2-3 ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR AND FOUNDATION COMPETENCIES Self competency Communication competency Diversity competency Across culture competency Teams competency Change competency
2-4 Communication 15
2-5 Software Testing Help
2-6 An Active Listener, An Effective Presenter, A Quick Thinker. A Win-Win Negotiator. WHAT MAKES A GOOD COMMUNICATOR? Software Testing Help
2-7 Improved Stakeholder response Enhanced Professional Image Quicker problem solving Effective Stronger Decision Making IncreasedProductivity SteadierWorkflow Stronger Business Relation Clear Promotional Material
2-8 Usuage of Business Channel Sending Receiving
PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION Software Testing Help
2-10 Source: Why to communicate? What to communicate? Usefulness of the communication. Accuracy of the Information to be communicated. PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…) Encoding: The process of transferring the information you want to communicate into a form that can be sent and correctly decoded at the other end. Ability to convey the information. Eliminate sources of confusion. For e.g. cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information. Knowing your audience.
2-11 Written Communication Channels –Letters, – s, –Memos, –Reports. Verbal Communication Channels –Face-To-Face meetings, –Telephones, –Video Conferencing. PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…) Software Testing Help
2-12 Strengths and Weaknesses Verbal Communication: Strength- Role of Body Language. Weakness- Not possible to give long list of directions Written Communication : Strength- A proof of a communication Weakness- Written words does not show a persons actual feelings. PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…)
2-13 EFFECTIVE DECODING: –Listen actively, –Reading information carefully, –Avoid Confusion, –Ask question for better understanding. PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…) The audience or individuals to whom we are sending the information. THE INFLUENCE FOR RECEIVER: The prior knowledge can influence the receivers understanding of the message. Blockages in the receivers mind. The surrounding disturbances.
2-14 Listening Skills Look beyond the speaker styleLook beyond the speaker style Fight DistractionFight Distraction Provide feedbackProvide feedback Listen ActivelyListen Actively Improving Non-Verbal CommunicationImproving Non-Verbal Communication Facial Expression, Gesture and Posture, Vocal Characteristics, Personal Appearance, Touching Behavior, Use of Time and SpaceFacial Expression, Gesture and Posture, Vocal Characteristics, Personal Appearance, Touching Behavior, Use of Time and Space
2-15 FEEDBACK: Feedback can be: Verbal Reactions and Non-Verbal Reactions. Positive feedback and Negative feedback. PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…)
2-16 Constructive Feedback Focus on particular behavior Keep feedback impersonal Use I Statement Keep feedback Goal Oriented Make Feedback Well timed Ensure Understanding
2-17 Contd.. Contd.. Intentional-Unintentional Communication The arc of distortion is the gap between what we intend to communicate and what is actually received Effective feedback should (1)be clear and understandable, (2)come from a trusted person, and (3)be as immediate as possible.
2-18 WHAT DID WE LEARN? Only verbal communication can create chaos while it reaches the last person. Every persons thought process influences the individual understanding. So be an active listener......
2-19 Few tips towards Active Listening: 1.Understand your own communication style. 2.Be an active listener. 3.Use normal communication. 4.Give Feedback ACTIVE LISTENING Software Testing Help
Understand your own communication style: High level of self-awareness to creating good & long lasting impression on others. Understand how others perceive you. Avoid being CHAMELEON by changing with every personality you meet. Make others comfortable by selecting appropriate behavior that suits your personality while listening. (Ideally nodding your head). ACTIVE LISTENING…(cntd…) Software Testing Help
Be An Active Listener: People 100 to 175 WPM but can listen 300 WPM. One part of human mind pays attention, so it is easy to go into mind drift. Listen with a purpose. Purpose can be to gain information, obtain directions, understand others, solve problems, share interest, see how another person feels, show support, etc. If it is difficult to concentrate then repeat the speakers words in your mind. ACTIVE LISTENING…(cntd…)
Give Feedback Remember that what someone says and what we hear can be amazingly different. Repeat back or summarize to ensure that you understand. Restate what you think you heard and ask, "Have I understood you correctly?" ACTIVE LISTENING…(cntd…)
2-23 Some major areas of nonverbal behaviors to explore are: Eye contact Facial expressions Gestures Posture and body orientation Proximity Paralinguistic Humor SIX WAYS OF USING NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS EFFECTIVELY Meaning in next slide
2-24 SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…) EYE CONTACT: Eye is an direct and most expressive part of our body. Different ways of Eye Contact –Direct Eye Contact: (Shows confidence) –Looking downwards (Listening carefully or Guilty) –Single raised eyebrow (Doubting) –Both raised eyebrows (Admiring) –Bent eyebrows (Sudden focus) –Tears coming out (Emotional either happy or hurt) ………and many more time for exercise
