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Chapter 3/ Slide 1 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Part 2 Perception, Attribution, and Judgment of Others Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Individual Behaviour
Chapter 3/ Slide 2 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Learning Objectives 1.Define perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception. 2.Explain Bruners model of the perceptual process. 3.Describe the main biases in person perception. 4.Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behaviour. 5.Discuss various biases in attribution. Chapter 3 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada
Chapter 3/ Slide 3 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada What Is Perception? The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment. People base their actions on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides, rather than on reality itself. Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Chapter 3 / Slide 5
Chapter 3/ Slide 4 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Components of Perception Perception has three components: –A perceiver –A target that is being perceived –Some situational context in which the perception is occurring Each component influences the perceivers impression or interpretation of the target.
Chapter 3/ Slide 5 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Factors that Influence Perception
Chapter 3/ Slide 6 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada The Perceiver Past experiences lead the perceiver to develop expectations that affect current perceptions. Needs unconsciously influence perceptions by causing us to perceive what we wish to perceive. Emotions, such as anger, happiness, or fear, can influence our perceptions.
Chapter 3/ Slide 7 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Perceptual Defence The tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions. People often see what they want to see and hear what they want to hear. Our perceptual system works to ensure we do not see or hear things that are threatening.
Chapter 3/ Slide 8 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada The Target Ambiguous targets are especially susceptible to interpretation and the addition of meaning. Perceivers have a need to resolve ambiguities. The perceiver does not or cannot use all the information provided by the target.
Chapter 3/ Slide 9 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada The Situation Perception occurs in some situational context, and this context can affect what is perceived. The most important effect that the situation can have is to add information about the target. The perception of a target can change with the situation even when the perceiver and target remain the same.
Chapter 3/ Slide 10 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada A Model of the Perceptual Process When the perceiver encounters an unfamiliar target, the perceiver is very open to the informational cues in the target and the situation. The perceiver will actively seek out cues to resolve ambiguity. As the perceiver encounters some familiar cues, a crude categorization of the target is made.
Chapter 3/ Slide 11 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada A Model of the Perceptual Process (continued) The search for cues then becomes less open and more selective. The perceiver will search for cues that confirm the categorization of the target. As the categorization becomes stronger, the perceiver will ignore or even distort cues that violate initial perceptions.
Chapter 3/ Slide 12 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Bruners Model of the Perceptual Process: An Example
Chapter 3/ Slide 13 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Characteristics of the Perceptual Process Perception is selective: –Perceivers do not use all of the available cues, and those they use are given special emphasis.
Chapter 3/ Slide 14 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Characteristics of the Perceptual Process (continued) Perceptual constancy: –The tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time and across situations.
Chapter 3/ Slide 15 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Characteristics of the Perceptual Process (continued) Perceptual consistency: –The tendency to select, ignore, and distort cues so that they fit together to form a homogenous image of the target.
Chapter 3/ Slide 16 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Basic Biases in Person Perception The impressions we form of others are susceptible to a number of perceptual biases: –Primacy and recency effects –Reliance on central traits –Implicit personality theories –Projection –Stereotyping
Chapter 3/ Slide 17 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Primacy and Recency Effects The reliance on early cues or first impressions is known as the primacy effect. Primacy often has a lasting impact. The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions is known as the recency effect.
Chapter 3/ Slide 18 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Reliance on Central Traits People tend to organize their perceptions around central traits. Central traits are personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver. Central traits often have a very powerful influence on our perceptions of others.
Chapter 3/ Slide 19 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Reliance on Central Traits (continued) Physical appearance is a common central trait in work settings. Conventionally attractive people fare better than unattractive people in terms of a variety of job-related outcomes. Physical height is an obvious aspect of physical appearance that is related to job performance, promotions, and career success.
Chapter 3/ Slide 20 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Implicit Personality Theories Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together. Perhaps you expect hardworking people to also be honest, or people of average intelligence to be more friendly. If such implicit theories are inaccurate, they provide a basis for misunderstanding.
