages 50 – 55)Late adult transition (ages 60 – 65)
34 Immaturity – Maturity Scale Human personality (rather than going through precise stages) progresses along a scale from immaturity as as infant to maturity as an adult.ImmaturityPassivityDependenceFew ways of behavingShallow interestsShort time perspectiveSubordinate positionLack of self - awarenessMaturityActivityIndependenceDiverse behaviorDeep interestsLong time perspectiveSuperordinate positionSelf awareness & control
35 Socialization Process The continuous impact from the social environment on an individual`s personality is called socialization process.Socialization process starts with the initial contact between a mother and her new infant.
36 Organizational Socialization Org. socialization starts when a person joins an organization as an employee.Main characteristics of Org. SocializationChange of attitude, values & behaviorsAdjustment to new job, workgroup, Org.- practicesMutual influence between new and old employees and their managers.Criticality of early socialization period.
37 Special Techniques for socializing : new employees Provide a challenging first job.Provide relevant training.Provide timely and consistent feed back.Appoint a good first supervisor to be incharge of socialization.A relaxed orientation program.Place new employees with workgroups with high morale.
38 AttitudePersonality is thought of a whole person, while attitude is part of personality (attitude may make up the personality)Attitude is a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way towards some object
39 Characteristics of Attitude PersistenceAttitude tend to persist unless something is done to change them.SeverityAttitude can fall any where on a scale from very favorable to very unfavorableDirectionAttitudes can be directed toward some object or person about which a person has feelings
40 Components of Attitudes EmotionalInformationalBehavioralEmotional component involves person`s feeling about an object.Positive, Neutral, NegativeInformational component consists of the beliefs and information a person has about an object.Behavioral component consists of a person`s tendencies to behave in a perticular way toward an object.
41 Functions of Attitudes Adjustment functionAttitudes often help people adjust to their work environment.Ego – Defensive functionAttitudes help people to defend their self – images.Value – expressive functionAttitudes provide people with a basis for expressing their values.Knowledge functionAttitudes help supply standards and frames of reference that allow people to organize and explain world around them.
42 Changing Attitudes Providing new information Use of fear Attitudes can be changed. Some times it is in the best interest of organization, management and employees.Providing new informationUse of fearResolving discrepanciesInfluence of friends & peersCo- opting approach
43 Barriers to changing Attitude Prior comitments / unwillingness to changeInsufficient informationNot resolving discrepancies
44 JOB SATISFACTIONIt is a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one`s job or job experience.Dimentions of job satisfactionEmotional responseOutcomes meeting or exceeding expectationsAttitudesFactors affecting job satisfactionWork itselfPayPromotionsSupervisionWorking conditionsWorkgroup
45 Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Satisfaction & productivityTurnoverAbsenteeismBehavior, attitude
46 Enhancing job satisfaction Making jobs more enjoyableHaving fair pay, benefits and promotion opportunities.Matching people`s skill & interests with jobs.Designing jobs more exciting & satisfying.
47 ORGANIZATION COMMITMENT A strong desire to remain a member of a particular organizationA willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the organizationA definite belief in, and acceptance of, the values and goal of the organization
48 DIMENSION OF COMMITMENT Effective commitmentIt involves employee`s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involment in the organizationContinuance CommitmentInvolves commitment based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the organization.Normative commitmentInvolves the employee`s feeling of obligation to stay with the organization
49 Outcomes of Org. Commitment High performanceLow turnoverLow absenteeismWarm, supportive organization climateFulfillment of dimensions of commitment.Continuance of positive attitude, morale and benefits.