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Innovative Media and Tools Track 7 th Annual International Symposium Emerging Technologies for Online Learning (sponsored by Sloan-C and MERLOT) Shalin.

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Presentation on theme: "Innovative Media and Tools Track 7 th Annual International Symposium Emerging Technologies for Online Learning (sponsored by Sloan-C and MERLOT) Shalin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Innovative Media and Tools Track 7 th Annual International Symposium Emerging Technologies for Online Learning (sponsored by Sloan-C and MERLOT) Shalin Hai-Jew April 2014

2 NVivo 10 is a widely used qualitative and mixed methods data analysis research tool used in many domain fields. This presentation will showcase some of the capabilities of this software by reviewing how to start a project in NVivo, how to manage complex data, how to begin coding raw information, and some of the methods for making meaning “in vivo” or “within the living” with various analyses and data visualizations. This presentation will include a demonstration of NCapture, a feature for data extraction from some social media platform APIs. For context, this session assumes some basic prior training in qualitative research, such as ethnographies, surveys, interviews, qualitative meta-analyses, portraiture, grounded theory, action research, Delphi studies, and / or others. The goals of this presentation are to  introduce NVivo 10 as a data management and analysis tool for qualitative and mixed methods research  introduce the concept of multimodal data (from various types of multimedia sources)  show data ingestion into the system  establish how data may be coded for research value  show how data structures may be created from the coded data and then analyzed  demonstrate the extraction of a social media platform to open up another data channel for research Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data2

3  Pre-story  Types of qualitative and mixed methods research  General timeline of the research process  Quality standards  Ingestion of data  Importation of data sets  File types: multimedia  NVivo 10 (an overview) Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data3

4  Data coding  Folder and node data structures  Codebooks  Manual coding  Two types of auto-coding  Flexible coding structures  Coding for matrix analysis  Human-machine analysis of data Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data4

5  Data coding (cont.)  Visual models  Text search query ▪ Text search query and resulting word tree  Manual research journaling  Automated ‘event log’ journaling  NCapture  Essential mechanics  My wants re: the software  Contact and conclusion 5Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data

6  Multi-year site license at Kansas State University  Sociology, anthropology, social work, education, communications studies, mass media, business, veterinary sciences, food sciences, family studies, human ecology, and others; university research office; multi-campus support ▪ Installed in student labs in multiple departments  Available to faculty, staff, administrators, and graduate students through protected website (with software download and a university-wide license key)  Y1 webinar trainings Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data6

7  Grounded theory  Heuristics / methods of discovery  Hermeneutics  Life history  Participatory action research  Phenomenology  Ethnography  Standard causal analysis (SCA)  Narratology; serious narration; storytelling; historical narration  Social experimentation  Formalization; analysis of “stylized facts”  Literary critique  Market research  Interviews  Focus groups  Surveys  Delphi study; modified e- Delphi study  Actor-network analysis; electronic social network analysis; social network analysis, and others Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data7

8  Mixed methods / multimethodology: qualitative research methods with quantitative research elements Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data8

9 QUALITATIVE METHODS  Relativism (with attendant theories, tools, and research practices); post-structuralism and post-modernism  Non-measurability of phenomena  Narration  Culturalism  Emergentism  Contextualization; social constraints QUANTITATIVE METHODS  Positivism (with attendant theories, tools, and research practices)  Measurability of phenomena  Analysis  Behavioralism  Individualism  Non-contextualization; independent agentry; open choices Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data9

10 QUALITATIVE METHODS  Situated knowledge  Subjectivity  Constructionism  Experiential and detailed  Low n, case-based  in vivo: “within the living” (studying empirically in- world) (in Latin) QUANTITATIVE METHODS  Transcendent or universal knowledge  Objectivity  Realism  Statistical and numerical  “Statistical significance” / relatively high n (and even “big data”)  in vitro: “within the glass” (experimental model) (in Latin) Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data10

11 QUALITATIVE METHODS  Rigor, saturation, immersion, triangulation  Criticality of identification (and methodological mitigation) of researcher biases  Centrality of language  Unclear end point QUANTITATIVE METHODS  Rejection of the null hypothesis  Criticality of nullifying researcher biases through strict methodologies  Centrality of numbers  Generally defined end point Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data11

12  Single approach designs, with augmentation of either qualitative or quantitative strategies to enhance research richness and outcomes (with a predominant qualitative or quantitative approach)  Mixed approach designs, to enhance construct validity for multiple analytical interests Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data12

13 13

14  General steps: 1. Initial secondary and primary research 2. Immersive research and documentation 3. Coding and annotation 4. Data analysis 5. Write-up 6. Dissemination  Flexible semi-recursive process Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data14

