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Development Processes Chapter 10. 10-2 “We Need to Support Other Watches and Mobile Devices, and at Least Android Phones.” Need to define and document.

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Presentation on theme: "Development Processes Chapter 10. 10-2 “We Need to Support Other Watches and Mobile Devices, and at Least Android Phones.” Need to define and document."— Presentation transcript:

1 Development Processes Chapter 10

2 10-2 “We Need to Support Other Watches and Mobile Devices, and at Least Android Phones.” Need to define and document business procedures, train staff, involve other partners Make system more generally available Strategic implication: Spin off PRIDE as separate business? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

3 10-3 Study Questions Q1: How are business processes, IS, and applications developed? Q2: How do organizations use business process management (BPM)? Q3: How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model processes? Q4: What are the phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC)? Q5: What are the keys for successful SDLC projects? Q6: How can scrum overcome the problems of the SDLC? Q7: 2023? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

4 10-4 Q1: How Are Business Processes, IS, and Applications Developed? Process of creating and maintaining information systems Requires: –Establishing system goals –Setting up the project –Determining requirements –Business knowledge and management skill Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

5 10-5 Activities in a Business Process and the Correlating Information Systems Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

6 10-6 Relationship of Business Processes and Information Systems 1. Business processes, information systems, and applications have different characteristics and components. 2. Relationship of business processes to information systems is many-to-many, or N:M. –A business process need not relate to any IS, but IS relates to at least one business process. 3. Every IS has at least one application because every IS has a software component. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

7 10-7 Scope of Development Process Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

8 10-8 Role of Development Personnel Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

9 10-9 Q2: How Do Organizations Use Business Process Management (BPM)? Business process – Network of activities, repositories, roles, resources, and data flows that interact to accomplish a business function Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10 10-10 Why Do Processes Need Management? Improve Process Quality Change in Technology Change in Business Fundamentals –Market (new customer category, change in customer characteristics) –Product lines –Supply chain –Company policy –Company organization (merger, acquisition) –Internationalization –Business environment Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

11 10-11 What Are BPM Activities? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

12 10-12 Q3: How Can BPMN Process Diagrams Help Identify and Solve Process Problems? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

13 10-13 As-Is Business Order Process: Existing Ordering Process Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

14 10-14 Check Customer Credit Process Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

15 10-15 Q4: What Are the Phases in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

16 10-16 Define System Goals and Scope Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

17 10-17 SDLC: Requirements Analysis Phase Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

18 10-18 Role of a Prototype Provides user direct experience Can be expensive to create Parts often reused Cost occurs early, sometimes before full project funding available Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

19 10-19 SDLC: Component Design Phase Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

20 10-20 SDLC: Implementation Phase Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal Conversion types 1.Pilot 2.Phased 3.Parallel 4.Plunge

21 10-21 Design and Implementation for the Five Components Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

22 10-22 SDLC: System Maintenance Phase Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

23 10-23 Ethics Guide: Estimation Ethics Estimating is just “theory”—average of many people’s guesses. Buy-in game Overly optimistic schedules and cost estimates At what point is buy-in within accepted boundaries of conduct? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

24 10-24 Ethics Guide: Estimation Ethics Contractor agrees to produce system for less than what will really be required  Time and materials contract  Fixed-cost contracts In-house projects often started with buy-ins  Projects start with hopes of more money later  Team members disagree about costs. Do you report it?  Not all costs included in initial estimates. Report it? Do you buy-in on project schedule if you can’t make that schedule? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

25 10-25 Q5: What Are the Keys for Successful SDLC Projects? Create a work-breakdown structure. Estimate time and costs. Create a project plan. Adjust plan via trade-offs. Manage development challenges. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

26 10-26 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

27 10-27 Gantt Chart of the WBS for the Definition Phase of a Project Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

28 10-28 Gantt Chart with Resources Assigned Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

29 10-29 Primary Drivers of Systems Development Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

