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All slides © S. J. Luck, except as indicated in the notes sections of individual slides Slides may be used for nonprofit educational purposes if this copyright.

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Presentation on theme: "All slides © S. J. Luck, except as indicated in the notes sections of individual slides Slides may be used for nonprofit educational purposes if this copyright."— Presentation transcript:

1 All slides © S. J. Luck, except as indicated in the notes sections of individual slides Slides may be used for nonprofit educational purposes if this copyright notice is included, except as noted Permission must be obtained from the copyright holder(s) for any other use The ERP Boot Camp Setting Up and Running an ERP Lab

2 Recording Chamber Do you really need one? Do you really need one? Probably not if: Probably not if: -You’re looking at slow components and can low-pass filter with a 50% cutoff at 30 Hz -And you’re not near any major source of electrical noise Elevators, centrifuges, power transformers, ventilation fans Elevators, centrifuges, power transformers, ventilation fans -You don’t care about gamma oscillations They’re good for keeping subjects focused They’re good for keeping subjects focused They tend to get warm, so it may actually be better not to have one if skin potentials are a major source of noise They tend to get warm, so it may actually be better not to have one if skin potentials are a major source of noise You can build one from 2x4’s and copper screen You can build one from 2x4’s and copper screen

3 Courtesy of Lynne Reder

4 Seating Key points: Key points: -Comfortable to avoid muscle noise -Don’t want subjects to fall asleep -Don’t want electrodes to rest on anything Recliners were once common Recliners were once common -Not good if you have electrodes over the back of the head I recommend high-quality office chair I recommend high-quality office chair -Glides rather than wheels -Mark the floor I haven’t had much luck with chin rests I haven’t had much luck with chin rests

5 Response Devices Need to be held in a comfortable position Need to be held in a comfortable position -Don’t want subject holding arms up -Standard computer keyboards are bad Game controllers work well Game controllers work well -Mass-produced -> reliable Constant and variable timing errors are possible Constant and variable timing errors are possible -RT is so variable that a bit of timing variability will usually have virtually no impact (unless you are looking at response-locked averages) -EMG for best response timing -Can measure timing errors by putting a mic next to device and recording “click” along with event code

6 Hints for Running Subjects ~60 minutes of “run time” per session ~60 minutes of “run time” per session -More for interesting experiments -Whole session is about 3 hours Runs of 4-6 minutes with second breaks Runs of 4-6 minutes with second breaks -Less makes it inefficient to deal with electrodes, etc. -More leads to fatigue -Some labs do all-day sessions with lot of breaks Dilution Rule: Don’t dilute good data with bad data Dilution Rule: Don’t dilute good data with bad data -Adding noisy trials doesn’t improve the S/N ratio Watch the EEG throughout the session Watch the EEG throughout the session -Look for artifacts, bad connections, etc. Watch the subject with a video camera Watch the subject with a video camera

7 Hints for Running Subjects Happiness Rule: A happy subject is a good subject Happiness Rule: A happy subject is a good subject -Compliance with task -Compliance with artifact control instructions -Less noise Talking to subjects Talking to subjects -Treat subject like a person, not like a piece of meat -Chat while putting on electrodes (or video) Tell them exactly what will happen -- this reduces stress Tell them exactly what will happen -- this reduces stress -Chat during breaks -Note: Some subjects don’t want to talk -- that’s OK Keeping subjects happy Keeping subjects happy -Food and drink (is caffeine a confound?) -Eye drops (single-use) -Music

8 Looking at the Data Do a fairly complete analysis of the first subject’s data before running anyone else Do a fairly complete analysis of the first subject’s data before running anyone else -All the main comparisons among ERP waveforms -Accuracy (and RT if recorded) for each main condition -There may be a serious problem with event codes, etc. -“Nothing focuses the mind quite as much as real data” Take a look at the individual subjects and the grand averages every 3-4 subjects Take a look at the individual subjects and the grand averages every 3-4 subjects -Grand averages will give you more power to see something funky in the data -But don’t get too freaked out if the results look a little funny or aren’t conforming to your predications -Be especially concerned about “impossible” results (e.g., effects that consistently begin before time zero) -Look at calibration data for each subject if you can