2-25 FACIAL EXPRESSION: Smile covers the most part of facial expression: Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits: –Happiness –Friendliness –Warmth –Liking –Affiliation SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
2-26 GESTURES : If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring, stiff and unanimated. A lively and animated teaching style captures students' attention, makes the material more interesting, facilitates learning and provides a bit of entertainment. Head nods, a form of gestures, communicate positive reinforcement to students and indicate that you are listening. SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
2-27 POSTURE AND BODY ORIENTATION: You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk, talk, stand and sit. Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates to students that you are approachable, receptive and friendly. Furthermore, interpersonal closeness results when you and your students face each other. Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; it communicates disinterest to your class. SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
2-28 PROXIMITY: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with audience. You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading young audiences space. Some of these are: –Rocking, –Leg swinging, –Tapping, –Gaze aversion To counteract this, move around the classroom to increase interaction with your students. Increasing proximity enables you to make better eye contact and increases the opportunities for students to speak. SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)
2-29 SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…) Paralinguistic : This facet of nonverbal communication includes such vocal elements as: - Tone - Pitch - Rhythm - Timbre - Loudness - Inflection (Modulation)
2-30 FEW FACTS - You have over 630 muscles in your body. - Eye muscles are the busiest muscles in the body. Scientists estimate they may move more than 100,000 times a day. - You have over 30 muscles in your face to help you smile or frown. It takes 17 muscles to smile and 43 to frown. SO SMILE EVERYTIME YOU SEE SOMEONE. - The strongest muscle in your body is your tongue. USE IT EFFECTIVELY. - It takes the interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech.
2-31 Presentation Skills while appearing for an interview. –Your Dressing sense (Males & Females), –Documents needed to be carried, –Your body language (while standing, while sitting, while walking), –Your attitude (Soberness, Soft words, avoid western accent), –Your Confidence (while talking, body movements, aggression, etc). EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION SKILLS
2-32 Dangers of Ineffective Communication – Managers spend most of their time communicating so both they and the subordinates must be effective communicators. To be effective: – Select an appropriate medium for each message. –There is no one best medium. Consider information richness: the amount of information a medium can carry. –Medium with high richness can carry much information to aid understanding. Is there a need for a paper/electronic trail to provide documentation?
2-33 Communication Skills for Managers as Senders u Send clear and complete messages. u Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands. u Select a medium appropriate for the message AND monitored by the receiver. u Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other workers. u Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the message. u Provide accurate information to avoid rumors.
2-34 Communication Skills for Managers as Receivers Pay Attention to what is sent as a message. Be a good listener: dont interrupt. –Ask questions to clarify your understanding. Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels. Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently. –Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication. –This is particularly true across cultures. –Managers should expect and plan for this.
2-35 Organization Communication Networks Organization chart depicts formal reporting channels. Communication is informal and flows around issues, goals, and projects. Vertical Communication: goes up and down the corporate hierarchy. Horizontal Communication: between employees of the same level.Informal communications can span levels and departments. Grapevine: informal network carrying unofficial information through the firm.
2-36 Organizational Communications Network Figure 15.4 Formal Communication Informal Communication
2-37 Communication Networks in Groups & Teams Wheel Network Circle Network Chain Network All Channel Network Figure 15.3
2-38 Barriers to Communication Intrapersonal factor Interpersonal factor Organizational factor Technological factor ** Ineffective communication
2-39 Intrapersonal Communication Elements within the individuals personality which act as barrier in receiving, analyzing, interpreting Selective perception : People have tendency to see and hear what they are emotionally prepared to see and hear. Seek fav message and ignore unpleasant ones
2-40 Individual indifferences: Differ in their ability to develop and apply basic comm. Some are capable of expressing themselves, but cannot write clear and concise mess. Effective listener but poor speaker Emotions: A state of a person/manager at the time of sending or receiving the messages has a profound impact.
