10PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…) Source:Why to communicate?What to communicate?Usefulness of the communication.Accuracy of the Information to be communicated.Encoding:The process of transferring the information you want to communicate into a form that can be sent and correctly decoded at the other end.Ability to convey the information.Eliminate sources of confusion. For e.g. cultural issues, mistaken assumptions, and missing information.Knowing your audience.
11PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…) Verbal Communication ChannelsFace-To-Face meetings,Telephones,Video Conferencing.Written Communication ChannelsLetters,s,Memos,Reports.Software Testing Help
12PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…) Strengths and WeaknessesVerbal Communication:Strength - Role of Body Language.Weakness - Not possible to give long list of directionsWritten Communication:Strength - A proof of a communicationWeakness - Written words does not show a person’s actual feelings.
13PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…) EFFECTIVE DECODING:Listen actively,Reading information carefully,Avoid Confusion,Ask question for better understanding.The audience or individuals to whom we are sending the information.THE INFLUENCE FOR RECEIVER:The prior knowledge can influence the receiver’s understanding of the message.Blockages in the receiver’s mind.The surrounding disturbances.
14Listening Skills Look beyond the speaker style Fight Distraction Provide feedbackListen ActivelyImproving Non-Verbal CommunicationFacial Expression, Gesture and Posture, Vocal Characteristics, Personal Appearance, Touching Behavior, Use of Time and Space
15PROCESS OF COMM…(cntd…) FEEDBACK:Feedback can be:Verbal Reactions and Non-Verbal Reactions.Positive feedback and Negative feedback.
16Constructive Feedback Focus on particular behaviorKeep feedback impersonalUse “I” StatementKeep feedback Goal OrientedMake Feedback Well timedEnsure Understanding
17Contd.. Intentional-Unintentional Communication The arc of distortion is the gap between what we intend to communicate and what is actually receivedEffective feedback shouldbe clear and understandable,come from a trusted person, andbe as immediate as possible.
18WHAT DID WE LEARN?Only verbal communication can create chaos while it reaches the last person.Every person’s thought process influences the individual understanding.So be an active listener......
19Few tips towards Active Listening: Understand your own communication style.Be an active listener.Use normal communication.Give FeedbackSoftware Testing Help
20ACTIVE LISTENING…(cntd…) 1. Understand your own communication style:High level of self-awareness to creating good & long lasting impression on others.Understand how others perceive you.Avoid being CHAMELEON by changing with every personality you meet.Make others comfortable by selecting appropriate behavior that suits your personality while listening. (Ideally nodding your head).Software Testing Help
21ACTIVE LISTENING…(cntd…) 2. Be An Active Listener:People 100 to 175 WPM but can listen 300 WPM.One part of human mind pays attention, so it is easy to go into mind drift.Listen with a purpose.Purpose can be to gain information, obtain directions, understand others, solve problems, share interest, see how another person feels, show support, etc.If it is difficult to concentrate then repeat the speakers words in your mind.
22ACTIVE LISTENING…(cntd…) 4. Give FeedbackRemember that what someone says and what we hear can be amazingly different.Repeat back or summarize to ensure that you understand.Restate what you think you heard and ask, "Have I understood you correctly?"
23SIX WAYS OF USING NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS EFFECTIVELY Some major areas of nonverbal behaviors to explore are:Eye contactFacial expressionsGesturesPosture and body orientationProximityParalinguisticHumorMeaning in next slide
24EYE CONTACT: SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…) Eye is an direct and most expressive part of our body.Different ways of Eye ContactDirect Eye Contact: (Shows confidence)Looking downwards (Listening carefully or Guilty)Single raised eyebrow (Doubting)Both raised eyebrows (Admiring)Bent eyebrows (Sudden focus)Tears coming out (Emotional either happy or hurt)………and many more time for exercise
25SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…) FACIAL EXPRESSION: Smile covers the most part of facial expression:Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits:HappinessFriendlinessWarmthLikingAffiliation
26SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…) GESTURES: If you fail to gesture while speaking, you may be perceived as boring, stiff and unanimated.A lively and animated teaching style captures students' attention, makes the material more interesting, facilitates learning and provides a bit of entertainment.Head nods, a form of gestures, communicate positive reinforcement to students and indicate that you are listening.
