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1 0 OUR OCEAN PLANET SECTION 10 – HUMANS AND THE OCEAN

2 1 REVISION HISTORY DateVersionRevised ByDescription Aug 25, VLOriginal

3 2 10. HUMANS AND THE OCEAN

4 3 This section discusses human interactions with the ocean. We start with a brief history of people and the ocean. This is followed by a description of our attempts to explore the ocean. We also describe some of the fields and technologies involved in studying the ocean. We then continue by describing ocean conservation by outlining some of the main reasons we need a healthy ocean. Finally, we describe some of the problems we are causing and some possible solutions to these problems.

5 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN

6 5 The following presents a brief history of people and the ocean. This is followed by a description of our attempts to explore the ocean and some of the fields and technologies involved in studying the ocean History PRE-1000 AD Egyptians (4,000 BC) The Egyptians develop shipbuilding and ocean piloting skills. Phoenicians (1, BC) The Phoenicians explore the Mediterranean Sea, reach England, and circumnavigate Africa by following the coastline. Greeks ( BC) Aristotle ( BC) describes how sharks produce live young and recognizes that dolphins are not fish. Through the use of trigonometry, Eratosthenes ( BC) accurately determines the circumference of the Earth.

7 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Romans (54 BC-30 AD) Seneca puts forward his hypothesis on the “hydrological cycle” of water. Ptolemy (150 AD) Ptolemy the Greek compiles the “Roman World Map” which incorporates the basic lines of longitude and latitude. Polynesians ( AD) The Polynesians spread east across the Pacific reaching New Zealand, Hawaii, and Easter Island. The Venerable Bede ( AD) The English monk, Bede, describes the lunar influences on tidal cycles and recognizes the monthly tidal variations. Interesting! Bluetooth technology is a short- range wireless communications technology intended to replace the cables connecting portable and/or fixed devices, and allows a wide range of devices to connect and communicate with each other. The name "Bluetooth" is from the 10 th century Danish King Harald Blatand (or Harold Bluetooth in English) who was critical in uniting Norway, Sweden and Denmark just as Bluetooth technology hopes to allow different devices such as computers, keyboards, earpieces and phones to work together.

8 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Vikings (ca AD) The Vikings were Scandinavian seafaring traders, warriors and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas of England, Scotland, Normandy, and other parts of Europe and North America from the late 8 th to 11 th centuries. King Harold Godwinson, the last Anglo- Saxon king of England, who was killed during the Norman conquest of England in 1066 AD, was descended from Danish Vikings. Some of the invading Normans were also descended from Danes and Norwegians that were given lands in Normandy in the 8 th century. The Vikings used their famed “longships” to travel as far north as Iceland and Greenland, east to Constantinople, and west to Newfoundland. In 982 AD, Eric the Red discovered North America when he landed on Baffin Island in Canada. Later, in 995 AD, his son, Leif Ericson established Vinland, a settlement in Newfoundland. Generally, the Norwegians expanded to the north and west to places such as Iceland and Greenland, the Danes to England and France, and the Swedes to the east. These nations, although distinct, were similar in culture and language and only after the end of the Viking Age did the separate kingdoms acquire distinct national identities.

9 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 1000 AD-1499 AD Zheng He ( ) Between 1405 and 1433, the Ming government of China sponsored a series of seven naval expeditions to impose imperial control over trade and establish Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean basin. Zheng He was placed as the admiral in control of the expeditions and the huge fleet and armed forces that undertook them. His first voyage consisted of a fleet of 317 ships holding almost 28,000 troops. Many of these ships were mammoth nine-masted "treasure ships" which were by far the largest ships the world had ever seen at the time. On the first three voyages, Zheng He visited southeast Asia, India, and Ceylon (Sri Lanka). The fourth expedition went to the Persian Gulf and Arabia, and later expeditions ventured down the east African coast as far as Malindi (Kenya). Zheng He died during the treasure fleet's last voyage. His missions showed impressive organizational capability and technological might but they did not lead to significant trade. Chinese merchants continued to trade in Japan and southeast Asia and Imperial officials gave up any plans to maintain a Chinese presence in the Indian Ocean.

10 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Christopher Columbus (1451–1506) Christopher Columbus was a navigator and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. Though not the first to reach the Americas from Europe, Columbus' voyages led to general European awareness of the hemisphere and the successful establishment of European cultures in the New World. Columbus' voyages across the Atlantic Ocean began a European effort at exploration and colonization of the Western Hemisphere. While history places great significance on his first voyage of 1492 in his ship, the Santa Maria, he did not actually reach the American mainland until his third voyage in Instead, he made landfall on an island in the Bahamas Archipelago while trying to find a sea route to India. Interesting! Columbus’ mistaken belief that he had reached India resulted in misnaming native Americans as “Indians”. In modern times, attempts have been made to correct this by referring to indigenous peoples as “Native Americans”. As a result, terms such as “Red Indians” and “Carib Indians” are falling out of use.

11 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Columbus was also probably not the earliest European explorer to reach the Americas and there are accounts of European transatlantic contact prior to 1492 (most notably by the Vikings). Nevertheless, Columbus's voyage came at a critical time of growing national imperialism and economic competition between developing nation states seeking wealth from the establishment of trade routes and colonies.

12 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Leonardo Da Vinci ( ) Leonardo Da Vinci observed and recorded the movements of waves and currents. From his observations of fossils he deduced that the sea levels must have been higher in the past. Ferdinand Magellan (1480–1521) Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer who, while in the service of the Spanish crown, tried to find a westward route to the Spice Islands of Indonesia. Magellan is the first European explorer to enter the Pacific Ocean through what are now known as the “Straits of Magellan” at the southern tip of South America on the first successful circumnavigation of the Earth. Magellan was killed in the Philippines in 1521 on his final westward voyage. After Magellan’s death, the voyage was continued and completed by Sebastian del Cano in It is interesting to note that of the 270 crew members who set out with Magellan to circumnavigate the Earth, only 18 completed the voyage and returned to Spain – a testament to the hard conditions endured by Magellan and his crew.

