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Photosynthesis (chap 10) (this goes well with Cellular respiration)

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1 Photosynthesis (chap 10) (this goes well with Cellular respiration)

2 Autotrophs sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms Autotrophs are the producers of the biosphere, producing organic molecules from CO 2 and other inorganic molecules Almost all plants are photoautotrophs, using the energy of sunlight to make organic molecules from H 2 O and CO 2 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

3 Photosynthesis occurs in plants, algae, certain other protists, and some prokaryotes These organisms feed not only themselves but also most of the living world Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

4 Fig (a) Plants (c) Unicellular protist 10 µm 1.5 µm 40 µm (d) Cyanobacteria (e) Purple sulfur bacteria (b) Multicellular alga

5 Heterotrophs obtain their organic material from other organisms Heterotrophs are the consumers of the biosphere Almost all heterotrophs, including humans, depend on photoautotrophs for food and O 2 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

6 Concept 1: Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food Chloroplasts are structurally similar to and likely evolved from photosynthetic bacteria The structural organization of these cells allows for the chemical reactions of photosynthesis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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8 Chloroplasts: The Sites of Photosynthesis in Plants Leaves are the major locations of photosynthesis Their green color is from chlorophyll, the green pigment within chloroplasts Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll drives the synthesis of organic molecules in the chloroplast CO 2 enters and O 2 exits the leaf through microscopic pores called stomata Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

9 Chloroplasts are found mainly in cells of the mesophyll, the interior tissue of the leaf A typical mesophyll cell has 30–40 chloroplasts The chlorophyll is in the membranes of thylakoids (connected sacs in the chloroplast); thylakoids may be stacked in columns called grana Chloroplasts also contain stroma, a dense fluid Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

10 Fig Leaf cross section Vein Mesophyll Stomata CO 2 O2O2 Chloroplast Mesophyll cell Outer membrane Intermembrane space 5 µm Inner membrane Thylakoid space Thylakoid Granum Stroma 1 µm

11 Tracking Atoms Through Photosynthesis: Scientific Inquiry Photosynthesis can be summarized as the following equation: 6 CO H 2 O + Light energy  C 6 H 12 O O H 2 O Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Chloroplasts split H 2 O into hydrogen and oxygen, incorporating the electrons of hydrogen into sugar molecules

12 Reactants: Fig CO 2 Products: 12 H 2 O 6 O 2 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 Photosynthesis is a redox process in which H 2 O is oxidized and C O 2 is reduced

13 Light Fig H2OH2O Chloroplast Light Reactions NADP + P ADP i +

14 Light Fig H2OH2O Chloroplast Light Reactions NADP + P ADP i + ATP NADPH O2O2

15 Light Fig H2OH2O Chloroplast Light Reactions NADP + P ADP i + ATP NADPH O2O2 Calvin Cycle CO 2

16 Light Fig H2OH2O Chloroplast Light Reactions NADP + P ADP i + ATP NADPH O2O2 Calvin Cycle CO 2 [CH 2 O] (sugar)

17 The Nature of Sunlight Light is a form of electromagnetic energy, also called electromagnetic radiation Like other electromagnetic energy, light travels in rhythmic waves Wavelength is the distance between crests of waves Wavelength determines the type of electromagnetic energy Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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19 The electromagnetic spectrum is the entire range of electromagnetic energy, or radiation Visible light consists of wavelengths (including those that drive photosynthesis) that produce colors we can see Light also behaves as though it consists of discrete particles, called photons Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

20 UV Fig Visible light Infrared Micro- waves Radio waves X-rays Gamma rays 10 3 m 1 m (10 9 nm) 10 6 nm 10 3 nm 1 nm 10 –3 nm 10 –5 nm nm Longer wavelength Lower energyHigher energy Shorter wavelength

21 Fig Reflected light Absorbed light Light Chloroplast Transmitted light Granum

22 A spectrophotometer measures a pigment’s ability to absorb various wavelengths This machine sends light through pigments and measures the fraction of light transmitted at each wavelength Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

23 Fig Galvanometer Slit moves to pass light of selected wavelength White light Green light Blue light The low transmittance (high absorption) reading indicates that chlorophyll absorbs most blue light. The high transmittance (low absorption) reading indicates that chlorophyll absorbs very little green light. Refracting prism Photoelectric tube Chlorophyll solution TECHNIQUE