27POSTURE AND BODY ORIENTATION: SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)POSTURE AND BODY ORIENTATION:You communicate numerous messages by the way you walk, talk, stand and sit.Standing erect, but not rigid, and leaning slightly forward communicates to students that you are approachable, receptive and friendly.Furthermore, interpersonal closeness results when you and your students face each other.Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or ceiling should be avoided; it communicates disinterest to your class.
28SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…) PROXIMITY: Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with audience.You should look for signals of discomfort caused by invading young audience‘s space.Some of these are:Rocking,Leg swinging,Tapping,Gaze aversionTo counteract this, move around the classroom to increase interaction with your students. Increasing proximity enables you to make better eye contact and increases the opportunities for students to speak.
29SIX WAYS OF …(cntd…)Paralinguistic : This facet of nonverbal communication includes such vocal elements as: - Tone - Pitch - Rhythm - Timbre - Loudness - Inflection (Modulation)
30FEW FACTS- You have over 630 muscles in your body. - Eye muscles are the busiest muscles in the body. Scientists estimate they may move more than 100,000 times a day. - You have over 30 muscles in your face to help you smile or frown. It takes 17 muscles to smile and 43 to frown. SO SMILE EVERYTIME YOU SEE SOMEONE. - The strongest muscle in your body is your tongue. USE IT EFFECTIVELY. - It takes the interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech.
31EFFECTIVE PRESENTATION SKILLS Presentation Skills while appearing for an interview.Your Dressing sense (Males & Females),Documents needed to be carried,Your body language (while standing, while sitting, while walking),Your attitude (Soberness, Soft words, avoid western accent),Your Confidence (while talking, body movements, aggression, etc).
32Dangers of Ineffective Communication Managers spend most of their time communicating so both they and the subordinates must be effective communicators. To be effective:Select an appropriate medium for each message.There is no one “best” medium.Consider information richness: the amount of information a medium can carry.Medium with high richness can carry much information to aid understanding.Is there a need for a paper/electronic trail to provide documentation?
33Communication Skills for Managers as Senders Send clear and complete messages.Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands.Select a medium appropriate for the message AND monitored by the receiver.Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other workers.Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the message.Provide accurate information to avoid rumors.
34Communication Skills for Managers as Receivers Pay Attention to what is sent as a message.Be a good listener: don’t interrupt.Ask questions to clarify your understanding.Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels.Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently.Speed, tone, pausing all impact communication.This is particularly true across cultures.Managers should expect and plan for this.
35Organization Communication Networks Organization chart depicts formal reporting channels.Communication is informal and flows around issues, goals, and projects.Vertical Communication: goes up and down the corporate hierarchy.Horizontal Communication: between employees of the same level.Informal communications can span levels and departments.Grapevine: informal network carrying unofficial information through the firm.
37Communication Networks in Groups & Teams Wheel NetworkCircle NetworkChain NetworkAll Channel NetworkFigure 15.3
38Barriers to Communication Intrapersonal factorInterpersonal factorOrganizational factorTechnological factor** Ineffective communication
39Intrapersonal Communication Elements within the individual’s personality which act as barrier in receiving, analyzing, interpretingSelective perception : People have tendency to see and hear what they are emotionally prepared to see and hear. Seek fav message and ignore unpleasant ones
40Individual indifferences: Differ in their ability to develop and apply basic comm. Some are capable of expressing themselves, but cannot write clear and concise mess. Effective listener but poor speakerEmotions: A state of a person/manager at the time of sending or receiving the messages has a profound impact.
41Frame of reference: People often perceive the same things differently but assume that other person perceive it the same way.Preconceived idea: Interpretation of mess is influenced by receivers preconceived opinion about the content of the messages.
42Interpersonal Factor 2 individual comm in org Climate : Lack of climate can easily lead to a restricted flow of comm. Relationship b/w superior and subordinate. Lack of climate leads to restricted flow of comm, games of manipulation, distrust, antagonism.Trust : transaction b/w sender and receiver and have reciprocal effect. It’s a major characteristic. Eg lack of trust b/w superior and subordinate make comm ineffective
43Credibility : Honesty, Expertise, Dynamism, open-mindness, intention, general reputation. Sender-receiver dissimilarity: The accuracy of comm b/w two communicators is directly related to the extent to which they perceive themselves to be similar
44Interpersonal sensitivity: Messages communicated in appropriate manner may not be able to motivate receiver.Selective listening: People have a tendency to hear what they want to hear and tune out what they don’t want to hear.Semantic Problem: Words have different meanings for different people and this leads to problem in understanding comm.