13 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 1500 AD-1899 AD Sir Francis Drake (ca. 1540–1596) Drake was an Elizabethan sailor, navigator, privateer, slave trader, politician and the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe. In 1588, he was a vice admiral in the fleet that defeated the Spanish Armada. His exploits against the Spaniards were semi-legendary and made him a hero to the English but not the Spaniards. To the Spaniards, he was known as "El Draque" (from the old Spanish meaning "the Dragon" derived from the Latin draco, meaning “serpent”) for his actions. He died of dysentery off the coast of Puerto Rico in Gerardus Mercator (1569) Gerardus Mercator constructs the Mercator projection map which greatly improved accuracy for navigation – although it distorts the relative size of the continents. Admiral Sir Henry Morgan (ca ) Admiral Sir Henry Morgan was a Welsh privateer, who made a name in the Caribbean as a leader of buccaneers. He was among Wales's most notorious and successful privateers. Robert Boyle (1674) Robert Boyle carries out pioneering oceanographic measurements on temperature, salinity, pressure and depth. Interesting! Boyle’s Law states that for a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature, the pressure and volume of the gas are inversely proportional to one another. This can be written: P = 1 / V Thus, under ideal conditions, when you double the pressure on a gas, the volume is halved.

14 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Greenwich Meridian Established (1675) The Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England is established and the line of longitude is set at 0° (the Greenwich Meridian). Edward Teach (ca. 1680–1718) Edward Teach, better known as Blackbeard, was a notorious English pirate in the Caribbean Sea and western Atlantic during the early 18th century, a period referred to as the Golden Age of Piracy. Blackbeard often fought, or simply showed himself wearing a big feathered tricorn hat, and carrying several swords, knives, and pistols. It was reported that he had hemp and lighted matches woven into his black beard during battle. Blackbeard is the archetype of the seafaring pirate. Captain James Cook (1728 – 1779) Captain James Cook is considered one of the world’s greatest explorers and navigators. His three major voyages of discovery provided the English with unprecedented information about the Pacific Ocean and its island inhabitants. He also searched for the great southern continent of “Terra Antarctica”. Although he did not discover Antarctica, he was the first navigator to cross the Antarctic Circle in His meticulous mapping skills pioneered the way for the success of future explorations and his voyages lead to the establishment of colonies throughout the Pacific. In 1771, Cook was also the first ship commander to prevent scurvy by serving his crew fruit and sauerkraut. Interesting! Eating fresh fruit and vegetables (especially citrus fruits, such as limes) helps prevent scurvy. In order to prevent scurvy killing his crew on their long voyages, Captain Cook ordered his crew to eat limes. This is why the English are sometimes nicknamed “limeys’.

15 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Horatio Nelson ( ) Vice Admiral Lord Nelson was famous for his leadership during the Napoleonic Wars, most notably at the Battle of Trafalgar, a decisive British sea victory in the war, during which he lost his life. Nelson went against the conventional tactics of the time by sailing his fleet through the enemy's lines rather than sailing broadside to each other and firing cannon until one side retreated. Nelson was noted for his ability to inspire and bring out the best in his men to the point that it came to called the “Nelson Touch". His actions during these wars meant that he was revered like few military figures have been throughout British history. His memory lives on in numerous monuments, most notably Nelson's Column, which stands in the centre of Trafalgar Square in London. Gulf Stream Ocean Charts Published ( ) Benjamin Franklin publishes the first ocean charts of the Gulf Stream to help the passage of ships across the Atlantic Ocean. Deep Water Life In the Arctic Ocean ( ) Sir John Ross discovers living organisms at a depth of 1.8 km (1.1 miles) near Baffin Island in the Arctic Ocean.

16 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Charles Darwin ( ) Charles Darwin was an English naturalist. After becoming an eminent scientist in geology, he proposed and provided scientific evidence for his theory that life evolved over time from a few common ancestors through the process of natural selection. The theory of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution in the 1930s and forms the basis of modern evolutionary theory. In modified form, Darwin’s scientific discovery remains the foundation of biology as it provides a unifying logical explanation for the diversity of life. Darwin five-year voyage on the Beagle to the Galapagos islands and South America allowed him to collect and gather data that would help him formulate the theory of evolution. Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils collected on the voyage, Darwin investigated the transmutation of species and conceived his theory of natural selection in Having seen others attacked as heretics for such ideas, he confided only in his closest friends and continued extensive research to meet anticipated objections. His research was still in progress in 1858 when Alfred Russell Wallace sent him an essay which described a similar theory prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.

17 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Sir James Clark Ross ( ) discovers living organisms at a depth of 7 km (4.3 miles) in Antarctic waters Victor Hensen makes important discoveries on the nature of plankton and pioneers techniques for plankton study In 1855, Matthew Maury ( ), an American, compiled wind and current data to help shipping and published his findings in the “Physical Geography of the Seas”. Maury becomes known as the “Father of Oceanography”. HMS Challenger ( ) The naturalist, Charles Wyville Thomson, conducts worldwide scientific investigations aboard HMS Challenger. These are the first serious attempts to study the bottom of the ocean and his voyages collected and classified almost 5,000 new species of marine life The Marine Biological Association is established in England to study coastal ecology.

18 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 1892 The Norwegian polar explorer, Fridtjof Nansen ( ) has the ship “Fram” specially built to withstand ice-entrapment. The drift of the ship confirms there is no Arctic continent The American, Joshua Slocum, becomes the first man to circumnavigate the world single-handed in his yacht “Spray” AD-TODAY 1902 The Danes set up the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas (ICES) to investigate the oceanography and fisheries of the North Sea The Scripps Institute of Oceanography is established in the USA The German scientist, Alfred Wegener, proposes his theory of “continental drift” The British-led “Discovery Investigations” carry out extensive work in many regions of the southern oceans. The results establish modern Antarctic marine research. Interesting! The Arctic is a “frozen ocean” – there is no Arctic continent. In contrast, Antarctica is a frozen continent.

