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Designing and Leading Teams Creating synergy. Groups versus Teams What are the features of groups versus teams? How are they different.

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Presentation on theme: "Designing and Leading Teams Creating synergy. Groups versus Teams What are the features of groups versus teams? How are they different."— Presentation transcript:

1 Designing and Leading Teams Creating synergy

2 Groups versus Teams What are the features of groups versus teams? How are they different

3 Why Teams? Outperform individuals when tasks require –Multiple skills –Judgment –Experience Better utilization of employee talents More flexible and responsive Facilitate employee participation Increase employee motivation Social benefits Empowerment

4 Teams Are Best When: Work requires different knowledge, skills, abilities High interdependent work Sufficient time available to organize & structure team Reward structure & culture support teams Need to build commitment to course of action Issues require refinement High need for innovation & cooperation Members can be trusted Individuals desire a team experience

5 Types of Teams Quality Teams Quality Circles Problem Solving Work Groups Cross-FunctionalSelf-DirectedTransnationalVirtual Office of the President

6 Basic Issues Norms of behaviour Group cohesion Social loafing Loss of individuality Process losses

7 Team Effectiveness Model Task characteristics Team size Team composition Training Team structure Team Design Achieve organizational goals Achieve organizational goals Satisfy member needs Satisfy member needs Team learning Team learning Outsider satisfaction Outsider satisfaction TeamEffectiveness Team developmentTeam development Team normsTeam norms Team rolesTeam roles Team cohesivenessTeam cohesiveness Decision makingDecision making Other issuesOther issues Team Processes Organizational and Team Environment Reward systems Reward systems Communication systems Communication systems Physical space Physical space Organizational structure Organizational structure Organizational leadership Organizational leadership Common PurposeCommon Purpose TrustTrust

8 Organizational and Team Environment Reward systems –Team focused. –Individual rewards may be used if team is also rewarded for individual success –Individuals can be assessed on their contribution to team results, team functioning and personal effectiveness Communication systems –Open, simple, encourage face-to-face, watch for information overload

9 Organizational and Team Environment Physical Space –Should facilitate communication, members perceptions of being a team, and the teams ability to complete the work Organizational structure and systems –Must be supportive. –Generally better with fewer management layers and teams are given autonomy and responsibility –Individual and joint accountability

10 Organizational and Team Environment Organizational leadership –Support from top management. –Team leaders act as facilitators, coaches & enablers Common Purpose –Team committed to common purpose and clearly identified goals

11 Organizational and Team Environment Trust –A key ingredient in teamwork –Leaders have to invest in trust Building trust –Communication – open, candid, truthful –Support – available and approachable –Respect – delegate, actively listen –Fairness – be impartial to all –Predictability – be consistent, keep promises –Competence – business sense, technical ability, professionalism

12 Team Design Elements Task characteristics –Better when tasks are clear, easy to implement –Task interdependence –Share common inputs, processes, or outcomes Team size –Smaller teams are better, 12 or less –But large enough to accomplish task

13 Team Design Elements Team composition –Members motivated/competent to perform task in a team environment –Team diversity better for complex tasks or where multiple views are needed Training –Technical ability –Problem solving and decision making –Interpersonal relations

14 Team Design Elements Team structure –Goals & objectives –Operating guidelines –Performance measures –Roles

15 Team Processes Team development –Teams go through stages before becoming proficient –Characteristics of a mature group –Conflict can improve performance Team roles –Two types of roles are required in successful teams – task and maintenance

16 Team Processes (roles) Task Functions –Initiating activities –Seeking/giving info –Elaborating concepts –Coordinating activities –Summarizing ideas –Testing ideas –Evaluating effectiveness –Diagnosing problems Maintenance Functions –Supporting others –Following others lead –Gatekeeping communication –Setting standards –Expressing member feelings –Testing group decisions –Consensus testing –Harmonizing conflict –Reducing tension

17 Team Processes Norms –Informal rules that regulate behaviour –Team norms are more powerful than management requirements –Managing norms Introduce functional norms on creation Select the right people Discuss counterproductive norms Create rewards that counter poor norms Disband the team