Chapter 3/ Slide 21 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Projection The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to others. In some cases, projection is an efficient and sensible perceptual strategy. Projection can lead to perceptual difficulties and can serve as a form of perceptual defence.
Chapter 3/ Slide 22 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Stereotyping The tendency to generalize about people in a social category and ignore variations among them. Categories on which people might base a stereotype include race, age, gender, ethnic background, social class, occupation, and so on.
Chapter 3/ Slide 23 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Stereotyping (continued) There are three specific aspects to stereotyping: –We distinguish some category of people –We assume that the individuals in this category have certain traits –We perceive that everyone in this category possesses these traits
Chapter 3/ Slide 24 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Stereotyping (continued) Stereotypes help us develop impressions of ambiguous targets. Most stereotypes are inaccurate, especially when we use them to develop perceptions of specific individuals.
Chapter 3/ Slide 25 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Why Do Stereotypes Persist? Several factors work to reinforce inaccurate stereotypes. Even incorrect stereotypes help us process information about others quickly and efficiently. Inaccurate stereotypes are often reinforced by selective perception.
Chapter 3/ Slide 26 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives Attribution is the process by which we assign causes or motives to explain peoples behaviour. An important goal is to determine whether some behaviour is caused by dispositional or situational factors.
Chapter 3/ Slide 27 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives (continued) Dispositional attributions suggest that some personality or intellectual characteristic unique to the person is responsible for the behaviour. Intelligence, greed, friendliness, or laziness.
Chapter 3/ Slide 28 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Attribution: Perceiving Causes and Motives (continued) Situational attributions suggest that the external situation or environment in which the target person exists was responsible for the behaviour. Bad weather, good luck, proper tools, or poor advice.
Chapter 3/ Slide 29 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Attribution Cues We rely on external cues and make inferences from these cues when making attributions. Three implicit questions guide decisions as to whether we should attribute some behaviour to dispositional or situational causes.
Chapter 3/ Slide 30 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Attribution Cues (continued) 1.Does the person engage in the behaviour regularly and consistently? (Consistency cues). 2.Do most people engage in the behaviour, or is it unique to this person? (Consensus cues). 3.Does the person engage in the behaviour in many situations, or is it distinctive to one situation? (Distinctiveness cues).
Chapter 3/ Slide 31 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Consistency Cues Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in some behaviour over time. High consistency behaviour leads to dispositional attributions.
Chapter 3/ Slide 32 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Consensus Cues Attribution cues that reflect how a persons behaviour compares with that of others. Low consensus behaviour leads to dispositional attributions.
Chapter 3/ Slide 33 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Distinctiveness Cues Attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations. Low distinctiveness behaviour leads to a dispositional attribution.
Chapter 3/ Slide 34 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Attribution in Action Observers put information about consistency, consensus, and distinctiveness together to form attributions. Consider three employees who are absent from work.
Chapter 3/ Slide 35 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Attribution in Action (continued) Smith is absent a lot, his co-workers are seldom absent, and he was absent a lot in his previous job. Jones is absent a lot, her co-workers are also absent a lot, but she was almost never absent in her previous job. Kelley is seldom absent, his co-workers are seldom absent, and he was seldom absent in his previous job.
Chapter 3/ Slide 36 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Cue Combinations and Resulting Attributions
Chapter 3/ Slide 37 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Biases in Attribution Although observers often operate in a rational, logical manner in forming attributions about behaviour, this does not mean that such attributions are always correct. Attribution biases include: –Fundamental attribution error –Actor-observer effect –Self-serving bias
Chapter 3/ Slide 38 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations. We often discount the strong effects that social cues can have on behaviour. We fail to realize that observed behaviour is distinctive to a particular situation.
Chapter 3/ Slide 39 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Actor-Observer Effect The propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actors behaviour differently. Actors are prone to attribute much of their own behaviour to situational factors while observers are more likely to invoke dispositional causes.
Chapter 3/ Slide 40 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Canada Self-Serving Bias The tendency for people to take credit and responsibility for successful outcomes of their behaviour and to deny credit and responsibility for failures. People will explain the very same behaviour differently on the basis of events that happened after the behaviour occurred.
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