19 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN A German expedition directed by George Wurst aboard the ship “Meteor” makes detailed studies of the oceanography of the Atlantic Ocean. Many modern oceanographic techniques were first used on these voyages The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute is established in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA William Beebe ( ) was an American naturalist, explorer, and author. His interest in deep-sea exploration led to the development of the bathysphere, a spherical metal diving vessel, with Otis Barton. In 1930, he descended 183 m (600 ft) off Nonsuch Island in Bermuda, where in 1934 he made a record descent of 923 m (3,028 ft). Beebe made a total of 35 dives in the bathysphere Jacques Cousteau ( ) was a French naval officer, explorer, ecologist, filmmaker, scientist, photographer and researcher. He co- developed the aqua-lung and pioneered marine conservation, and is widely regarded as the father of modern scuba diving. Interesting! Cousteau’s research ship “Calypso” is named after a nymph in Greek mythology who kept Odysseus on her island for seven years.

20 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Cousteau started skin diving with Frédéric Dumas and Philippe Tailliez in In 1943, he and Émile Gagnan tried out the first prototype aqua-lung. This made lengthy underwater exploration possible for the first time, helped improve our knowledge of the underwater world, and opened the door to many people being able to dive. Before the echolocation abilities of porpoises were discovered, Cousteau suggested that they might exist. In his first book, the Silent World (1953), he reported that a group of porpoises were following his research vessel in the Straits of Gibraltar. Cousteau moved the ship a few degrees off the optimal course to the center of the strait and the porpoises followed for a few minutes before diverging towards mid-channel again. It was evident they knew where the optimal course lay. Cousteau correctly concluded that cetaceans must use “sonar” to help them navigate The International Whaling Commission (IWC) is set up under the auspices of the United Nations to collect whaling information and to regulate the shore-based whaling industry and pelagic whaling fleets. Interesting! Sonar is the generic name of the technology that is used to locate objects underwater. Sonar systems are of two basic types - active and passive. In active sonar, the system emits a pulse of sound and then the operator listens for echoes. In passive sonar, the operator listens to sounds emitted by the object one is trying to locate. SONAR is an acronym and means: SOund Navigation And Ranging

21 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 1947 Thor Heyerdahl sails from Peru across the Pacific on the balsa raft “Kon Tiki” partly to prove that Pacific islands could have been reached by early sailors from South America. He campaigned to make people aware that all of the oceans are linked and that what we throw into the sea will find its way all over the world The nuclear submarine, USS Nautilus, commanded by Cdr. William Andersen, reaches the North Pole under the ice The Swiss scientist, Auguste Piccard, developed the un-tethered “bathyscaphe” “Trieste”. Jacques Piccard and Donald Walsh descend to the deepest part of the world’s oceans to a depth of 10,915 m (35,810 ft) in the Mariana Trench, off the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean The International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE) investigates the oceanography of the Indian Ocean.

22 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 1966 The first supertanker disaster, Torrey Canyon, occurs off the coast of southwest England. About 31,000,000 gallons of oil leaked from the ship killing much of the marine life along the whole of the south coast of Britain and Normandy shores of France. Since then other major oil-related disasters in the marine environment include the Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez and oil spills in the Persian Gulf resulting from the Gulf War The US National Science Foundation organizes the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) to investigate the ocean crust. It confirms the theory of “sea floor spreading”. 1970s The United Nations initiates the International Decade of Ocean Exploration (IDOE) The Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) is organized to study ocean chemistry and biochemical recycling of chemical substances Manned American submersibles discover remarkable deep sea communities associated with hydrothermal vents along sea floor ridges.

23 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 1978 The first “remote-sensing” oceanographic satellite (SEASAT-A) is launched to study the oceans. 1980s The Coordinated Ocean Research and Exploration Sections program (CORES) is established by the UN to continue work from the IDOE investigations of the 1970s. Sylvia Earle (1935- ) Sylvia Earle is an American oceanographer. In 1979, she made an open-ocean pressurized JIM suit dive setting a women's depth record of 381 m (1,250 ft); she also holds the women's record for a solo dive in a deep submersible (1,000 m, 3,280 ft). Earle has led more than 400 expeditions worldwide and has over 7,000 hours underwater in connection with her research. An expert on the impact of oil spills, she was called upon to lead several research trips during the Gulf War and following the spills of the ships, Exxon Valdez and Mega Borg. She is the author of more than 125 publications on marine science and technology. She has participated in numerous television productions and given scientific, technical, and general interest lectures in more than 60 countries. Earle was named Time magazine's first "hero for the planet" in 1998.

24 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Robert Ballard (1942- ) Robert Ballard (1942- ) is an oceanographer most noted for his work in underwater archaeology. He is most famous for the discoveries of the wrecks of the Titanic in 1985, the battleship Bismarck in 1989, and the wreck of the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown in In 2002 he discovered the wreck of John F. Kennedy's PT-109. REFERENCES & FURTHER READING - Bluetooth - Robert Ballard - Blackbeard - Jacques Cousteau - Christopher Columbus - Captain Cook - Leonardo Da Vinci - Francis Drake - Sylvia Earle - Magellan - Magellan - Torrey Canyon - Vikings - Vikings - Zheng He - Zheng He - Sonar - Historic figures

25 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Final Frontier The ocean is the last and largest unexplored place on Earth – less than 5% of it has been explored. This is the great frontier for the next generation’s explorers and researchers, where they will find great opportunities for inquiry and investigation. Part of the reason for this is simply the challenge of the enormous pressures at depth. It has only really been in the last 100 years or so that human technology has allowed us to begin to explore and study the deep ocean. Probably the first serious attempt to study the deep ocean was undertaken by the crew members of HMS Challenger between 1872 and The scientists on board returned with over 4,000 new species including the first ever anglerfish to be retrieved from the depths. Ocean Literacy Principle 7(a) The ocean is the last and largest unexplored place on Earth—less than 5% of it has been explored. This is the great frontier for the next generation’s explorers and researchers, where they will find great opportunities for inquiry and investigation.