18 Team Processes Team cohesiveness –The desire to remain on the team –Functional norms & high cohesiveness equals high performance Influencing team cohesiveness –Member similarity –Teams size –Member interaction –Somewhat difficult entry –Team success –External competition & challenges

19 Team Processes Decision making –Rational model –Problems with the rational model –Implicit favourite model –Political model –Garbage can model –Satisficing –Groupthink –Group polarization –Escalation of commitment

20 Team Processes Other Issues –Communication –Influence –Conflict –Atmosphere –Emotional issues

21 Quality Circles Voluntary small (natural work) groups of employees, not directed by management, who meet regularly on organization time to identify, investigate and make recommendations to management on improving quality and related issues. Quality circles are a quality control technique and not intended to improve other work aspects Estimates are that quality circles have failed in 60% of the organizations that have tried them Quality circles tend to be appended to the hierarchy

22 Implementing Quality Circles Get management commitment Assess organization readiness Select program objectives Prepare & train middle managers and supervisors Select and train facilitators Inform employees and ask for volunteers Train circle leaders Train participants Set goals and boundaries Give circles time to establish roles Recognize and implement recommendations Evaluate the program

23 Problem Solving Work Groups Mandatory groups of employees, directed by line management, operating as an integral part of running the organization, involving all employees in problem solving activities, that provides for the creation of short-term task forces to address cross-functional issues –All employees are in teams –The team leader is the supervisor –All employees receive problem solving and interpersonal skills training –Team leaders receive team building and leadership training

24 Problem Solving Work Groups Objectives of Team Meetings –To share information and ideas –To monitor performance and provide feedback –To recognize and reinforce good performance –To get everyones input and ideas for improving performance –To establish accountability for action

25 Problem Solving Work Groups Managerial & supervisor roles –Set goals, provide structure & information, facilitate meetings, teach, coach, and guide Employees roles –Inquire, learn, participate in problem solving and decision making Team roles –Responsible for performance –Responsible for their own behaviour –Identify, analysis and develop action plans to solve problems, and monitor results

26 Virtual Teams Need several communication channels Operate better with structured tasks Need to be smaller than conventional teams Members must be skilled in communication through information technology Members may need cross-cultural awareness and knowledge Face-to-face interaction needed for development and cohesiveness

27 Self-Directed/Managed Teams Based on socio-technical systems theory –Primary work Unit –Collective self-regulation –Control key variables –Joint optimization

28 Self-Directed Work Teams Natural or cross functional work groups organized around work processes, that complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and that have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks Attributes –Complete entire piece of work –Assign tasks to members –Control work inputs, flow and output –Are responsible for correcting problems –Receive team feedback and rewards

29 Self-Directed Work Team Issues Boundaries –Specify area, identify personnel and tasks, establish limits Autonomy –For work decisions and personnel Training –Task, problem solving, and interpersonal Pay systems –Team-based performance systems, salary and bonus or pay-for-skill

30 Self-Directed Work Team Issues Physical facilities –Layout and work flow, meeting space In existing facilities –Some managers, supervisors and employees dont fit In new facilities –Finding the right employees Union –Unions are not an impediment if the relationship is good and they are involved Three common problems –Resistance from lower and middle management –Lack of training –Lack of top management support

31 Problems With Teams Teams are not always the answer Teams take time to develop and maintain Teams require the right environment to flourish People may exert less effort in teams –Can be countered by: Smaller teams Specialized tasks Measure individual performance Increase job enrichment Select motivated employees Loss of Individuality

32 Team Building Role definition –Members describe their role perceptions and expectations of other members –Members work to a common model of roles Interpersonal processes –Building openness, trust and common understandings through dialogue –Wilderness challenges and the like are used by many organizations for this

33 Team Building Goal setting –Establishing team goals and feedback mechanisms Problem solving –Examines task related decision making and ways to make it more effective

34 Readings Factors affecting successful implementation of high performance teams New rules for team building Strategic guide for building effective teams Virtual teams Top ten reasons teams become dysfunctional Why do employees resist teams?

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