9 Ethical Issues Everything that applies to behavioral experiments plus… Everything that applies to behavioral experiments plus… -Risk of disease transmission High impedance helps High impedance helps Need thoughtful disinfection (even for high impedance) Need thoughtful disinfection (even for high impedance) -Risk of electrical shock Optical isolation and/or battery power Optical isolation and/or battery power -Headache from electrode cap -Gel in hair -Long duration of experiment -Claustrophobia -Concerns about privacy of EEG data Providing clear information in advance is the best way to prevent problems Providing clear information in advance is the best way to prevent problems

10 Stimulus Presentation Testing the timing of event codes Testing the timing of event codes -Digitize at ~1000 Hz (higher for auditory) -Present stimuli along with event codes -For auditory stimuli, connect auditory output (or a microphone) to the digitization system You might want to use a square-wave tone or a 50-Hz sine wave You might want to use a square-wave tone or a 50-Hz sine wave -For visual stimuli, point some kind of light pen to the video monitor and connect to digitization system -See when the stimuli are actually presented relative to the event codes Auditory artifacts Auditory artifacts -Speaker in headphones may induce a current -Post-auricular muscle twitch

11 CRT Basics When you draw something, nothing happens until the frame buffer is updated AND the raster beam reaches the right part of the monitor LCDs operate similarly, but often there is an additional delay of several milliseconds before the stimuli actually appear

12 Stimulus Timing Jitter What does a constant delay between event code and stimulus do to the averaged ERP? What does a constant delay between event code and stimulus do to the averaged ERP? -Time shift -Can be fixed with a filter What does a variable delay between event code and stimulus do to the averaged ERP? What does a variable delay between event code and stimulus do to the averaged ERP? -Distribution of delays is convolved with jitter-free “real” waveform -Modest low-pass filter For most cognitive paradigms, effects are minimal For most cognitive paradigms, effects are minimal -But not always You need to understand exactly what the jitter is doing, and this usually requires measuring it You need to understand exactly what the jitter is doing, and this usually requires measuring it

13 Stimulus Timing Jitter Waveform appears at 0, 10, or 20 ms with equal likelihood Averaging these together is equal to replacing each point in the distribution of delays with a scaled and shifted version of the ERP waveform The result is slightly low-pass filtered and shifted to the right in time What is frequency response of filter produced by jitter? Distribution of Stimulus Delays Example: Stimulus appears 0, 10, or 20 ms after event code with even distribution

14 Writing an ERP Paper Rule #1: Write with a specific audience in mind Rule #1: Write with a specific audience in mind -But keep in mind that the reviewers are the first and most important audience Rule #2: Intro must end with a set of competing hypotheses about a general issue and then a set of corresponding predictions Rule #2: Intro must end with a set of competing hypotheses about a general issue and then a set of corresponding predictions -May want to explicitly address reason for using ERPs Rule #3: Results should be organized to lead reader to a conclusion (logical flow of ideas) Rule #3: Results should be organized to lead reader to a conclusion (logical flow of ideas) -Descriptive statistics first, then inferential statistics Rule #4: Discussion should recap major results and conclusions that can be drawn Rule #4: Discussion should recap major results and conclusions that can be drawn -Often followed by possible objections that can be discarded (and perhaps some that cannot)

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16 Method Section Should Include… Number of trials per condition (explicitly) Number of trials per condition (explicitly) Recording sites, electrode type, amplifier gain, filters, sampling rate and resolution, impedance, reference, and offline re-referencing Recording sites, electrode type, amplifier gain, filters, sampling rate and resolution, impedance, reference, and offline re-referencing -Include impulse response function details for offline filters Artifact rejection procedures Artifact rejection procedures -Include observed mean and range of % rejected trials -Include # of subjects rejected and standard for rejection -Rejection of trials with behavioral errors ERP measurement procedures ERP measurement procedures -Measurement windows and perhaps justification Greenhouse-Geisser epsilon adjustment Greenhouse-Geisser epsilon adjustment See Picton et al. (2000) See Picton et al. (2000)

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