26 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN DIVING Divers today typically fall into two main groups: 1. Recreational Scuba Diving – Normally To 45 m (150 ft) Recreational scuba divers typically use a tank of compressed air to dive the oceans. The use of compressed air restricts the maximum depth and duration of a dive. A diver breathes compressed air normally at depth and has no sense that anything is different. However, changes are occurring within the body. Nitrogen is entering the blood stream and begins to build up – the longer the diver stays down, the more compressed nitrogen is in the bloodstream. When a diver surfaces and the pressure decreases, nitrogen begins to come out of the blood and small bubbles may form. Normally, this is not a problem. However, if the diver has stayed down too long, gone too deep, or has come up too fast, the bubbling can cause serious problems. Bubbles can become lodged in a critical area of the body (e.g. a diver’s brain or heart), and cause ‘embolisms’, ‘decompression sickness’ or “the bends”.

27 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Divers typically wear a neoprene wetsuit or a dry suit to keep warm. A wetsuit works by trapping a thin layer of water between the suit and the diver’s skin. This thin layer of water is warmed by the body and, because the wetsuit is form-fitting, water only passes through slowly. Typically, a thick wetsuit will keep a diver comfortable to a water temperature of 10°C (50°F). For colder waters, dry suits are used. These are sealed so no water enters the suit. A diver wears ordinary clothing under the suit and stays dry throughout the dive. Dry suits are suitable for cold water temperatures of 0°C (32°F). Both wetsuits and dry suits make a diver buoyant so divers carry weight to keep them down. The ideal is for a diver to be “neutrally buoyant” where he is neither going up or down. A diver must learn and practice maintaining neutral buoyancy. Good buoyancy control is particularly important when diving on reefs so that divers do not crash into and break pieces of coral. Interesting! SCUBA is an acronym and means: Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus Interesting! Serious scuba diving injuries are usually caused a diver staying down too long, diving too deep or surfacing too quickly.

28 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 2. Commercial & Research Diving – To 600 m (2,000 ft) Commercial and research divers also utilize scuba diving equipment but may use different quantities and combinations of breathing gases to prolong the dive time and increase depth. Divers that need to dive and work even deeper will sometimes use pressurized NEWT or JIM suits. NEWT suits are armored thick-walled suits that completely enclose divers and resist water pressure. When underwater, the diver breathes air at normal pressure as if inside a submarine. This means a diver can go deeper without having to undergo decompression. NEWT suits are used in oil exploration to depths of 365 m (1,200 ft). Joints in the arms and legs allow the diver to move. JIM suits are also armored thick-walled suits that completely enclose a diver. Divers breathe air at normal atmospheric pressure. A JIM suit protects a diver from the crushing water pressure to depths of up to 600 m (2,000 ft) and is named after Jim Jarret who first wore the suit in 1969.

29 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN SUBMARINES The maximum depths of modern military submarines are classified and accurate information is not easy to obtain. However, it seems that the largest, deep-diving, military-style submarine is the nuclear- powered Soviet submarine K-278 Komsomolets which have hulls made of titanium. This made them very expensive to build but they were able to dive much deeper than the best American nuclear submarines which are of high-grade steel. The Komsomolets is estimated to be able to dive 1,300 m (4,265 ft). In contrast, American Sea Wolf class submarines have an estimated crush depth of about 730 m (2,400 ft). It is interesting to note that our most powerful submarines only reach about one-tenth of the maximum depth of the ocean at 11,000 m (7 miles) with most operating shallower than 1,000 m (3,300 ft).

30 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN SUBMERSIBLES The following outlines some of the most famous submersibles used to study the deep ocean. Some, like Alvin, are almost household names while others may be less familiar: 1. Beebe & Barton’s Bathysphere In the 1930s, Dr. William Beebe became the first person to observe deep sea animals in their natural habitat. The terrifying, fanged creatures that we now recognize as deep sea fish were first viewed by Beebe. 2. Johnson Sea Link One of the most recent manned submersibles is the Johnson Sea Link (JSL) built and operated by the Harbour Branch Oceanographic Institute in Florida. It has a front sphere of plexiglass which limits it to a depth of 1,000 m (3,300 ft) but it gives an observer an unrestricted view of mid-water life.

31 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 3. Nautile The Nautile is a French submersible that measures about 8 m (26 ft) in length. It was used to recover objects from the seabed surrounding the wreck of the Titanic. Only a submersible could dive deep enough to reach the Titanic, 3,780 m (2.3 miles) down. The Nautile is, essentially, a titanium sphere that is able to withstand the immense pressure at these depths. Extra-thick curved plexiglass portholes flatten on the dive from the deep water pressure. Nautile can stay down for about 8 hours and has space for three people (a pilot, co-pilot and an observer). 4. Alvin In 1964, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute launched Alvin, a 2 m (7 ft) titanium sphere able to hold a pilot and two observers. Although it could not dive as deep as its predecessor, it was far more mobile on reaching the bottom. Alvin has become the workhorse of deep sea exploration and has gone on to discover the hot vents and explore the wreck of the Titanic. It is still in active use today. Alvin can reach a depth of about 4,500 m (14,764 ft) but even this amazing craft reaches less than halfway to the bottom of the ocean.