15  Various quality standards at every step (depending also on ontology and research methods)  Protection of human participants (informed consent; protection from harm; voluntary participation throughout; anonymity and confidentiality; beneficence)  Data saturation (comprehensive literature review)  Data triangulation (multi-sourcing of data)  Clear definitions of terms  Address of researcher bias  Inter-rater reliability; rater norming to standards  Transparency in research methods Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data15

16  Internal logic and non-contradiction; plausibility  Falsifiability of hypotheses and assertions  Logical analysis  Bounded and delimited assertions  Sufficient detail and depth  Consistent and appropriate unit(s) of analyses  Explanatory power  Clear language  Intellectual elegance and originality Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data16

17  Puzzle solving  Problem-solving  Informative for decision-making  Practical applications (decision-making; policies)  Data protection against leakage and compromise Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data17

18 PRIMARY  Interviews  Surveys (.xls, electronic platform files)  Focus groups  Cases  Observations  Oral histories  Text, photos, videos, and audio files  Social media platform contents (NCapture) SECONDARY  Literature reviews  YouTube videos (links only)  Web pages  Social media contents  Grey literature Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data18

19  AUTOMATED (data import wizard, third- party tools like Survey Monkey)  From electronic survey sites and tools ▪ Cells whited out for open-ended questions; grayed-out cells for fixed response (attribution details)  From social media platforms and sites (NCapture in IE and Chrome and extracted into NVivo)  From content providers  From Excel (codebooks); SPSS; SAS, etc.  From bibliographic data managers / citation tools Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data19

20  MANUAL (drag-and-drop)  From online libraries and repositories  From Excel Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data20

21  Text files (.docx,.doc,.rtf,.txt,.pdf, and others)  Slideshows (.pptx,.ppt)  Datasets (.xls,.rtf,.txt,.doc, and others)  Websites captured as.pdfs (using NCapture or other tools)  Video files (and link-outs to video files on content-sharing platforms)  Audio files (and link-outs to audio files)  Image files (virtually all digital image files)  and others… Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data21

22  Requires manual transcription of audio and video files  Requires annotation  Annotation of audio  Annotation of video stills and video segments Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data22

23 An overview Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data23

24  Formerly NUDIST (non-numerical unstructured data indexing, searching, and theorizing)  Runs on PCs and parallels / virtual machines on Macs; professional Mac version forthcoming June 2014; mobile app access in development  Includes add-ins that enable extraction of social media platform data  Created by QSR InternationalQSR International Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data24

25  Tool as theory and research methodology “agnostic” and flexible  May be a longitudinal many-year project or a short-term one  May be individual researcher-based or team-based (without requirement for co-location, even with non- server based licensure because of data integration options)  Live support webinars with responsive presenters (for both broad audiences and organizations with site licenses, at additional cost)  Pre-recorded help webinars  Textual help supports well documented Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data25

26 Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data26

27  Project files saved as.nvp (QSR NVivo Projects) files  Back up to server, cloud service, external hard drive, or other device beyond main work device ▪ Coding is time-sensitive and irrecoverable and impossible to recreate if there is data loss  May hover over file names at bottom left of opening screen to see the whole path of the files Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data27

28 Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data28

29 A PRIORI DATA STRUCTURE  Pre-defined with general constructs, data categories, and ideas (based on deductive logic and prior research)  A priori and emergent data structure EMERGENT DATA STRUCTURE  Initially undefined structures with information extracted from the research documentation and researcher journal and other sources (based on inductive logic and interpretation of collected information); aka freecoding Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data29 MIXED DATA STRUCTURE

30  Units of analysis  Data manageability  Relevance  Ways to flexibly query the data using the software  Semantics and terminology  Should document and describe all nodes for coding clarity (particularly if there are teams working together on one project); codebook definitions, too Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data30

31 31

32  Definitions of codes and their meanings (often with examples)  May be static (and predefined, partially defined based on hypothesis and secondary research)  May be evolving (and emergent and recorded in codebooks along the way…but initially unstructured)  Digital or on paper  May be used with one coder or a group  Inter-rater reliability (Kappa coefficient in coding comparisons between coders) and norming Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data32

33  Categories or classifications as nodes  Textual / auditory / visual (still) / video information highlighted and marked as belonging to a certain node  Highlighting and dragging text (of text or.pdf OCR-text) to node or right clicking and coding to node  Highlighting an area (of image or sound or video) and dragging to node or right clicking and coding to node Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data33

34 “STYLES” IN WORD  Ingestion and simultaneous autocoding of MS Word files with questions coded as headings and answers as paragraph styles (styles used to code a mass of data) ALGORITHM-BASED  Machine-based emulation of qualitative / mixed methods researcher highlighting of contents into certain nodes  Machine-coded information clearly identified as such (with coding easily reversible) Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data34

