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Development Processes

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1 Development Processes
Chapter 10 Development Processes

2 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
“We Need to Support Other Watches and Mobile Devices, and at Least Android Phones.” Need to define and document business procedures, train staff, involve other partners Make system more generally available Strategic implication: Spin off PRIDE as separate business? GOALS Illustrate the difference between application development and systems development. Motivate the need for the SDLC and Scrum. Illustrate some of the difficulties in creating and managing an inter-enterprise system. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

3 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Study Questions Q1: How are business processes, IS, and applications developed? Q2: How do organizations use business process management (BPM)? Q3: How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model processes? Q4: What are the phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC)? Q5: What are the keys for successful SDLC projects? Q6: How can scrum overcome the problems of the SDLC? Q7: 2023? Two major themes addressed in this chapter: (1) business process management and (2) information systems development These themes are closely related and overlap in important ways. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

4 Q1: How Are Business Processes, IS, and Applications Developed?
Process of creating and maintaining information systems Requires: Establishing system goals Setting up the project Determining requirements Business knowledge and management skill Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

5 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Activities in a Business Process and the Correlating Information Systems Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

6 Relationship of Business Processes and Information Systems
1. Business processes, information systems, and applications have different characteristics and components. 2. Relationship of business processes to information systems is many-to-many, or N:M. A business process need not relate to any IS, but IS relates to at least one business process. 3. Every IS has at least one application because every IS has a software component. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

7 Scope of Development Process
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8 Role of Development Personnel
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9 Q2: How Do Organizations Use Business Process Management (BPM)?
Network of activities, repositories, roles, resources, and data flows that interact to accomplish a business function Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

10 Why Do Processes Need Management?
Improve Process Quality Change in Technology Change in Business Fundamentals Market (new customer category, change in customer characteristics) Product lines Supply chain Company policy Company organization (merger, acquisition) Internationalization Business environment Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

11 What Are BPM Activities?
Four stages in the BPM cycle are model processes, create components, implement processes, assess results. Business users with expertise adjust and evaluate the processes. Usually, teams build an as-is model that documents the current situation, then change the model to make adjustments to solve process problems. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

12 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Q3: How Can BPMN Process Diagrams Help Identify and Solve Process Problems? Business-modeling software products use still other definitions and terms. These differences and inconsistencies can be problematic, especially when two different organizations with two different sets of definitions must work together. Object Management Group (OMG) created a standard set of terms and graphical notations for documenting business processes known as Business Process Modeling Notation (www.bpmn.org). Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

13 As-Is Business Order Process: Existing Ordering Process
All activities for a given role are shown in that role’s swim lane. Swim-lane layout simplifies process diagrams and draws attention to interactions among components of the diagram. Dotted arrows depict the flow of messages and data flows. Solid arrows depict the flow or sequence of the activities in the process. Three of the activities in the “as-is” diagram contain a square with a plus (+) sign. This notation means that the activity is considered to be independent of this process and is defined in greater detail in another diagram. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

14 Check Customer Credit Process
Note the role named CRM in this subprocess. In fact, this role is performed entirely by an information system, although we cannot determine that from this diagram. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

15 Q4: What Are the Phases in the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

16 Define System Goals and Scope
SDLC: System definition phase At the start, cost and schedule feasibility are only an approximation or back-of-the-envelope analysis. The purpose is to eliminate any obviously infeasible ideas as soon as possible. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

17 SDLC: Requirements Analysis Phase
Determining system requirements is the most important phase in the systems development process. If the requirements are wrong, the system will be wrong. If the requirements are determined completely and correctly, then design and implementation will be easier and more likely to result in success. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

18 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Role of a Prototype Provides user direct experience Can be expensive to create Parts often reused Cost occurs early, sometimes before full project funding available Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

19 SDLC: Component Design Phase
For hardware, the team determines specifications for the hardware that they want to acquire. Program design depends on the source of the programs. For off-the-shelf software, the team must determine candidate products and evaluate them against the requirements. For off-the-shelf with alteration programs, the team identifies products to be acquired off-the-shelf, then determines the alterations required. For custom-developed programs, the team produces design documentation for writing program code. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

20 SDLC: Implementation Phase
Conversion types Pilot Phased Parallel Plunge System conversion implies the process of converting business activity from the old system to the new. Again, conversion can be to the new system, only, or it can be to the new system, including new business processes. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

21 Design and Implementation for the Five Components
This table summarizes the tasks for each of the five IS components during the design and implementation phases. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

22 SDLC: System Maintenance Phase
There needs to be a means for tracking both failures and requests for enhancements to meet new requirements. Many organizations find it necessary to develop a tracking database. This database contains a description of the failure or enhancement, and records who reported the problem, who will make the fix or enhancement, the status of that work, and whether the fix or enhancement has been tested and verified by the originator. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

23 Ethics Guide: Estimation Ethics
Estimating is just “theory”—average of many people’s guesses. Buy-in game Overly optimistic schedules and cost estimates At what point is buy-in within accepted boundaries of conduct? GOALS Introduce the concept of buy-in as it pertains to information systems. Assess the ethics of buy-ins in different settings. One major goal is to see how buy-ins apply to information systems projects. Future managers need to know this so that they can guard against, or at least consider the possibility of a buy-in. Future managers also need to consider their own values and principles. Note the guide points out that buy-ins can occur for cost, schedule, technical feasibility. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