32 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 5. MIR The MIR submersibles were designed and built by the Russians and Finns. They can reach a maximum depth of 6,000 m (19,680 ft) thus giving them access to up to 98% of the world's oceans. The MIR submersibles are two of only five manned submersibles in the world that can dive beyond 3,000m (9,840 feet). The pressure sphere is constructed of special nickel-steel and is designed to withstand the enormous pressures at these ocean depths. The MIR submersibles have an overall length of 7.8 m (25 ft) and their cabin is 2.1 m (7 ft) in diameter, accommodating one pilot and two passengers. 6. Trieste & Trieste II In 1948, Auguste Piccard suspended a 10 tonne steel sphere from a gas-filled float. This bathyscaphe was used to dive in the Atlantic and Mediterranean as deep as 4,000 m (13,123 ft). In 1960, a second-generation Trieste, carried Piccard’s son, Jacques and U.S. Navy diver Don Walsh, to the bottom of the Challenger Deep – 11 km (7 miles) deep in the Marianas Trench. They remain the only people to have reached this deepest spot in the ocean. Interesting! Numerous worldwide expeditions have been conducted with the MIR submersibles. The discovery of hydrothermal vent life on the ocean floor was one of the greatest discoveries of the 20th century. The MIR submersibles have visited 12 of these hydrothermal vent sites both in the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. Three of these sites were visited for the first time ever by the MIR's. Other voyages include the Titanic and German battleship Bismarck. In 1989, MIR submersibles undertook observations and encapsulation of the Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets sunk in the Norwegian Sea in 1,700 m (5,576 ft) of water. Work was also carried out on the wreck of the Russian submarine Kursk in the Barents Sea in 2000 and the Japanese submarine I-52 located in the Atlantic Ocean.

33 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN REMOTE OPERATED VEHICLES (ROVs) Manned deep sea exploration is dangerous because the great pressures can crush submersibles. As a result, there has been increased use of un-manned remote operated vehicles. Some people believe that remotely operated vehicles carrying cameras and a battery of sensors are a much safer and more efficient way to study the deep sea, while others feel that real-life viewing is essential. REFERENCES & FURTHER READING - Submarine maximum depth - Submarine maximum depth – MIR – MIR dive to Lake Baikal – Trieste

34 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN

35 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Bathysphere HISTORY Our first view of the deep sea was probably through the exploration work of two individuals named Otis Barton and William Beebe who used a bathysphere to film the deep sea. To study the deep sea, the bathysphere was hoisted by steel cable over the side of a ship and lowered nearly half a mile down into the ocean – a testament to the pioneering spirit and courage of these early explorers. The bathysphere was originally designed and developed by Otis Barton, a Columbia University engineer, while William Beebe ( ) was a naturalist with the New York Zoological Society. In the late 1920s and 1930s, these pioneers set early deep diving records (923 m (3,028 ft) in August, 1934) and observed denizens of the abyss that had never been seen before. In many ways, they introduced us to a new world and initiated an era of oceanic research and deep-sea exploration that continues to this day. Today, the New York Zoological Society is known as the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS). The WCS manages the New York urban wildlife parks (zoos and aquarium) among other functions and Beebe is regarded as one of its founding fathers. The original bathysphere used by Beebe and Barton can be seen at the New York Aquarium.

36 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN FEATURES The bathysphere is a hollow, steel ball, with thick walls constructed to withstand the enormous pressures exerted upon it at great depths. The bathysphere is tethered to a hoist by a steel cable and solid rubber hose which carries electric wires that provide light and communications to the divers. The front of the bathysphere has three port holes with small, thick glass windows for observation. In the back, a steel cover plate is ordinarily bolted over the entry port, sealing the divers and their equipment within. Today, a perspex plate is bolted over the port, which allows people to see into the internal space, while protecting it from litter and debris. The bathysphere is just 145 cm (57 in) in diameter and is cramped when two men, a light, telephone, oxygen tanks, chemicals (soda lime to absorb carbon dioxide and calcium chloride to absorb moisture) and air-circulation fans are packed within it. REFERENCES & FURTHER READING

37 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN Studying The Ocean 1. WHY STUDY THE OCEAN? Understanding the ocean is more than a matter of curiosity. Exploration, inquiry and study are required to better understand ocean systems and processes. Over the last 40 years, the use of ocean resources such as oil, natural gas, minerals, food, water and oxygen, has increased significantly. The future sustainability of ocean resources depends on our understanding of those resources and their potential and limitations. 2. NEW TECHNOLOGIES New technologies, sensors and tools are expanding our ability to explore the ocean. Ocean scientists are relying more and more on satellites, drifters, buoys, sub-sea observatories and unmanned submersibles. (a) Ocean Instrumentation & Buoys Sensory instruments that measure ocean conditions (e.g. air & sea temperature, wind speed & direction, barometric pressure, ultraviolet radiation, salinity, etc.) are placed in many parts of the world’s oceans. These instruments monitor conditions and transmit data to satellites. Ocean Literacy Principle 7(b) Understanding the ocean is more than a matter of curiosity. Exploration, inquiry and study are required to better understand ocean systems and processes. Ocean Literacy Principle 7(c) Over the last 40 years, use of ocean resources has increased significantly; therefore the future sustainability of ocean resources depends on our understanding of those resources and their potential and limitations. Ocean Literacy Principle 7(d) New technologies, sensors and tools are expanding our ability to explore the ocean. Ocean scientists are relying more and more on satellites, drifters, buoys, subsea observatories and unmanned submersibles.

38 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN (b) Satellites Satellites can receive information from Earth-based sensors and transmit the data back to laboratories, research and meteorological stations around the world for further analysis and study. Satellites can also keep track of surface temperature, currents and other changing features of the ocean’s surface. They can also take high resolution photographs of the ocean surface. Since the 1970s, remote sensing from satellites has become an increasingly important and valuable tool for studying the oceans. (c) Computers & Modeling Many ocean processes are extremely complex. In order to help us understand these processes, mathematical models are used to simplify the problem. Use of mathematical models is now an essential part of ocean sciences. They help us understand the complexity of the ocean and of its interaction with Earth’s climate. They process observations and help describe the interactions among systems. Raw data is initially gathered by sensors and transmitted via satellite to computer systems. Models are then run on these computer systems to analyze the data and calculate results. Models are also applied to predict events. Ocean Literacy Principle 7(e) Use of mathematical models is now an essential part of ocean sciences. Models help us understand the complexity of the ocean and of its interaction with Earth’s climate. They process observations and help describe the interactions among systems.