2-41 Frame of reference: People often perceive the same things differently but assume that other person perceive it the same way. Preconceived idea: Interpretation of mess is influenced by receivers preconceived opinion about the content of the messages.
2-42 Interpersonal Factor 2 individual comm in org Climate : Lack of climate can easily lead to a restricted flow of comm. Relationship b/w superior and subordinate. Lack of climate leads to restricted flow of comm, games of manipulation, distrust, antagonism. Trust : transaction b/w sender and receiver and have reciprocal effect. Its a major characteristic. Eg lack of trust b/w superior and subordinate make comm ineffective
2-43 Credibility : Honesty, Expertise, Dynamism, open-mindness, intention, general reputation. Sender-receiver dissimilarity: The accuracy of comm b/w two communicators is directly related to the extent to which they perceive themselves to be similar
2-44 Interpersonal sensitivity: Messages communicated in appropriate manner may not be able to motivate receiver. Selective listening: People have a tendency to hear what they want to hear and tune out what they dont want to hear. Semantic Problem: Words have different meanings for different people and this leads to problem in understanding comm.
2-45 ORGANISATIONAL FACTOR Status: The person s status in an org depends largely upon the prestige associated with the position occupied. Hierarchical Transmission: Although the transfer of info through an org chain of command is necessary, it does give rise to numerous comm difficulties.
2-46 Group Size : Interpersonal comm becomes increasingly difficult as the size of the work group increase. Spatial Constraints: The more the distance b/w 2 empl, the lesser will be the frequency of interaction and more likely that they will encounter problems of mutual coordination due to miscomm.
2-47 TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR Some elements passed for Eff Com Language and meaning: A major determinant of comm accuracy is the extent to which comm assign similar meaning. Eg live (adjective and verb), to, two, too or here and hear Non verbal ques : Body language Channel Effectiveness: : Written, Oral,
2-48 Overcoming Barrier to Comm Set the goal of comm in advance Use proper language Improves sender credibility Encourage feedback Develop a trusting climate Selecting appropriate channel Listening skills
2-49 Cross culture communication DIVERSITY COMPETENCY
2-50 Diversity Diversity is defined as mutual acceptance and value placed on differences among people with respect to age, class, ethnicity, physical and mental ability, race, spiritual practice, and other human attributes.
2-51 Inter-culture Communication Allows the transfer of information between people whose culture background lead them to interpret verbal and non verbal signals differently To be successful in global marketplace culture, language barrier must be minimised. GOING GLOBAL HAS ITS BARRIER -Changing Individual Behavior – 69% - Culture difference – 65% - Business Practice difference – 52% -Accounting and Tax difference – 36%
2-52 Culture Diversity Workforce is increasingly made up of people who differ in race, age, culture, family structure, religion, education background and contributes to importance of inter-culture communication. It affects how business messages are conceived, planned, sent, received, and interpreted in the workplace. Be senstitive to culture difference as you communicate with people in the world.
2-53Culture A shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations and norms of behavious. Its important to treat people the expect way they expect to be treated How to improve Interculture senstivity -Culture Contextual Difference - Legal and Ethical Difference -Social Difference -Non Verbal Difference
2-54 Low Context Vs High Context Low Context Culture which rely heavily on explicit verbal communication Workers relay on detailed background information Information is centralized and controlled Business and Social relationship are discrete High Context Culture rely on implicit non verbal action and environmental setting to convey meaning Dont want detail information Information is shared with everyone Business and social relationship overlap
2-55 Low Context Vs High Context Objective data are valued over subjective relationships Competencies is valued as much as position and status. Meetings have fixed agenda and plenty of advance notice Subjective relationships are valued over obj data Position and status are valued much more than competences Meetings are often called at short notice and key people always accept. German Scandi- navian North America EnglishFrenchItalianSpanishMexicanGreekArabChinese Japan- ese Lower Context CultureHigh Context Culture
2-56 Legal and Ethical difference Lower context culture tends to value written agreement and interpret laws strictly High context culture view laws as being more flexible Keep your messages ethical by - Actively seeking Mutual ground -Send and receive messages without judgment -- Send message that are honest -Show respect for culture difference
