## Presentation on theme: "Avogadro and the Mole."— Presentation transcript:

Avogadro and the Mole.. Avogadro’s constant is the number of ‘elementary particles’ in one mole of a substance. It has the value of 6.02 x 1023 mol-1. Worked example 1. Calculate the number of atoms in 4 g of bromine. Step 1:- Identify the elementary particles present  Br2 molecules 1 mole  x 1023 Br2 molecules Step 2:- Change from moles to a mass in grams 160g  x 1023 Br2 molecules Step 3:- Use proportion. 4 g  /160 x 6.02 x 1023 Br2 molecules  x 1023 Br2 molecules Step 4:- Change from number of molecules to number of atoms. 1.505 x 1023 Br2 molecules  2 x x 1023 Br atoms  x 1023 Br atoms

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How many atoms are there in 0.01 g of carbon? The elementary particles  C atoms. 1 mole  x C atoms. 12 g  x C atoms. So g  0.01/12 x 6.02 x C atoms.  x 1020 C atoms How many oxygen atoms are there in 2.2 g of carbon dioxide? The elementary particles  CO2 molecules. 1 mole  x CO2 molecules 44 g  x CO2 molecules So g  2.2/44 x 6.02 x C atoms.  x CO2 molecules The number of oxygen atoms  2 x 3.01 x 1022  x O atoms Higher Grade Chemistry

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Calculate the number of sodium ions in 1.00g of sodium carbonate. The elementary particles  (Na+)2CO32- formula units 1 mole  x 1023 (Na+)2CO32- formula units 106g  x 1023 (Na+)2CO32- formula units So g  1.00/106 x 6.02 x (Na+)2CO32- formula units  x (Na+)2CO32- formula units The number of Na+ ions  2 x 5.68 x 1021  x 1022 Na+ ions 4. Calculate the number of protons in 0.1g of nitrogen gas? The elementary particles  N2 molecules. 1 mole  x N2 molecules 28 g  x N2 molecules So g  0.1/28 x 6.02 x C atoms.  x N2 molecules The number of N atoms  2 x 2.15 x 1022 The number of protons  7 x 2 x 2.15 x 1022  x 1023. Higher Grade Chemistry

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5. A sample of the gas dinitrogen tetroxide, N2O4, contained x 1022oxygen atoms. What mass of dinitrogen tetroxide was present? The elementary particles  N2O4 molecules 1 mole  x N2O4 molecules 1 mole  x x O atoms  x O atoms So x O atoms  mol of N2O4 2.408 x 1022 2.408 x 1024  mol 1 mole of N2O4  g So mole  g Higher Grade Chemistry