39 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN 3. NEW FIELDS Ocean exploration is truly interdisciplinary. It requires new ways of thinking and close collaboration among people in a variety of fields including: (a) Biology A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. They study organisms and their relationship to their environment or carry out research to discover the underlying mechanisms that govern how organisms work. (b) Geology Geology is the study of the solid earth, its rocks and minerals. Geologists understand how the dynamic forces which shape our earth work and use this knowledge to predict their effect on humans. Geologists are the “field hands” of earth science. Without ground- based observations to confirm information obtained from space- based tools, we would have an incomplete or inaccurate picture of our planet. Ocean Literacy Principle 7(f) Ocean exploration is truly interdisciplinary. It requires close collaboration among biologists, chemists, climatologists, computer programmers, engineers, geologists, meteorologists, and physicists, and new ways of thinking

40 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN c) Oceanography An oceanographer is a scientist who studies the physical and biological aspects of the Earth’s oceans and seas. Oceanography covers a wide range of topics including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics, ocean currents, waves and geophysical fluid dynamics, plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor, and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines (including biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics) that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the ocean and our understanding of processes within it. (d) Chemistry Chemists study the composition of matter and its small-scale properties, such as density and acidity, and describe the properties they study at molecular level. Chemists measure substance proportions, reaction rates and other chemical properties and use this knowledge to learn the composition, structure, chemical reactivity, and properties of unfamiliar substances, as well as to reproduce and synthesize large quantities of useful naturally occurring substances and create new artificial substances and processes.

41 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN (e) Climatology Climatology is the study of climate (weather conditions over a period of time). Phenomena of interest include the atmospheric boundary layer, circulation patterns, heat transfer, interactions between the atmosphere and the oceans and land surface, and the chemical and physical composition of the atmosphere. (f) Computer Science Computer programmers are able to write the sets of instructions that tell computers the tasks the computer is to perform. Many disciplines require computers to carry out a wide range of tasks from simple calculations to detailed data analysis and statistics, to imaging and complex modeling tasks. (g) Engineering Engineers use technology, mathematics, and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. Engineers apply established principles drawn from mathematics and science in order to develop economical solutions to technical problems. Engineers use computers extensively for the analysis and production of designs, the simulation and testing of the operation of a machine, structure or system, and the generation of part specifications. Many engineers also use computers to monitor product quality and control process efficiency.

42 PEOPLE AND THE OCEAN (h) Meteorology A person who studies the earth's atmosphere, especially in connection with weather forecasting and weather-forming processes. (i) Physics A physicist is a scientist who studies the properties and interactions of matter and energy in all their forms (liquid, solid, gas, and plasma). REFERENCES & FURTHER READING - Biologists - Chemists - Climatologist - Engineer - Geologists - Meteorologists - Oceanographer - Physicist - NOAA Integrated Coral Observing Network (ICON)

43 CONSERVATION

44 CONSERVATION Why We Need The Ocean The ocean affects all human life. It supplies freshwater (most rainwater comes from the ocean) and nearly all Earth’s oxygen. The ocean moderates the Earth’s climate, influences our weather, and affects human health. From the ocean we get foods, medicines, and mineral and energy resources. In addition, it provides jobs, supports our nation’s economy, serves as a highway for transportation of goods and people, and plays a role in national security. The ocean is a source of inspiration, recreation, rejuvenation and discovery. It is also an important element in the heritage of many cultures. 1. Water The ocean is responsible for supplies most of the world’s freshwater with most rain originating from the ocean. Without freshwater, most animal life would not exist. 2. Oxygen Photosynthetic organisms in the ocean, such as blue-green bacteria, phytoplankton, algae and plants, supply nearly all Earth’s oxygen. Without them, most animal life would not exist. Ocean Literacy Principle 6(a) The ocean affects all human life. It supplies freshwater (most rain comes from the ocean) and nearly all Earth’s oxygen. It moderates the Earth’s climate, influences our weather, and affects human health. Ocean Literacy Principle 6(b) From the ocean we get foods, medicines, and mineral and energy resources. In addition, it provides jobs, supports our nation’s economy, serves as a highway for transportation of goods and people, and plays a role in national security. Ocean Literacy Principle 6(c) The ocean is a source of inspiration, recreation, rejuvenation and discovery. It is also an important element in the heritage of many cultures.

45 CONSERVATION 3. Climate & Weather Both the Earth’s climate and weather is driven by the ocean. 4. Food The ocean provides us with food. For example, fish provide much of the world’s protein food supply. Every year about 75 million tons of fish are caught. Mackerel, pollack, herring and tuna are important pelagic (open ocean) fish while popular demersal (bottom-living) fish include cod, flounder, plaice, haddock, and crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and shrimp. 5. Medicines The ocean also provides us with medicines. For example, substantial research is focused upon the use of coral reefs and reef organisms in the development of new drugs to treat cancer, Alzheimer's and other diseases. Like rainforests, coral reefs also have enormous potential for new medicines yet to be discovered. Horseshoe crabs have several uses in medicine. An extract of horseshoe crab blood – Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) – is used to ensure biomedical products (e.g. vaccines) are free of bacterial contamination. Horseshoe crab chitin is used in manufacturing chitin-coated suturing filament and wound dressing for burn victims.

