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1 Objective-C and Object-Oriented Programming. 2 Introduction Objective-C is implemented as set of extensions to the C language. It's designed to give.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Objective-C and Object-Oriented Programming. 2 Introduction Objective-C is implemented as set of extensions to the C language. It's designed to give."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Objective-C and Object-Oriented Programming

2 2 Introduction Objective-C is implemented as set of extensions to the C language. It's designed to give C a full capability for object- oriented programming, and to do so in a simple and straightforward way. Its additions to C are few and are mostly based on Smalltalk, one of the first object-oriented programming languages.

3 3 Why Objective C Objective-C incorporates C, you get all the benefits of C when working within Objective-C. You can choose when to do something in an object- oriented way (define a new class, for example) and when to stick to procedural programming techniques (define a struct and some functions instead of a class). Objective-C is a simple language. Its syntax is small, unambiguous, and easy to learn Objective-C is the most dynamic of the object-oriented languages based on C. Most decisions are made at run time.

4 4 Object-Oriented Programming The insight of object-oriented programming is to combine state and behavior, data and operations on data, in a high-level unit, an object, and to give it language support. An object is a group of related functions and a data structure that serves those functions. The functions are known as the object's methods, and the fields of its data structure are its instance variables.

5 5 The Objective-C Language The Objective-C language is fully compatible with ANSI standard C Objective-C can also be used as an extension to C++. Although C++ itself is a Object-Oriented Language, there are difference in the dynamic binding from Objective-C

6 6 Objective-C Language (cont.) Objective-C source files have a.m extension.h file is the interface file For example: –main.m –List.h (Interface of List class.) –List.m (Implementation of List class.)

7 7 ID id is a data type used by Objective-C to define a pointer of an object (a pointer to the objects data) (sort of like * in C++) Any type of object, as long as it is an object, we can use the id data type. For example, we can define an object by: id anObject; nil is the reserved word for null object

8 8 Dynamic Typing id data type has no information about the object Every object carries with it an isa instance variable that identifies the object's class, that is, what kind of object it is. Objects are thus dynamically typed at run time. Whenever it needs to, the run-time system can find the exact class that an object belongs to, just by asking the object

9 9 Messages To get an object to do something, you send it a message telling it to apply a method. In Objective-C, message expressions are enclosed in square brackets [receiver message] The receiver is an object. The message is simply the name of a method and any arguments that are passed to it

10 10 Messages (cont.) For example, this message tells the myRect object to perform its display method, which causes the rectangle to display itself [myRect display]; C++ equiv: myRect.display(); [myRect setOrigin:30.0 :50.0]; C++ equiv: myRect.setOrigin(30.0, 50.0); The method setOrigin::, has two colons, one for each of its arguments. The arguments are inserted after the colons, breaking the name apart

11 11 Polymorphism Each object has define its own method but for different class, they can have the same method name which has totally different meaning The two different object can respond differently to the same message Together with dynamic binding, it permits you to write code that might apply to any number of different kinds of objects, without having to choose at the time you write the code what kinds of objects they might be

12 12 Inheritance Root class is NSObject Inheritance is cumulative. A Square object has the methods and instance variables defined for Rectangle, Shape, Graphic, and NSObject, as well as those defined specifically for Square

13 13 Inheritance (cont.) Instance Variables: The new object contains not only the instance variables that were defined for its class, but also the instance variables defined for its super class, all the way back to the root class Methods: An object has access not only to the methods that were defined for its class, but also to methods defined for its super class Method Overriding: Implement a new method with the same name as one defined in a class farther up the hierarchy. The new method overrides the original; instances of the new class will perform it rather than the original

14 14 Class Objects Compiler creates one class object to contain the information for the name of class and super class To start an object in a class: id myRectx; myRect = [[Rectangle alloc] init]; The alloc method returns a new instance and that instance performs an init method to set its initial state.

