Presentation on theme: "Objectives Describe the culture of Native Americans in the Southeast."— Presentation transcript:
1Objectives Describe the culture of Native Americans in the Southeast. Describe the conflict over land occupied by Native Americans in the Southeast.Discuss the forced removal of Native Americans.
2Terms and PeopleSequoyah – Cherokee leader and creator of the Cherokee alphabet
3Set Questions:List three Native American tribes that were relocated by the United States Federal Government.Why did the US Government want the land?How were the Cherokee’s different from other Native American tribes?What act gave Jackson the power to remove the Native Americans?See Pages in your book
4Why did Jackson use force to remove Indians from the Southeast? Beginning with President Jefferson, there had been attempts to move Native Americans westward.Jefferson hoped Native Americans would move voluntarily to preserve their culture (way of life).
5After the War of 1812, Native Americans in the “old” Northwest gave up their lands and moved west of the Mississippi River.However, the Native Americans living in the Southeast refused to move.
6To government leaders, the tribes of the Southeast stood in the way of westward expansion. Fertile farmlandtribesAmerican settlementBy the 1820s, many southerners were demanding that the government move the tribes by force.
7The pressure on Native Americans grew. 182518271828President Monroe created a plan to move all Native Americans west, but it failed.The state of Georgia forced the Creeks to give up most of their land.Georgia tried to force the Cherokees to give up their lands.
8Georgia’s actions were challenged in two Supreme Court cases. Cherokee Nation v. GeorgiaThe Federal Government could not stop Georgia from enforcing their laws.Worcester v. GeorgiaHowever, Georgia’s laws “can have no force” in Cherokee territory.
9Treaties between the United States and the Native Americans In Worcester v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall quoted treaties signed by the United States.The treaties granted territory to the Native Americans.Treaties between the United States and the Native AmericansGeorgia’s lawsMarshall said that Georgia did not have the right to revoke treaties made between two sovereign nations.
10President Jackson opposed the Supreme Court ruling in Worcester v President Jackson opposed the Supreme Court ruling in Worcester v. Georgia.In 1830, Jackson put a new federal law into effect.Indian Removal ActThe act gave Native Americans land in the West in exchange for their lands in the East.
11When Andrew Jackson became President in 1829, more than 100,000 Native Americans lived east of the Mississippi River.ChickasawCreekChoctawSeminoleCherokee
12The Seminoles were a mix of Native Americans in Florida, Creeks, and escaped African American slaves.
14You may be wondering…………. Are there any Native American villages in PA today?There are no federally recognized Indian tribes in Pennsylvania today. Non-recognized Indian tribes and communities include:Eastern Lenape Nation of Pennsylvania:21 Cedar LaneMountville, PA 17554
15The Cherokees had a distinct culture of their own. They also adopted some white customs.They had a written language, developed by Sequoyah.Some learned to speak, read, and write English.They ran businesses, such as lumber mills.Many had converted to Christianity.In 1827, they formed a constitutional government. They claimed status as a separate nation.
16Jackson’s Indian Removal Act was enforced in the 1830s. 1831–18331838The Choctaws signed a treaty giving up all of their lands.Most Native American leaders believed they had no choice.
17The Choctaws moved west. They suffered greatly on their journey. Jackson’s Indian Removal Act was enforced in the 1830s.18301831–18331838The Choctaws moved west. They suffered greatly on their journey.The federal government failed to provide enough supplies, such as tents and food.
18Jackson’s Indian Removal Act was enforced in the 1830s. 1831–18331838President Van Buren forced the Cherokees to leave their lands.The Cherokees remained on their land until after Jackson left office.
22The Seminoles fought three wars against removal. One group of Native Americans, the Seminoles, refused to leave their land.18301835–18421842The Seminoles fought three wars against removal.Although they never signed a peace treaty, most Seminoles were forced to move in the 1840s.
23In total, some 100,000 Native Americans were driven from their homes and forced to walk to a new home.In Indian Territory, in present day Oklahoma, Native Americans struggled to rebuild their lives in very difficult conditions.
24Closing QuestionsAnswer the following questions with one complete sentence:What was President Jefferson’s idea regarding the Native Americans living east of the Mississippi River?What was the difference between Jefferson’s policy regarding Native Americans and Jackson’s policy regarding Native Americans?Do you think moving the Native Americans to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma state) helped to preserve their culture? Explain.
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