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Learning Reinforcement By : Anubha Trainer and Consultant.

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1 Learning Reinforcement By : Anubha Trainer and Consultant

2 2-2 LEARNINGS AND REINFORCEMENT Meaning and importance; barriers; approaches Cognitive and programmed learnings Sense making Learning stylesforement: Positive; negative; contingencies of reinforcement; schedules of reinforcement T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

3 Learning & Reinforcement

4 2-4 Learning Involves change Is relatively permanent Is acquired through experience Learning Involves change Is relatively permanent Is acquired through experience Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning has taken place if an individual behaves, reacts, and responds as a result of experience in a manner different from the way he formally behaved. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

5 2-5 Process 1 st – acquire a new input in terms of knowledge and understanding or behaviour. When this process is quick, learning is effective. 2 nd – assimilation of the new input. It should not be acquired quickly but should be retained for a length of time. 3 rd – Collection of various inputs alone. 4 th – Once acquired input internalised, they should be available to individual for their effective use when the need arises, as learning not used its ineffective 5 th – Effective use of learning also involves creativity. Learning should have transfer value. Should be able to apply in another filed- internalisation 6 th – Increases persons capability

6 2-6 KOLB ( 1976) Learning Cycle Experiencing ApplyingProcessing Generalizing T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

7 2-7 Barriers Individual – they are averse (reluctant) to learning. They are comfortable with status quo and disturbance is intolerable Teams & Group – happy with old method which have been successful and was effective in the past. This deter in learning Organization – Culture which does not value learning T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

8 2-8 Theories of Learning Key Concepts Unconditioned stimulus (meat) Unconditioned response ( Conditioned stimulus (Bell)Conditioned response Key Concepts Unconditioned stimulus (meat) Unconditioned response ( Conditioned stimulus (Bell)Conditioned response Classical Conditioning – S-R – by PAVLOV A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. Ie a process by which individual learn reflex beh StimulusResponse Individual is shocked by electric currentscream Something in eyeblink Struck by pinflinch StimulusResponse Individual is shocked by electric currentscream Something in eyeblink Struck by pinflinch

9 2-9 E X H I B I T 2–3 Source: The Far Side ® by Gary Larson © 1993 Far Works, Inc. All rights reserved. Used with permission.

10 2-10 Theories of Learning (contd) BehaviourConsequences Individua; workis paid Enter resturant eat Enters football stadiumwatch game BehaviourConsequences Individua; workis paid Enter resturant eat Enters football stadiumwatch game Operant Conditioning A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment. Learning occurs coz of consequences. S - R - Consequence T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

11 2-11 Theories of Learning (contd) Key Concepts Attentional processes Retention processes Motor reproduction processes Reinforcement processes Key Concepts Attentional processes Retention processes Motor reproduction processes Reinforcement processes Social-Learning Theory People can learn through observation / watching others in social situation and imitate.

12 2-12 Theories of Learning (contd) Key Concepts Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. Key Concepts Reinforcement is required to change behavior. Some rewards are more effective than others. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. Shaping Behavior Systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

13 2-13 Cognitive Learning Prior learning influences our behavioral choices. The perceived consequences of those choices become in turn a part of learning and affect future behavioral choices. Learning achieved by thinking about th epercieved relationship between events and individual goals and expectation. Involves selective interpretation of perpetual data organized into new pattern of thoughts and relationship. Learning focuses on what happens within the individual – feelings, attitude, memory, thoughts. Learning by realization T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

14 2-14 Insight learning It is the best described as a sudden discover of the answer to a problem Eureka T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

15 2-15 Discrimination It is the process by which universal or previously structured elements are placed into more specific structure. Some time called differentiation Eg car Zen Indica santro. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

16 2-16 Generalization It is the means through which we transfer learning from one situation to another as well as categories information Learn once remember forever T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

17 2-17 Sense making It is a process of designing commu based research and practice and implementing comm based system and activities. Three assumption reg comm pratice –System and practise can be designed and implemented in response to to human need –Enhance their store of comm –Comm based approach need to be developed T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

18 2-18 Seven Aspect of Sensing Identity – Need for sensemaker Retrospective – Reflecting on something that has happened earlier Enactment-With the degree of clarity people take action Social- What person does depends on others Continuous process Extracted cues-tendency to filter and notice only few Plausibility – Moment ans of a question is found people stop exploring the other alternative T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

19 2-19 Reinforcement It is anything that person find rewarding. Reinforcing is anything that both increases the strength of response and tends to induce repetition of the behaviour