30 10-30 Manage Development Challenges 1. Coordination 2. Diseconomies of scale 3. Configuration control 4. Unexpected events Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

31 10-31 Difficulty of Requirements Determination What specifically is system to do? What, exactly, does the report doctors receive look like? Will they have both a standard and exception report? Are those reports fixed in structure or can user adapt them? If so, how? How many practices and how many patients per practice will PRIDE support? How much cloud resource needed?  Must create environment where difficult questions are asked and answered. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

32 10-32 Changing Requirements Systems development aims at moving target The bigger system, the longer the project, the more requirements change. What should development team do? Incorporate changes, build, complete and make changes in maintenance phase? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

33 10-33 Scheduling and Budgeting Difficulties How long to build it? How long to create data model? How long to build database applications? How long to do testing? How long to develop and document procedures? How long for training? How many labor hours? Labor cost? What’s the rate of return on investment? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

34 10-34 Changing Technology Do you want to stop your development to switch to the new technology? Would it be better to finish developing according to the existing plan? Why build an out-of-date system? Can you afford to keep changing the project? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

35 10-35 Diseconomies of Scale Brooks’ Law “Adding more people to a late project makes the project later.” New staff must be trained by productive members who lose productivity while training. Schedules can be compressed only so far. Once a project is late and over budget, no good choice exists. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

36 10-36 Experiencing MIS InClass Exercise 10: GardenTracker Suppose you and two or three other students decide to open a business that offers landscaping services. Your goal is to develop a list of clients for whom you provide regular and recurring services. Need information system for tracking customers, services you have provided, and services you are scheduled to provide in the future. As a new small business, you want a simple and affordable system based on Excel or Access. The name of the system is GardenTracker. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

37 10-37 Experiencing MIS InClass Exercise 10: GardenTracker (cont’d) 1.Explain how you would use SDLC to develop GardenTracker. 2.Define the scope of your system. 3.Explain process you would use to determine feasibility of GardenTracker. 4.List data you need for such an assessment, and explain how you might obtain or estimate that data. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

38 10-38 Q6: How Can Scrum Overcome the Problems of the SDLC? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

39 10-39 Scrum Essentials Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

40 10-40 Scrum Process Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

41 10-41 When Does Scrum End? Customer is satisfied with product created and accepts it. Project runs out of time. Project runs out of money. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

42 10-42 How Do Requirements Drive the Scrum Process? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

43 10-43 Summary of Scrum Estimation Techniques Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

44 10-44 Q7: Continuing focus on aligning business processes and information systems with business strategy, goals, and objectives 2.Computer systems will be more easily changed and adapted 3.The cloud will lead to substantially more innovation 4.Emergence of new software vendor business models Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

45 10-45 Security Guide: Psst. There’s Another Way, You Know... Do you think servers in China were actually shut down? Large organizations with good IS departments that had a firewall set up on port 24 to only allow traffic to go to IP address of ISP did not lose any designs. What about smaller organizations with minimal IS Department, or supported by small, unsophisticated VAR? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

46 10-46 Guide: The Real Estimation Process Software developers are optimists. People can’t work all the time. Apply a factor like 0.6 to compute number of effective labor hours for each employee. Be aware of consequences of negotiating a schedule. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

47 10-47 Active Review Q1: How are business processes, IS, and applications developed? Q2: How do organizations use business process management (BPM)? Q3: How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model processes? Q4: What are the phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC)? Q5: What are the keys for successful SDLC projects? Q6: How can scrum overcome the problems of the SDLC? Q7: 2023? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

48 10-48 Case Study 10: Cost of PRIDE Typical example of a new software venture So focused on technology and making it work, they neglect to consider what will happen, longer term, if it is a success. Some problem solutions involve staff training and procedures. Longer term, Flores and his partners need a direction. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

49 10-49 Sources of PRIDE Costs Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

50 10-50


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