45ORGANISATIONAL FACTOR Status: The person ‘s status in an org depends largely upon the prestige associated with the position occupied.Hierarchical Transmission: Although the transfer of info through an org chain of command is necessary, it does give rise to numerous comm difficulties.
46Group Size : Interpersonal comm becomes increasingly difficult as the size of the work group increase.Spatial Constraints: The more the distance b/w 2 empl, the lesser will be the frequency of interaction and more likely that they will encounter problems of mutual coordination due to miscomm.
47TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR Some elements passed for Eff Com Language and meaning: A major determinant of comm accuracy is the extent to which comm assign similar meaning. Eg live (adjective and verb), to, two, too or here and hearNon verbal ques : Body languageChannel Effectiveness: : Written, Oral,
48Overcoming Barrier to Comm Set the goal of comm in advanceUse proper languageImproves sender credibilityEncourage feedbackDevelop a trusting climateSelecting appropriate channelListening skills
49Cross culture communication DIVERSITY COMPETENCY
50DiversityDiversity is defined as mutual acceptance and value placed on differences among people with respect to age, class, ethnicity, physical and mental ability, race, spiritual practice, and other human attributes.
51Inter-culture Communication Allows the transfer of information between people whose culture background lead them to interpret verbal and non verbal signals differentlyTo be successful in global marketplace culture, language barrier must be minimised.GOING GLOBAL HAS ITS BARRIERChanging Individual Behavior – 69%Culture difference – 65%Business Practice difference – 52%Accounting and Tax difference – 36%
52Culture DiversityWorkforce is increasingly made up of people who differ in race, age, culture, family structure, religion, education background and contributes to importance of inter-culture communication.It affects how business messages are conceived, planned, sent, received, and interpreted in the workplace.Be senstitive to culture difference as you communicate with people in the world.
53CultureA shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations and norms of behavious.Its important to treat people the expect way they expect to be treatedHow to improve Interculture senstivityCulture Contextual DifferenceLegal and Ethical DifferenceSocial DifferenceNon Verbal Difference
54Low Context Vs High Context Low Context Culture which rely heavily on explicit verbal communicationWorkers relay on detailed background informationInformation is centralized and controlledBusiness and Social relationship are discreteHigh Context Culture rely on implicit non verbal action and environmental setting to convey meaningDon’t want detail informationInformation is shared with everyoneBusiness and social relationship overlap
55Low Context Vs High Context Objective data are valued over subjective relationshipsCompetencies is valued as much as position and status.Meetings have fixed agenda and plenty of advance noticeSubjective relationships are valued over obj dataPosition and status are valued much more than competencesMeetings are often called at short notice and key people always accept.GermanScandi-navianNorth AmericaEnglishFrenchItalianSpanishMexicanGreekArabChineseJapan- eseLower Context CultureHigh Context Culture
56Legal and Ethical difference Lower context culture tends to value written agreement and interpret laws strictlyHigh context culture view laws as being more flexibleKeep your messages ethical by- Actively seeking Mutual groundSend and receive messages without judgment- Send message that are honestShow respect for culture difference
57Clear expression of Joy and sorrow Ambiguous of joy and sorrow Cultural Difference between Japanese and American IndividuallifestylesAmericanA Culture of self-expressionJapaneseA Culture of Self restrainCulturalBackgroundClear expression of Joyand sorrowAmbiguous of joy and sorrowReticenceUnequivocal expressionof “Yes/No”.Equivocal expressionof “Yes/No”.ModestyStrong self-assertionWeak self-assertionReserveStrong PersonalityWeak PersonalityPunctiliousnessExcellent Negotiating skillPoor Negotiating skillPolitenessPriority of harmonywith othersPriority of self-interestObligation
58Cultural Difference between Japanese and American Social Life American SocietyJapanese SocietyDignity of Individuals“In the same boat” conceptDignity of individualsHuman relation orientedIndividuals work ethicDependence on the groupGreat individuals freedomLack of individuals freedomRespect for rulesLow regard for rulesA open and transparentA close society, lacking insocietytransparencyMulti-cultural societyMono-cultural societyA society excelling in creativityAn orderly and uniformand versatilitysocietyIndividual decisions over consensusDependence on consensusA society which pursue that idealA society which pursue harmonywith reality
59Cultural Differences between Japanese and American Business Japanese BusinessGame concept: Business is a game in pursuit of profits under the rules of laws and contractsMutual trust-oriented business: business is based on trusting relationship among people rather than the rules of gameHighly precision-oriented and perfectionism-high dependency on human awarenessEfficiency-oriented and approximate accuracy simplicity, clarity, and quicknessQuantity-orientedQuality-orientedShort-term performance evaluationMid-to-long term evaluationsEasy layoffs, dismissals of employees, and selling of businessesJob securitySOURCE : Norihiko Shimizu, “Today’s Taboos may be gone tomorrow,’ Tokyo Business, February 1995, p.51.