24 An absorption spectrum is a graph plotting a pigment’s light absorption versus wavelength The absorption spectrum of chlorophyll a suggests that violet-blue and red light work best for photosynthesis An action spectrum profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a process Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

25 Fig Wavelength of light (nm) (b) Action spectrum (a) Absorption spectra (c) Engelmann’s experiment Aerobic bacteria RESULTS Rate of photosynthesis (measured by O 2 release) Absorption of light by chloroplast pigments Filament of alga Chloro- phyll a Chlorophyll b Carotenoids

26 Chlorophyll a is the main photosynthetic pigment Accessory pigments, such as chlorophyll b, broaden the spectrum used for photosynthesis Accessory pigments called carotenoids absorb excessive light that would damage chlorophyll Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

27 Fig Porphyrin ring: light-absorbing “head” of molecule; note magnesium atom at center in chlorophyll a CH 3 Hydrocarbon tail: interacts with hydrophobic regions of proteins inside thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts; H atoms not shown CHO in chlorophyll b

28 Fig (a) Excitation of isolated chlorophyll molecule Heat Excited state (b) Fluorescence Photon Ground state Photon (fluorescence) Energy of electron e–e– Chlorophyll molecule

29 Fig THYLAKOID SPACE (INTERIOR OF THYLAKOID) STROMA e–e– Pigment molecules Photon Transfer of energy Special pair of chlorophyll a molecules Thylakoid membrane Photosystem Primary electron acceptor Reaction-center complex Light-harvesting complexes

30 There are two types of photosystems in the thylakoid membrane Photosystem II (PS II) functions first (the numbers reflect order of discovery) and is best at absorbing a wavelength of 680 nm The reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS II is called P680 Photosystem I (PS I) is best at absorbing a wavelength of 700 nm The reaction-center chlorophyll a of PS I is called P700 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The Photosystems..

31 Linear Electron Flow During the light reactions, there are two possible routes for electron flow: cyclic and linear Linear electron flow, the primary pathway, involves both photosystems and produces ATP and NADPH using light energy Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

32 Pigment molecules Light P680 e–e– Primary acceptor 2 1 e–e– e–e– 2 H + O2O2 + 3 H2OH2O 1/21/2 4 Pq Pc Cytochrome complex Electron transport chain 5 ATP Photosystem I (PS I ) Light Primary acceptor e–e– P700 6 Fd Electron transport chain NADP + reductase NADP + + H + NADPH 8 7 e–e– e–e– 6 Fig Photosystem II (PS II )

33 Fig Mill makes ATP e–e– NADPH Photon e–e– e–e– e–e– e–e– e–e– ATP Photosystem II Photosystem I e–e–

34 Cyclic Electron Flow Cyclic electron flow uses only photosystem I and produces ATP, but not NADPH Cyclic electron flow generates surplus ATP, satisfying the higher demand in the Calvin cycle Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

35 Fig ATP Photosystem II Photosystem I Primary acceptor Pq Cytochrome complex Fd Pc Primary acceptor Fd NADP + reductase NADPH NADP + + H +

36 Some organisms such as purple sulfur bacteria have PS I but not PS II Cyclic electron flow is thought to have evolved before linear electron flow Cyclic electron flow may protect cells from light-induced damage Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

37 In mitochondria, protons are pumped to the intermembrane space and drive ATP synthesis as they diffuse back into the mitochondrial matrix In chloroplasts, protons are pumped into the thylakoid space and drive ATP synthesis as they diffuse back into the stroma Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

38 Fig Light Fd Cytochrome complex ADP + i H+H+ ATP P synthase To Calvin Cycle STROMA (low H + concentration) Thylakoid membrane THYLAKOID SPACE (high H + concentration) STROMA (low H + concentration) Photosystem II Photosystem I 4 H + Pq Pc Light NADP + reductase NADP + + H + NADPH +2 H + H2OH2O O2O2 e–e– e–e– 1/21/