20 2-20 Reinforcement Theory and Learning Reinforcement Theory –Based on the idea that behavior is a function of its consequences. Behavior that results in pleasant consequences (reward) is likely to be repeated. Behavior that results in unpleasant consequences is less likely to be repeated. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

21 2-21 Types of Reinforcement in Organizations Positive Reinforcement Avoidance (Negative Reinforcement) Extinction Punishment

22 2-22 Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement –Providing a reward for a desired behavior. Negative reinforcement –Removing an unpleasant consequence when the desired behavior occurs. Punishment –Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an undesirable behavior. Extinction –Decreases the frequency of an undesirable behaviour and finally extinguishes it. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

23 2-23 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated / occur. Eg Coin in soft drink vending machine Intermittent Reinforcement A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

24 2-24 Schedules of Reinforcement (contd) Fixed-Interval Schedule Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. Variable-Interval Schedule Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

25 2-25 Schedules of Reinforcement (contd) Fixed-ratio T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

26 2-26 Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

27 2-27 Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)

28 2-28 Behavior Modification Five Step Problem-Solving Model 1.Identify critical behaviors 2.Develop baseline data 3.Identify behavioral consequences 4.Develop and apply intervention 5.Evaluate performance improvement Five Step Problem-Solving Model 1.Identify critical behaviors 2.Develop baseline data 3.Identify behavioral consequences 4.Develop and apply intervention 5.Evaluate performance improvement OB Mod The application of reinforcement concepts to individuals in the work setting.

29 2-29 OB MOD Organizational Applications Well Pay versus Sick Pay –Reduces absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence. Employee Discipline –The use of punishment can be counter-productive. Developing Training Programs –OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness. Self-management –Reduces the need for external management control. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

30 2-30 Organizational Behavior Modification Behavior Modification in Organizations –Organizational behavior modification (OB mod) is the application of reinforcement theory to people in organizational settings. –Reinforcement theory says that the frequency of desirable behaviors can be increased by linking those behaviors with positive consequences. –Behavior modification uses positive reinforcement to encourage desirable behavior in employees.

31 2-31 Organizational Behavior Modification The Effectiveness of Behavior Modification –Has not always been 100% effective in every workplace application. Managers frequently have only limited means for providing meaningful reinforcement for their employees. –Laboratory research is hard to generalize to the real world. –Behavior modification may be effective for a limited time. The impact of the positive reinforcement wanes and employees come to view it as a routine part of the compensation system. The Ethics of OB MOD –OB mod may compromise individual freedom of choice. –OB mod may be considered managerial manipulation. Is it CULTURE BOUND? T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

32 2-32 LIMITATION OF BEH MOD Individual Indifference –In need, value, abilities and desire. Org need to hire empl who value reward system. Empl can be allowed to participate in determine their rewards Group Norm – Power of Group can reduce the effectiveness of most org rewards system. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

33 2-33 Transfer of Learning Systematic acquisition of skill, rule or attitude that result in improved performance at job Knowledge of result / Feedback – Continuous assessment Part or Whole Method – Breaking down the task so that it can be learnt in phases Masses or Distributed Practice – Consist of a massing the element of learning together over a period of time T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

34 2-34 Training Method Training in Corporate India Online Training Simulation On the Job Soft Skills T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

35 2-35 »THANK YOU T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

36 2-36 Types of Reinforcement in Organizations Positive Reinforcement A reward or other desirable consequence that follows behavior Avoidance (Negative Reinforcement) Also known as negative reinforcement; rather than receiving a reward following a desirable behavior, the person is given the opportunity to avoid an unpleasant consequence T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

37 2-37 Types of Reinforcement in Organizations Extinction Decreases the frequency of behavior by eliminating a reward or desirable consequence that follows that behavior. Punishment An unpleasant, or aversive, consequence that results from behavior. T r a i n i n g s a n d C o n s u l t a n c y

38 2-38 Kinds of Reinforcement figure 6.5 Positive reinforcement and avoidance can be used to motivate desired behaviors by employees.

39 2-39 Kinds of Reinforcement figure 6.5 Extinction and punishment can be used to change undesired employee

40 2-40 Schedules of Reinforcement in Organizations Schedule of Reinforcement Nature of Reinforcement ContinuousBehavior is reinforced every time it occurs. Fixed-IntervalBehavior is reinforced according to some predetermined constant schedule based on time. Variable-IntervalBehavior is reinforced after periods of time, but the time span varies from one time to the next. Fixed-RatioBehavior is reinforced according to the number of behaviors exhibited, with the number of behaviors needed to gain reinforcement held constant. Variable-RatioBehavior is reinforced according to the number of behaviors exhibited, but the number of behaviors needed to gain reinforcement varies from one time to the next. table 6.1


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