15 15 Defining a Class In Objective-C, classes are defined in two parts: –An interface (.h) that declares the methods and instance variables of the class and names its super class –An implementation (.m) that actually defines the class (contains the code that implements its methods)

16 16 The Interface The declaration of a class interface begins with the compiler directive @interface and ends with the directive @end @interface ClassName : ItsSuperclass { instance variable declarations } method declarations @end

17 17 Declaration Instance Variables: float width; float height; BOOL filled; NSColor *fillColor; Methods: names of methods that can be used by class objects, class methods, are preceded by a plus sign + alloc methods that instances of a class can use, instance methods, are marked with a minus sign: - (void) display;

18 18 Declaration (cont.) Importing the Interface: The interface is usually included with the #import directive #import "Rectangle.h" To reflect the fact that a class definition builds on the definitions of inherited classes, an interface file begins by importing the interface for its super class Referring to Other Classes: If the interface mentions classes not in this hierarchy, it must declare them with the @class directive: @class Rectangle, Circle;

19 19 The Implementation #import "ClassName.h @implementation ClassName method definitions @end - makeIdenticalTwin { if ( !twin ) { twin = [[Sibling alloc] init]; twin->gender = gender; twin->appearance = appearance; } return twin; }

20 20 Implementation (cont.) Example: @interface Worker : NSObject { char *name; @private int age; char *evaluation; @protected id job; float wage; @public id boss; }

21 21 Implementation (cont.) - promoteTo:newPosition { id old = job; job = newPosition; return old; }

22 22 GCC and Objective-C Objective-C is layered on top of the C language iPhone & iPad native applications are written in Objective C The Apple dev kit for Objective-C is calledCocoa Can be written on any computer that has GCC plus GNUstep plug-in Apple computers have all of this pre-installed, and also have an iPhone simulator in the XCode IDE

23 23 Tools Apple: pre-installed with the Cocoa frameworks –XCode or GCC in terminal window Ubuntu: GnuStep is a free clone of Cocoa –sudo aptget –install buildessentials –gobjc gnustep –gnustepmake –gnustepcommon –libgnustepbasedev Windows:

24 24 File Overview Source code files have a.m extension Header files have a.h extension You can use gcc to compile in the same way as C code But, you will need to add the Cocoa or GNUStep frameworks to the build.

25 25 Example: Hello World #import int main (int argc, const char * argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool * pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; // insert code here... NSLog(@"Hello, World!"); [pool drain]; return 0; } NSLog() is equivalent to a C printf() Very similar to C C programs are valid in Objective-C

26 26 Compiling Hello World in Xcode (Mac) File->New Project –Mac OS X category – Select Application –Command Line Tool –Type - Foundation Name project helloworld and choose folder Save. Note that Foundation.framework has been included for us already Build and run. The debugger console should show Hello World

27 27 Compiling Hello World on Terminal (Mac) Write hello.m using a plain text editor. Compile: gcc – framework Foundation hello.m –o hello Foundation brings in the Foundation framework (Cocoa) which bundles together a set of dependencies (header files and libraries). You will need this every time we compile Objective C code. Type:./hello will run the program in the terminal Note: this approach is fine for early examples but the iPhone applications will be much easier to build in XCode.

28 28 Intro to HelloWorld Objective-C uses a string class similar to the std::string or Java string. It is called NSString. Constant NSStrings are preceded by @ for example: @Hello World You will notice that NSLog() also outputs time and date and various extra information. NSAutoreleasePool* pool =[[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; allocates a lump of memory Memory must be freed with [pool drain];

29 29 Example 2 #import int main(int argc, const char* argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool* pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; NSLog (@Hello World); int undergrads = 120; int postgrads = 50; int students = undergrads + postgrads; NSLog (@Now featuring...\n %i iOS students, students); [pool drain]; return 0; }

30 30 Some things to note No line break needed at end of NSLog statements. NSString constants use C-style variables. Test this program to see results.

31 31 @interface @interface ClassName : ParentClassName { declare member variable here; declare another member variable here; } declare method functions here; @end Equivalent to C class declaration Goes in header (.h) file Functions outside curly braces Dont forget the @end tag

32 32 @implementation #import #include Example.h @implementation ClassName define method function here; define another method function here; define yet another method function here; @end Equivalent to C class function definitions Goes in source (.m) file Don't forget the @end tag

33 33 Example 3: Student.h @interface Student : NSObject { int mUndergrads; int mPostgrads; } -(void) print; -(void) setUndergrads: (int) undergrads; -(void) setPostgrads: (int) postgrads; @end