39 Concept 10.3: The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH to convert CO 2 to sugar The Calvin cycle, like the citric acid cycle, regenerates its starting material after molecules enter and leave the cycle The cycle builds sugar from smaller molecules by using ATP and the reducing power of electrons carried by NADPH Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

40 Carbon enters the cycle as CO 2 and leaves as a sugar named glyceraldehyde-3-phospate (G3P) For net synthesis of 1 G3P, the cycle must take place three times, fixing 3 molecules of CO 2 The Calvin cycle has three phases: ◦ Carbon fixation (catalyzed by rubisco) ◦ Reduction ◦ Regeneration of the CO 2 acceptor (RuBP) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

41 Fig Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) 3-Phosphoglycerate Short-lived intermediate Phase 1: Carbon fixation (Entering one at a time) Rubisco Input CO 2 P P P P P

42 Fig Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) 3-Phosphoglycerate Short-lived intermediate Phase 1: Carbon fixation (Entering one at a time) Rubisco Input CO 2 P P P P P ATP 6 6 ADP P P 6 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 6 P P NADP + NADPH i Phase 2: Reduction Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) 1 P Output G3P (a sugar) Glucose and other organic compounds Calvin Cycle

43 Fig Ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) 3-Phosphoglycerate Short-lived intermediate Phase 1: Carbon fixation (Entering one at a time) Rubisco Input CO 2 P P P P P ATP 6 6 ADP P P 6 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 6 P P NADP + NADPH i Phase 2: Reduction Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) 1 P Output G3P (a sugar) Glucose and other organic compounds Calvin Cycle 3 3 ADP ATP 5 P Phase 3: Regeneration of the CO 2 acceptor (RuBP) G3P

44 : Alternative mechanisms of carbon fixation have evolved in hot, arid climates Dehydration is a problem for plants, sometimes requiring trade-offs with other metabolic processes, especially photosynthesis On hot, dry days, plants close stomata, which conserves H 2 O but also limits photosynthesis The closing of stomata reduces access to CO 2 and causes O 2 to build up These conditions favor a seemingly wasteful process called photorespiration Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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46 Photorespiration: An Evolutionary Relic? In most plants (C 3 plants), initial fixation of CO 2, via rubisco, forms a three-carbon compound In photorespiration, rubisco adds O 2 instead of CO 2 in the Calvin cycle Photorespiration consumes O 2 and organic fuel and releases CO 2 without producing ATP or sugar Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

47 Photorespiration may be an evolutionary relic because rubisco first evolved at a time when the atmosphere had far less O 2 and more CO 2 Photorespiration limits damaging products of light reactions that build up in the absence of the Calvin cycle In many plants, photorespiration is a problem because on a hot, dry day it can drain as much as 50% of the carbon fixed by the Calvin cycle Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

48 C 4 Plants C 4 plants minimize the cost of photorespiration by incorporating CO 2 into four-carbon compounds in mesophyll cells This step requires the enzyme PEP carboxylase PEP carboxylase has a higher affinity for CO 2 than rubisco does; it can fix CO 2 even when CO 2 concentrations are low These four-carbon compounds are exported to bundle-sheath cells, where they release CO 2 that is then used in the Calvin cycle Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

49 Fig C 4 leaf anatomy Mesophyll cell Photosynthetic cells of C 4 plant leaf Bundle- sheath cell Vein (vascular tissue) Stoma The C 4 pathway Mesophyll cell CO 2 PEP carboxylase Oxaloacetate (4C) Malate (4C) PEP (3C) ADP ATP Pyruvate (3C) CO 2 Bundle- sheath cell Calvin Cycle Sugar Vascular tissue

50 CAM Plants Some plants, including succulents, use crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to fix carbon CAM plants open their stomata at night, incorporating CO 2 into organic acids Stomata close during the day, and CO 2 is released from organic acids and used in the Calvin cycle Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

51 Fig CO 2 Sugarcane Mesophyll cell CO 2 C4C4 Bundle- sheath cell Organic acids release CO 2 to Calvin cycle CO 2 incorporated into four-carbon organic acids (carbon fixation) Pineapple Night Day CAM Sugar Calvin Cycle Calvin Cycle Organic acid (a) Spatial separation of steps (b) Temporal separation of steps CO 2 1 2


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