46 CONSERVATION 6. Natural Energy Resources & Minerals Seawater and the sea floor are rich in mineral deposits and other natural energy resources (e.g. oil, gas). People have extracted salt from seawater for thousands of years. In hot countries, saltwater is pumped into shallow pools and allowed to evaporate. The salt left behind can then be collected. In cold climates, workers separate salt by boiling seawater. Other important elements separated from seawater include bromine and magnesium. Offshore sea-beds are a source of building materials such as shells for making cement, sand and gravel. This is sucked up by powerful pumps into barges for transportation. Worldwide, offshore dredging produces about 1.2 billion tons of sand and gravel a year mainly for concrete manufacture. Other minerals include iron, tin, and manganese which are widely needed in industry. Much of the world’s oil and gas supply is now piped up from under the floors of shallow seas fringing the continents. Semi-submersible platforms floating in water 300 m (1,000 ft) deep can test drill through 9,000 m (29,500 ft) of sea-bed rock. Steel or concrete production platforms weighing up to 30,000 tons stand in 900 m (3,000 ft) of water.

47 CONSERVATION 7. Jobs & Economy Working with the ocean means that people have many different types of jobs ranging from fishermen to researchers. The ocean may also be an important source of income for local people from tourism and eco-tourism. In some countries, the country’s economic health is dependent upon the ocean. 8. Transportation & National Security The ocean serves as a highway for transportation of goods and people, and plays a role in national security. Oceans or seas also protect nations. For example, one reason the U.K. has not been successfully invaded since 1066 AD is due at least in part to its geographical separation from the rest of Europe by the Channel. More subtly, the ocean also protects nations and native species from invasive species and diseases. 9. Recreation The ocean is also a source of inspiration, recreation, rejuvenation and discovery for many people. It is also an important element in the heritage of many cultures. For example, tropical beaches and coral reefs provide a place for recreational activities, such as swimming, snorkeling, and scuba diving. Other activities include fishing, boating, surfing and other water sports. Interesting! Lionfish are not native to the North Atlantic or Caribbean but they can now be found in Florida, Bahamas and Cayman Islands. It seems that several lionfish, which are popular in home aquaria, were accidentally released while they were being transported from their native Indian and Pacific Ocean home and they were able to invade and successfully colonize a new ocean.

48 CONSERVATION Problems Humans affect the ocean in a variety of ways. Laws, regulations and resource management affect what is taken out and put into the ocean. Human development and activity leads to pollution (point source, non-point source, and noise pollution) and physical modifications (changes to beaches, shores and rivers). In addition, humans have removed most of the large vertebrates from the ocean. The problems we have fall into three main categories: 1. POLLUTION – PUTTING HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INTO THE OCEAN “Pollution" is the negative effect from by-products of human civilization that change the natural environment. Pollution can take almost any form and there are many forms that can be hazardous and unhealthy to life in the oceans including: (a) Sewage Improperly treated sewage is one major contributor to pollution in the oceans. When sewage flows into the ocean, it causes nutrient loading. Nutrient loading (eutrophication) is the presence of excess nutrients in the water that plants use to grow and survive. With coral reefs, for example, excessive nutrients can cause algae blooms which can cloud the water blocking the corals from sunlight. Macro- algae can then very quickly overgrow and smother corals. Ocean Literacy Principle 6(e) Humans affect the ocean in a variety of ways. Laws, regulations and resource management affect what is taken out and put into the ocean. Human development and activity leads to pollution (point source, non-point source, and noise pollution) and physical modifications (changes to beaches, shores and rivers). In addition, humans have removed most of the large vertebrates from the ocean.

49 CONSERVATION (b) Runoff Runoff from land can also cause nutrient loading. Humans use fertilizers on farms and lawns. When it rains, these fertilizers are washed into the nearby rivers and streams and eventually end up in the ocean. The same fertilizers that will make lawns look lush and beautiful will also cause algae blooms in the ocean. Heavy metals, pesticides and many harmful chemicals enter the ocean through runoff, all of which can have harmful effects on ocean life. (c) Warm Water Many industries create warm water as a by-product. Power plants and desalination plants, for example, both release large quantities of warm water. Warmer water temperatures can make coastal areas uninhabitable for marine life. (d) Fresh Water Fresh water is not something commonly thought of as a pollutant. However, fresh water can be deadly to sea life. For example, the water level in the Florida Everglades is controlled by man-made gates. When the gates are opened, a rush of fresh water is released into the surrounding sea grass beds which can cause the sea grass to die. Sea grass beds act as fish and coral nurseries. When sea grass beds die, this habitat is eliminated and much of the sediment that was held by the sea grass is loosened. The water becomes more turbid which in turn, affects the Floridian coral reefs nearby.

50 CONSERVATION (e) Noise Ship engines, propellers and submarines that utilize sonar make a lot of noise. This can disrupt mating rituals in sea mammals such as whales and cause distress. For humans who live in big cities or who have had to endure a pneumatic drill or loud noises for extended periods of time will know how aggravating these sounds can be and how much stress they can engender. (f) Plastic Plastics are typically chains of carbon atoms (“polymers”) with elements, such as chlorine, added to it. Plastic is strong, durable and lightweight. It is an integral component to modern life and has multiple uses that are critical to human welfare. However, plastic is not biodegradable and cannot easily be broken down and removed from the environment. This has led to it becoming a very serious pollutant. Important! It is easy to blame plastic for some of the problems we have but one also must not forget the immense benefits plastics have brought us. Plastics have many important uses in modern life, including packaging to keep food fresh and medicines sterile. Plastics are also used in the fabrication of numerous technological tools and devices. Scientists are working on alternatives to plastics that are just as useful but are also biodegradable. At the moment, however, our main recourse is to reduce plastic usage and increase reuse as much as possible.