34 34 Some things to note NSObject is the root object in Objective-C No direct access to instance variables so we write some get/set instance methods Instance methods (affect internal state of class) are preceded with a minus sign Class methods (higher level functions) are preceded with a plus sign e.g. create new class Method return type in parentheses Semicolon before list of parameters Parameter type in parenthesis, followed by name

35 35 Example 3: Student.m #include Student.h @implementation Example -(void) print { int totalStudents = mUndergrads + mPostgrads; NSLog (@Total students in CompSci = %i, totalStudents); } -(void) setUndergrads: (int) undergrads { mUndergrads = undergrads; } -(void) setPostgrads: (int) postgrads { mPostgrads = postgrads; } @end

36 36 Some things to note Note prefix minus sign Very similar to C Same format as with the interface

37 37 Example 3: main.m #import #include Student.h int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { NSAutoreleasePool* pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; Student* iOSstudent; // pointer iOSstudent = [Student alloc]; // allocate memory iOSstudent = [iOSstudent init]; // initialize [iOSstudent setUndergrads: 120]; // apply method to instance [iOSstudent setPostgrads: 2000]; [iOSstudent print]; [iOSstudent release]; [pool drain]; return 0; }

38 38 Some things to note Applying methods to instance format: [receiver message]; Semi-colon for variables or values passed to methods [pool drain] etc. are also applying methods. Built-in messages; alloc, init, release.

39 39 Some other things to note alloc is equivalent to C++ new but it also zeros all variables init should be applied to an instance before use These are often combined in shorthand: Student* iOSstudent = [[Student alloc] init]; There is no garbage collection on the iPhone, so we should release all of our instance memory.

40 40 To compile example 3 Create a project in XCode (dont use Auto Reference Counting) Replace the original main.m Add existing files to the project Compile and run!

41 41 Data Structures Objective-C arrays are similar to C arrays, but you can initialize whole array in a list. Or just a few indices of the array. The rest are set to 0. Or mix and match; int values[3] = { 3, 4, 2 }; char letters[3] = { 'a', 'c', 'x' }; float grades[100] = {10.0,11.2,1.1}; int array[] = {[3]=11,[2]=1,[7]=0};

42 42 Multi-dimensional Arrays Can be initialized by using subset notation with braces. Note no comma after second subset. Subset braces are optional, the compiler will fill in blanks where it can as with 1D arrays. int array[2][3] = { { 0, 3, 4}, { 1, 1, 1} }; int array[2][3] = {0, 3, 4, 1, 1, 1};

43 43 Arrays and Functions Arrays can be passed as arguments to functions. This function will print every integer in an array but it needs to also be told how long the array is (arrayLength). Statements with hard-coded indices such as array[4] are potentially dangerous. void function(int array[], int arrayLength) { int fourthValue = array[4]; for (int i = 0; i < arrayLength; i++) { NSLog(@%i, array[i]; } }

44 44 Structs Similarly, the Objective C struct can be initialized in one go. Use the '.' member notation or just use values in the correct order or use some values. 'unknown.' In the following example we explicitly define the last member but the others are undefined.

45 45 Structs struct Student { int BSYears; int PhDYears; int WellSpentYears; }; struct Student myCareer = {.BSYears = 3,.PhDYears = 3,.WellSpentYears = 6 }; struct Student poorLifeDecisions = { 3, 8, 3 }; struct Student unknown = { 3 }; struct Student andFurtherMore = {.WellSpentYears = 0 };

46 46 Declare+Define a Struct in One Similar to the older C-style notation. This example will declare a coffee order struct and immediately define an instance called complexityGroup. struct coffeeOrder { int Plain; int DoubleEspresso; } complexityGroup = { 7, 4 };

47 47 Fitting into limited memory: Bit fields To work on devices with memory limitations we can manually define the bit size of variables. Using a struct, all of the members are packed together efficiently. The next example divides a 16-bit unsigned integer into 3 on/off bit flags, a 10-bit number and a 3-bit number. Note that it is valid to use Boolean operations on single bit variables.

48 48 Fitting into limited memory: Bit fields struct AlarmPanelStruct { unsigned int DoorAlarmTriggered:1; unsigned int WindowAlarmTriggered:1; unsigned int TrapdoorAlarmTriggered:1; unsigned int AdministratorsID:10; unsigned int AlarmKeyCode:3; }; struct AlarmPanelStruct lab; lab.AlarmCode = 1; lab.DoorAlarmTriggered = 0; if (DoorAlarmTriggered)...