2-57 Cultural Difference between Japanese and American Individual lifestyles American A Culture of self-expression Japanese A Culture of Self restrain Cultural Background Clear expression of Joy and sorrow Ambiguous of joy and sorrow Reticence Unequivocal expression of Yes/No. Equivocal expression of Yes/No. Modesty Strong self-assertionWeak self-assertion Reserve Strong Personality Weak Personality Punctiliousness Excellent Negotiating skillPoor Negotiating skill Politeness Priority of self-interest Priority of harmony with others Obligation
2-58 Cultural Difference between Japanese and American Social Life American Society Japanese Society Dignity of IndividualsIn the same boat concept Dignity of individualsHuman relation oriented Individuals work ethicDependence on the group Great individuals freedomLack of individuals freedom Respect for rulesLow regard for rules A open and transparent society A close society, lacking in transparency Multi-cultural societyMono-cultural society A society excelling in creativity and versatility An orderly and uniform society Individual decisions over consensus Dependence on consensus A society which pursue that ideal A society which pursue harmony with reality
2-59 Cultural Differences between Japanese and American Business American Business Game concept: Business is a game in pursuit of profits under the rules of laws and contracts Efficiency-oriented and approximate accuracy simplicity, clarity, and quickness Quantity-oriented Short-term performance evaluation Easy layoffs, dismissals of employees, and selling of businesses Japanese Business Mutual trust-oriented business: business is based on trusting relationship among people rather than the rules of game Highly precision-oriented and perfectionism-high dependency on human awareness Quality-oriented Mid-to-long term evaluations Job security SOURCE : Norihiko Shimizu, Todays Taboos may be gone tomorrow, Tokyo Business, February 1995, p.51.
2-60 Cultural Differences between Japanese and American Business American Business Japanese Business Top down management Low mutual dependence between employers and employees Control of business by stockholders and the management Management by force Heavy dependence on machinery and technology, vs. Light dependence on human resources Excellent software-based technology development Heavy dependence on human resources bottom- up management and teamwork High mutual dependence between employers and employees Joint management of business by Employees and Employees Management by motivation Heavy dependence on human resources Inadequate software development ability Strong loyalty and fewer incentives Limited loyalty and incentive-oriented work ethics SOURCE : Norihiko Shimizu, Todays Taboos may be gone tomorrow, Tokyo Business, February 1995, p.51.
2-61 Improving Comm Across Culture -Assume differences until similarity is proved - Take Responsibility of communication -Withhold Judgment -Show Respect -Empathize -Tolerate ambiguity -Look beyond the Superficial -Be patient and persistent -Recognise your own culture biases -Be flexible -Emphasise common ground -Send Clear Message -Deal with the individual -Learn when to be direct
2-62 Dealing with Diverse Work team Contact – A good manager in an org attempts to create contact with the team members Super-ordinate goal – This relates to the use of super ordinate goals, which are the goals larger than self Blending of categories and function – Work teams are often structure in such a way that roles within the team are correlated with identity group.
2-63 Evolution of Group in team Supportive org condition – an org needs to provide a conducive (fav) environment to help a group evolve into a team Skilled Team member – The team success depends upon the complementary skills possessed by the individual member
2-64 I M NOT OK – U R OK Get away from me Leading to the feeling of Dependency, Inadequacy, Avoidance Feel inferior, lack of confidnc I M not Ok U R Not OK Get nowhere with Leading to the feeling Self distrust, Distrust for others, Inability to coupe up, Needing external help I M OK – U R Not OK Get Rid of Leading to feeing of Controlling others and discounting others Believes others are worthless I M Ok - U R OK Get along With Leading to high trust Interdependence, Self confidence, Resoursefulness
2-65 TA Analysis Transactional analysis: TA is a method that helps two persons communicate and behave on the job in a mature manner by understanding each others motives Comprises of 3 ego state –Parent Ego state (mimic parents, teacher) –Adult ego state (problem solving analysis) –Child ego state (beh, thought replayed from childhood)
2-66 Life positions – TA theory Thomas Harris – 1969 – way of understanding behaviour Conceptual framework for understanding people in term of whether they see themselves and others either OK or Not OK OK means feeling of power, capability, wellbeing, and personal worth. Not Ok- opp of Ok, feeling of weakness, incompetence, helplessness, worthless
2-67 Transactional Analysis Three Basic Concepts: Parent, Adult and Child Transactions: Among P, A and C P A C There are 9 possible transactions
2-69 The Three Ego States Parent- Do as I do Child- What shall I do? Adult- I will be frank with you
2-70 We Are Child Adult Parent in our Transactions. Biological conditions are irrelevant to these ego states. We shift from one ego state to another in transactions.