24 Ethics Guide: Estimation Ethics
Contractor agrees to produce system for less than what will really be required Time and materials contract Fixed-cost contracts In-house projects often started with buy-ins Projects start with hopes of more money later Team members disagree about costs. Do you report it? Not all costs included in initial estimates. Report it? Do you buy-in on project schedule if you can’t make that schedule? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

25 Q5: What Are the Keys for Successful SDLC Projects?
Create a work-breakdown structure. Estimate time and costs. Create a project plan. Adjust plan via trade-offs. Manage development challenges. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

26 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
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27 Gantt Chart of the WBS for the Definition Phase of a Project
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28 Gantt Chart with Resources Assigned
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

29 Primary Drivers of Systems Development
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30 Manage Development Challenges
1. Coordination 2. Diseconomies of scale 3. Configuration control 4. Unexpected events Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

31 Difficulty of Requirements Determination
What specifically is system to do? What, exactly, does the report doctors receive look like? Will they have both a standard and exception report? Are those reports fixed in structure or can user adapt them? If so, how? How many practices and how many patients per practice will PRIDE support? How much cloud resource needed? Must create environment where difficult questions are asked and answered. PRIDE system started with a prototype. As they think about the operational system, what are the true requirements? What does privacy mean? Who sets patient privacy policy? Who can change it? What granularity of permission is needed? As any experienced systems analyst knows, there will undoubtedly be important questions that no one knows to ask. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

32 Changing Requirements
Systems development aims at moving target The bigger system, the longer the project, the more requirements change. What should development team do? Incorporate changes, build, complete and make changes in maintenance phase? Midway through the development process, a major health club chain approaches Flores with a lucrative contract proposal. That proposal necessitates major changes in PRIDE’s planned reporting requirements. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

33 Scheduling and Budgeting Difficulties
How long to build it? How long to create data model? How long to build database applications? How long to do testing? How long to develop and document procedures? How long for training? How many labor hours? Labor cost? What’s the rate of return on investment? If you cannot estimate how much a system costs, how do you perform a financial analysis to determine if system generates an appropriate rate of return? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

34 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Changing Technology Do you want to stop your development to switch to the new technology? Would it be better to finish developing according to the existing plan? Why build an out-of-date system? Can you afford to keep changing the project? Example: While developing PRIDE’s maintenance application, Apple, Microsoft, and Google and their business partners release hot, new mobile devices with vastly improved graphics and animation. You know these new devices can create far better animations. What to do? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

35 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Diseconomies of Scale Brooks’ Law “Adding more people to a late project makes the project later.” New staff must be trained by productive members who lose productivity while training. Schedules can be compressed only so far. Once a project is late and over budget, no good choice exists. “Nine women cannot make a baby in one month.” Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

36 Experiencing MIS InClass Exercise 10: GardenTracker
Suppose you and two or three other students decide to open a business that offers landscaping services. Your goal is to develop a list of clients for whom you provide regular and recurring services. Need information system for tracking customers, services you have provided, and services you are scheduled to provide in the future. As a new small business, you want a simple and affordable system based on Excel or Access. The name of the system is GardenTracker. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

37 Experiencing MIS InClass Exercise 10: GardenTracker (cont’d)
Explain how you would use SDLC to develop GardenTracker. Define the scope of your system. Explain process you would use to determine feasibility of GardenTracker. List data you need for such an assessment, and explain how you might obtain or estimate that data. See textbook for more exercise questions. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

38 Q6: How Can Scrum Overcome the Problems of the SDLC?
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39 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Scrum Essentials Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

40 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Scrum Process Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

41 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
When Does Scrum End? Customer is satisfied with product created and accepts it. Project runs out of time. Project runs out of money. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

42 How Do Requirements Drive the Scrum Process?
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43 Summary of Scrum Estimation Techniques
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44 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Q7: 2023 Continuing focus on aligning business processes and information systems with business strategy, goals, and objectives Computer systems will be more easily changed and adapted The cloud will lead to substantially more innovation Emergence of new software vendor business models Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

45 Security Guide: Psst. There’s Another Way, You Know . . .
Do you think servers in China were actually shut down? Large organizations with good IS departments that had a firewall set up on port 24 to only allow traffic to go to IP address of ISP did not lose any designs. What about smaller organizations with minimal IS Department, or supported by small, unsophisticated VAR? GOALS Sensitize students to possibility of industrial espionage. Set up need for IS management (next chapter). Give yet another example of why strong passwords are necessary. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

46 Guide: The Real Estimation Process
Software developers are optimists. People can’t work all the time. Apply a factor like 0.6 to compute number of effective labor hours for each employee. Be aware of consequences of negotiating a schedule. GOALS Sensitize students to challenges of software scheduling. Alert students to possible consequences when negotiating a schedule. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

47 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Active Review Q1: How are business processes, IS, and applications developed? Q2: How do organizations use business process management (BPM)? Q3: How is Business Process Modeling Notation used to model processes? Q4: What are the phases in the systems development life cycle (SDLC)? Q5: What are the keys for successful SDLC projects? Q6: How can scrum overcome the problems of the SDLC? Q7: 2023? Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

48 Case Study 10: Cost of PRIDE
Typical example of a new software venture So focused on technology and making it work, they neglect to consider what will happen, longer term, if it is a success. Some problem solutions involve staff training and procedures. Longer term, Flores and his partners need a direction. GOALS Illustrate difference between application development and systems development. Motivate need for SDLC or other development process. Illustrate some difficulties in creating and managing an inter-enterprise system. Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

49 Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal
Sources of PRIDE Costs Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hal

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