60Cultural Differences between Japanese and American Business Japanese BusinessTop down managementHeavy dependence on human resources bottom-up management and teamworkLow mutual dependence between employers and employeesHigh mutual dependence between employers and employeesControl of business by stockholders and the managementJoint management of business by Employees and EmployeesManagement by “force”Management by “motivation”Heavy dependence on machinery and technology, vs. Light dependence on human resourcesHeavy dependence on human resourcesLimited loyalty and incentive-oriented work ethicsStrong loyalty and fewer incentivesExcellent software-based technology developmentInadequate software development abilitySOURCE : Norihiko Shimizu, “Today’s Taboos may be gone tomorrow,’ Tokyo Business, February 1995, p.51.
61Improving Comm Across Culture Assume differences until similarity is provedTake Responsibility of communicationWithhold JudgmentShow RespectEmpathizeTolerate ambiguityLook beyond the SuperficialBe patient and persistentRecognise your own culture biasesBe flexibleEmphasise common groundSend Clear MessageDeal with the individualLearn when to be direct
62Dealing with Diverse Work team Contact – A good manager in an org attempts to create contact with the team membersSuper-ordinate goal – This relates to the use of super ordinate goals, which are the goals larger than selfBlending of categories and function – Work teams are often structure in such a way that roles within the team are correlated with identity group.
63Evolution of Group in team Supportive org condition – an org needs to provide a conducive (fav) environment to help a group evolve into a teamSkilled Team member – The team success depends upon the complementary skills possessed by the individual member
64Leading to the feeling of Dependency, Inadequacy, Avoidance I M NOT OK – U R OKGet away from meLeading to the feeling of Dependency, Inadequacy, AvoidanceFeel inferior, lack of confidncI M not Ok U R Not OKGet nowhere withLeading to the feelingSelf distrust, Distrust for others, Inability to coupe up, Needing external helpI M OK – U R Not OKGet Rid ofLeading to feeing of Controlling others and discounting othersBelieves others are worthlessI M Ok - U R OKGet along WithLeading to high trustInterdependence, Self confidence, Resoursefulness
65TA AnalysisTransactional analysis: TA is a method that helps two persons communicate and behave on the job in a mature manner by understanding each others motivesComprises of 3 ego stateParent Ego state (mimic parents, teacher)Adult ego state (problem solving analysis)Child ego state (beh, thought replayed from childhood)
66Life positions – TA theory Thomas Harris – 1969 – way of understanding behaviourConceptual framework for understanding people in term of whether they see themselves and others either OK or Not OKOK means feeling of power, capability, wellbeing, and personal worth.Not Ok- opp of Ok, feeling of weakness, incompetence, helplessness, worthless
67Transactional Analysis Three Basic Concepts: Parent, Adult and ChildTransactions: Among P, A and CP < -- > PA < -- > AC < -- > CThere are 9 possible transactionsEric Berne M.D. Games People Play, Penguin Books, 1964
69The Three Ego States Parent- “Do as I do” Child- “What shall I do?” Adult- “I will be frank with you”
70We Are Child Adult Parent in our Transactions. Biological conditions are irrelevant to these ego states.We shift from one ego state to another in transactions.