2-71 Shift in Ego States Parent- Why dont you prepare a time- table? Child- What is the point when one cannot follow it? – Becomes an Adult.
2-72 Transactional Stimulus and Response The initiator of the transaction is called the transactional stimulus. The response of the respondent is called transactional response.
2-73 Types of Transactions Complementary Transactions: Appropriate and Expected Transactions indicating healthy human relationships. Communication takes place when transactions are complementary. A stimulus invites a response; this response becomes a stimulus inviting further response and so on.
2-74 Types of Transactions (Con..) Crossed Transaction: This causes most difficulties in social situations. May be, you should improve your teaching. You always find fault with me whatever I do Parent-Child interaction.
2-75 TEAM COMPETENCY
2-76 Effective Team Effective team of an individual in an org have shared purpose, do collective work, discuss, decide, and do, believe in shared leadership, have problem solving approach, practice individual and mutual accountability and directly evaluate work.
2-77 Diff in Work Group and Teams WORK GROUP Purpose is same as org Individual effort Discuss, Decide, Delegate Single leader Accountability is individual Indirect evaluation - financial TEAM Specific purpose Collective effort Discuss, decide, do Shared A/ctability is mutual Direct evaluation- collective effort
2-78 Importance in Individualistic Individual Roles AggressingBlocking Recognition seeking Self-confessing Acting the playboy Dominating Help seeking Special-interest pleading
2-79 Group Dynamics Group Task Roles Initiating-contributing Information seeking Opinion seeking Information giving Opinion giving ElaboratingCoordinatingOrientingEvaluatingEnergizing Assisting on procedure Recording
2-80 FIVE WAY OF DEVELOPING TEAM StageThemeTask outcomeRelationship outcome 1AwarenessCommitmentAcceptance 2ConflictClarificationBelonging 3CooperationInvolvementSupport 4ProductivityAchievementPride 5SeparationRecognitionSatisfaction
2-81 Roles of Team Creator – Initiates Ideas Promoter – Champions ideas Assessors – Offers insightful analysis of option Organizer – Provide Structure Producer – Provide direction and follow Controller – Examine details and enforce Maintainer - Fight external battle Adviser – Encourage search for more info Linker – Coordinate and integrates
2-82 Self-Disclosure The Johari Window –The Johari window classifies an individuals relating to others according to four quadrants (or windowpanes). Quadrant 1, the open quadrant Quadrant 2, the blind quadrant Quadrant 3, the hidden area Quadrant 4, the area of the unknown
2-83 Self-Disclosure The Johari Window –Luft advocates changing the shape of the window so that quadrant 1 enlarges while all the others become smaller.
2-86 The Johari Window is a communication model that can be used to improve understanding between individuals. Developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham (the word Johari comes from Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham).
2-87 Two key ideas behind the tool: Individuals can build trust between themselves by disclosing information about themselves. They can learn about themselves and come to terms with personal issues with the help of feedback from others.
2-88 Using the Johari model, each person is represented by their own four-quadrant, or four-pane, window. Each of these contains and represents personal information - feelings, motivation - about the person, and shows whether the information is known or not known by themselves or other people.
2-90 The four quadrants are: Quadrant 1: Open Area What is known by the person about him/herself and is also known by others.
2-91 Quadrant 2: Blind Area, or "Blind Spot" What is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know. This can be simple information, or can involve deep issues (for example, feelings of inadequacy, incompetence, unworthiness, rejection) which are difficult for individuals to face directly, and yet can be seen by others.
2-92 Quadrant 3: Hidden or Avoided Area What the person knows about him/herself that others do not.
2-93 Quadrant 4: Unknown Area What is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others.
2-95 Key Points: In most cases, the aim in groups should be to develop the Open Area for every person. Working in this area with others usually allows for enhanced individual and team effectiveness and productivity. The Open Area is the space where good communications and cooperation occur, free from confusion, conflict and misunderstanding. Self-disclosure is the process by which people expand the Open Area vertically. Feedback is the process by which people expand this area horizontally. By encouraging healthy self-disclosure and sensitive feedback, you can build a stronger and more effective team.