49 49 Fitting into limited memory: Unions Union data structures allow ambiguity. Useful for allowing one storage area to hold different variable types. Can only hold one of the variables at a time. Must be careful to ensure retrieval type matches last type stored. Might come in handy for storing lists of data that might be of different types. The next example gives ones potentially practical use; A series of recordings store Data. The struct has a char to indicate the type of data recorded in Data.

50 50 Fitting into limited memory: Unions union OneOfTheFollowing { char Letter; int CountOf; float Average; }; OneOfTheFollowing lastSpaceOnThePhone; lastSpaceOnThePhone.Letter = 'a'; lastSpaceOnThePhone.CountOf = 1; struct RecordedData { char* Name; union { float RealNumber; int Integer; char Letter; } Data; // immediately defines an instance char TypeOfData; } arrayOfRecordedData[100];

51 51 Memory Management Memory management in Objective-C is semi- automatic: The programmer must allocate memory for objects either a) explicitly (alloc) or b) indirectly using a constructor No need to deallocate

52 52 Allocation Allocation happens through the class method alloc. The message alloc is sent to the class of the requested object. Alloc is inherited from NSObject. Every alloc creates a new instance (=object) [HelloWorld alloc]; The class creates the object with all zeros in it and returns a pointer to it. HelloWorld *p = [HelloWorld alloc]; The pointer p now points to the new instance. Now we send messages to the instance through p.

53 53 The reference counter Every instance has a so called reference counter. It counts how many references are retaining the object. The counter is 1 after allocation. It does not count how many references exist to the object Sending the retain message to the object increases the reference counter by 1. Sending the release message decreases the reference counter by 1.

54 54 reference counter = retain counter When the reference counter reaches zero, the object is automatically de-allocated. The programmer does not deallocate. The programmer only does: alloc retain release

55 55 Rules for memory management The method that does an alloc or a retain must also do a release, it must maintain the balance between: (alloc or retain) and (release) If a method does alloc and returns a pointer to the created object then the method must do an autorelease instead of release. The calling code can do (retain – release) but this is not a must.

56 56 Autorelease pool For autorelease to work the programmer must create an autorelease pool, using: NSAutoreleasePool *pool = [[NSAutoreleasePool alloc] init]; When Cocoa is used then the autorelease pool is created automatically, the programmer does not need to do it. To release the pool and all objects in it, do: [pool release];

57 57 Constructors This is a class method that allocates and initializes an object. The programmer is neither doing alloc nor init. Example: +(id)studentWithName :(NSString*)name AndGpa:(float)gpa { id newInst = [[self alloc]initStudent:name :gpa]; return [newInst autorelease]; }

58 58 Constructors Essential: the method sends alloc to self which is the Student class object Essential: the method autoreleases the instance, because it returns a pointer to the created instance Not essential: This example uses an existing initializer, it could use something else or initialize the Student data directly

59 59 Constructors Calling the constructor: id stud = [Student studentWithName:@"Johnnie" AndGpa: 3.8]; The message is sent to the Student class object and returns a pointer to it, the pointer is assigned to stud The calling code does neither alloc nor init An autorelease pool must be in place

60 60 Something to note! You can program for either the iPhone or the iPad or both in the latest XCode. If you are going to do the examples for both simultaneously be aware that there are two sets of.h and.m files (one for each).

61 61 Frameworks UIKit framework for developing standard iOS GUIs (buttons etc.) UITextField (user-entered text that brings up the keyboard) UIFont UIView UITableView UIImageView UIImage UIButton (a click-able button) UILabel (a string of text on-screen) UIWindow (main Window on iPhone)

62 62 iOS programming Event driven framework Interface Designer has some extra macros for the code that act like hooks to variables; –IBAction - trigger events like mouse clicks –IBOutlet - captures outputs from events These tags are not compiled (don't affect the code) but sit as an extra before variables that the Interface Designer can see.

63 63 iPhone Example Projects Download: Save to your desktop. Double-click to uncompress the file Review MapKit, WebView, SendMail and TabBar Demos

64 64 End of Objective-C Next, we will be doing more Object-C programming and building more iPhone/iPad applications. Make sure to practice writing Object-C source code so you can create highly functioning apps. Take a look at the Example apps

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