71Shift in Ego States Parent- “Why don’t you prepare a time-table?” Child- “What is the point when one cannot follow it?” – Becomes an Adult.
72Transactional Stimulus and Response The initiator of the transaction is called the transactional stimulus.The response of the respondent is called transactional response.
73Types of TransactionsComplementary Transactions: Appropriate and Expected Transactions indicating healthy human relationships.Communication takes place when transactions are complementary. A stimulus invites a response; this response becomes a stimulus inviting further response and so on.
74Types of Transactions (Con..) Crossed Transaction: This causes most difficulties in social situations.“May be, you should improve your teaching”.“You always find fault with me whatever I do” Parent-Child interaction.
76Effective TeamEffective team of an individual in an org have shared purpose , do collective work, discuss, decide, and do, believe in shared leadership, have problem solving approach, practice individual and mutual accountability and directly evaluate work.
77Diff in Work Group and Teams Purpose is same as orgIndividual effortDiscuss, Decide, DelegateSingle leaderAccountability is individualIndirect evaluation - financialTEAMSpecific purposeCollective effortDiscuss, decide, doSharedA/ctability is mutualDirect evaluation-collective effort
78Special-interest pleading Importance in IndividualisticIndividual RolesAggressingBlockingRecognition seekingSelf-confessingActing the playboyDominatingHelp seekingSpecial-interest pleading
79Initiating-contributing Assisting on procedure Group DynamicsGroup Task RolesInitiating-contributingInformation seekingOpinion seekingInformation givingOpinion givingElaboratingCoordinatingOrientingEvaluatingEnergizingAssisting on procedureRecording
80FIVE WAY OF DEVELOPING TEAM StageThemeTask outcomeRelationship outcome1AwarenessCommitmentAcceptance2ConflictClarificationBelonging3CooperationInvolvementSupport4ProductivityAchievementPride5SeparationRecognitionSatisfaction
81Roles of Team Creator – Initiates Ideas Promoter – Champions ideas Assessors – Offers insightful analysis of optionOrganizer – Provide StructureProducer – Provide direction and followController – Examine details and enforceMaintainer - Fight external battleAdviser – Encourage search for more infoLinker – Coordinate and integrates
82Self-Disclosure The Johari Window The Johari window classifies an individual’s relating to others according to four quadrants (or windowpanes).Quadrant 1, the open quadrantQuadrant 2, the blind quadrantQuadrant 3, the hidden areaQuadrant 4, the area of the unknown82
83Self-Disclosure The Johari Window Luft advocates changing the shape of the window so that quadrant 1 enlarges while all the others become smaller.83
86The Johari Window is a communication model that can be used to improve understanding between individuals.Developed by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham (the word “Johari” comes from Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham).
87Two key ideas behind the tool: Individuals can build trust between themselves by disclosing information about themselves.They can learn about themselves and come to terms with personal issues with the help of feedback from others.
88Using the Johari model, each person is represented by their own four-quadrant, or four-pane, window. Each of these contains and represents personal information - feelings, motivation - about the person, and shows whether the information is known or not known by themselves or other people.
90The four quadrants are: Quadrant 1: Open AreaWhat is known by the person about him/herself and is also known by others.
91Quadrant 2: Blind Area, or "Blind Spot" What is unknown by the person about him/herself but which others know. This can be simple information, or can involve deep issues (for example, feelings of inadequacy, incompetence, unworthiness, rejection) which are difficult for individuals to face directly, and yet can be seen by others.
92Quadrant 3: Hidden or Avoided Area What the person knows about him/herself that others do not.
93Quadrant 4: Unknown Area What is unknown by the person about him/herself and is also unknown by others.
95Key Points:In most cases, the aim in groups should be to develop the Open Area for every person.Working in this area with others usually allows for enhanced individual and team effectiveness and productivity. The Open Area is the ‘space’ where good communications and cooperation occur, free from confusion, conflict and misunderstanding.Self-disclosure is the process by which people expand the Open Area vertically. Feedback is the process by which people expand this area horizontally.By encouraging healthy self-disclosure and sensitive feedback, you can build a stronger and more effective team.
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