35  Nodes used for  data structuring (and data visualizations)  data clustering for analysis (for patterns and researcher sense-making and understanding)  further data querying  pattern identification  Folders and nodes may be re-named, moved, annotated, regrouped, and changed at any time  Coding stripes to indicate density of coding and identify patterns  Can always uncode, revise, move nodes around, merge nodes, and even delete them Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data35

36  May export to Microsoft Excel for larger range of data visualizations Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data36

37  Matrix analysis enabling ability to slice and dice data for findings and insights  Within and between-group analysis  Enabling comparisons of variables from categories as rows and columns  Enabling simple cell counts for comparisons, anomaly detection, others (if relevant) Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data37

38  Code…  Participants / interview subjects as own nodes  Participants with demographic data (in attributes and categorizing / classifying data fields such as age group, sex, and others)  Participants with close-ended query responses as attributes (such as Likert scale responses, Y/N responses)  Questions as own nodes (variables)  Matrix analyses results saved in new node(s) Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data38

39  Text frequency count (with a built-in and modifiable stop-words list)  Word clouds (word size and placement centrality = frequency)  Treemap (size = frequency)  Cluster analysis (branch = co- appearance) 39

40  Human observations and readings / interpretations of the research  Text searches  Text frequency searches  Machine-enhanced data queries  Data visualizations and structures 40Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data

41 41

42  Node hierarchies in any direction (parent, child, etc.)  Types of layouts  Circular  Directed  Hierarchical  Orthogonal  Revealing of relationships between entities  More effective with sparse contents Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data42

43  Words used in a group with “and” to indicate co-location in the same document (not in the same sentence or near-proximity)  Data management  Find a document or identify an author  Identify information for use in a quote  Use “summary” view to look at types of sources Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data43

44 Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data44

45  Enables intuitions and leads; provides a gist of the data  May click over a part of the branch to get its full phrasing  May request broader captures (than the narrow 5 words on either side of the focus term), termed “spread coding”  May put cursor over phrases in a tree to see the source (which is linked and may be accessed for further exploration)  Words in red are ones in initial text search query 45Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data

46  Via built-in memo and Memo Links  Via unique folder or node (and variety of multimedia files) 46

47  Apply real-time event logging to project Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data47

48  May highlight text for annotation (highlighted in blue and viewable from various approaches)  Analyze -> Annotations -> New Annotations  Limit annotations because too much blue highlighting will be ignored  If too many annotations are needed, that may indicate the need for a coding node instead Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data48

49  Per Dr. Cynthia Jacobs (of QSR International)  Keep a memo for justifying methods for the coding  Set up a node for “I am struggling with how to code this” issues for later reference  Maintain a node for “good quotes”  Keep a “to do” node list  Do not delete nodes which you don’t plan to use, but save them in a folder for possible future reference if needed  Use a “left off” node to remember where the coding was stopped, so you can find your place later Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data49

50 An add-on to Chrome or Internet Explorer browsers Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data50

51  Websites (with or without ads)…as.pdfs  Twitter microblogs  Facebook text and images  LinkedIn text and images  YouTube links  May require log-ins on the various platforms to access the social media platform APIs (application programming interfaces)  A sociometric online ethnography Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data51

52 Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data52

53 Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data53  Collection  Coding  Analysis  Output

54  Collection of data in folder and file structures  Manual coding and analysis of data electronically (or on paper) (cognitively taxing no matter what form)  Wordle (for word clouds), Freemind (spatial outlining), and others  Notetaking in MS Word  Manual modeling in MS Visio  Outputs for dissemination in MS Office Suite and other tools Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data54

55 Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data55

56  Wizarding and templating: Clearer setup for different types of qualitative and mixed methods research  Quant analysis features: A wider range of basic quant and statistical analysis packages for more of an all-in-one feel  A friendlier learning curve: Simpler semantics; more aggressive and interventionist help supports  A built-in source bibliographic data manager / citation tool (or an integrated freeware one): Not just EndNote, which is a commercial tool 56Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data

57  A public repository for NVivo data sets (to be released with formal publications)  A repository of research journals linked to NVivo- managed data sets and archived research  Agreements to enable the release of copyrighted materials in NVivo-based data sets (for this limited purpose) Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data57

58  Dr. Shalin Hai-Jew, Instructional Designer  Information Technology Assistance Center (iTAC)  212 Hale Library  Kansas State University  Manhattan, KS    The presenter has no tie with QSR International. Setting Up a Qualitative or Mixed Methods Research Project in NVivo 10 to Code and Analyze Data58


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