51 CONSERVATION One area of the ocean which is particularly badly polluted by plastic is the North Pacific Gyre. The North Pacific Gyre is a swirling vortex of ocean currents comprising most of the northern Pacific Ocean. The North Pacific Gyre has a clockwise circular pattern but is relatively stationary at its center. The circular rotation of the gyre draws in waste material which has led to the accumulation of flotsam and other debris in huge floating patches of waste which has led to it being named the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch” or the “Pacific Trash Vortex”. Some sources have reported that this floating continent of debris is more than 4,000 km (2,485 miles) wide. A second trash vortex has also formed off the coast of Japan. While “only” half the size of the one northeast of Hawaii, it is still sizeable. Rather than biodegrade, plastic disintegrates into smaller and smaller pieces and can enter the ocean food chain. The small particles resemble zooplankton, which can lead to them being consumed by jellyfish and other animals. Transparent plastic bags also resemble jellyfish and sea turtles can mistake them for food. Many types of plastic may end up in the stomachs of marine birds. Eventually, these animals die of starvation, their stomachs filled with un-digestible plastic. Interesting! In order to make plastics, we need a source of carbon. Frequently, this source is oil. Thus, oil is important not just as fuel for cars but also to make plastics. It is also why when you burn plastic, you get a large amount of noxious black smoke which comes from burning carbon.

52 CONSERVATION 2. PHYSICAL MODIFICATIONS – CHANGING THE OCEAN (a) Development Much of the world’s population lives in coastal areas. As a result, a great deal of development has been carried out around the continental coasts. This has resulted in many problems including the removal and/or destruction of mangroves and turtle grass beds which are important breeding grounds for young sea life. It has already resulted in the removal of many breeding grounds for sea turtles and sea mammals. (b) Erosion Coastal regions are susceptible to erosion and natural hazards (e.g. tsunamis, hurricanes, cyclones, sea level change, and storm surges) which are ordinarily buffered by sand on beaches. However, dredging and the removal of mangroves and sea grass beds has increased the level of erosion. Ocean Literacy Principle 6(d) Much of the world’s population lives in coastal areas. Ocean Literacy Principle 6(f) Coastal regions are susceptible to natural hazards (tsunamis, hurricanes, cyclones, sea level change, and storm surges).

53 CONSERVATION 3. OVER-EXPLOITATION – EXTRACTING TOO MUCH FROM THE OCEAN (a) Over-Fishing Modern fishing techniques are extraordinarily efficient. Unfortunately, this is not necessarily a good thing. Their very efficiency means that we take huge amounts of fish from the ocean. Inshore, nets are thrown and traps set by hand to catch fish, crabs and octopuses. Out at sea, sonar devices help fishing boats track down large shoals and special nets or hooks catch fish living at different depths. Trawlers hunt demersal species by dragging trawl nets over the sea-bed. Purse seine nets are pulled shut to trap mid- water species. Pelagic fish are either snared on long curtain-like drift nets hung from buoys or caught on hooks attached to long lines. Small craft may supply one big factory ship, where fish are gutted, frozen and stored for several weeks. In one day, a single factory ship can process more than 600 tons of fish. Methods such as these mean that we have dramatically reduced the stock of many species. For example, there is huge concern that we have over- fished parts of the North Atlantic. Farming of certain species, such as salmon, may help alleviate this problem but fish farms may have their own environmental consequences.

54 CONSERVATION (b) Wasteful Practices Unfortunately, it is not just the fact that we take an enormous number of fish from the ocean every year but also the manner in which we take these fish which, in extreme cases, can be considered criminally wasteful. For example, tens of thousands of sharks, wahoo and dorado are often caught as a by-catch of tuna fishing and simply discarded as waste. Another wasteful and brutal practice which, thankfully, is being stopped is “finning”. Here, shark fins, which are used in making soup and Eastern medicine, are cut off the shark while the rest of the shark is simply thrown back into the ocean to die. REFERENCES & FURTHER READING - Plastic - Plastic - North Pacific Gyre - Trash and the North Pacific Gyre - North Pacific Gyre – Fish Crisis 1 – Fish Crisis 2 – Fish Crisis 3 - New ‘battle of Midway’ over plastic - Warning on plastic’s toxic threat - Dairy from the middle of nowhere

55 CONSERVATION Better News Fortunately, it is not all bad news. Many governments are now aware of the need to protect coasts and offshore waters from pollution and damage, and are taking steps to both clean up the environment and prevent further damage. Cleanup for oil spills, for example, include oil-dispersing chemicals and floating booms that help prevent oil spreading into narrow bays. Other examples of encouraging efforts include:  In 1976, Mediterranean countries agreed on an action plan to prevent sewage and chemicals from flowing into the Mediterranean.  Asian countries have begun to conserve mangrove forests and over 60 countries now protect reefs to some degree.  Engineers are also discovering ways to save coasts from erosion. In some places, they have found that soft sea defenses (artificial beaches) are better than hard ones (concrete walls) at protecting shores from wave erosion. For example, waves along the Florida coast were gradually eating into the shore, threatening to wash away Miami’s waterside hotels. Vacationers can now enjoy 25 km (15 miles) of artificial beach created from imported sand. By preventing erosion, this beach restoration project helps to keep the sea at bay.

56 CONSERVATION  Nations have begun to enforce laws to prevent the over-fishing of wild species. Fishing protection officers stop trawlers from other countries over-fishing their waters.  Many governments now discourage the netting of unwanted wild species and have created protected areas. By the mid-1990s, 1,200 marine protected areas existed worldwide. In spite of these efforts, we must do more, and we must not underplay the damage we are doing to the ocean. We still have time to address these problems but, if we continue the way we are, the prognosis is not good.

57 CONSERVATION Practical Ways You Can Help Everyone is responsible for caring for the ocean. The ocean sustains life on Earth and humans must live in ways that sustain the ocean. Individual and collective actions are needed to effectively manage ocean resources for all. With the human population growing to 6.5 billion, the Earth has an estimated 4.5 biologically productive acres per person. However, the average consumer in the western world requires the equivalent of 24 acres. This means we need more than five Earths to meet the demand! Clearly, we don’t have this and we must take action to reuse, reduce and recycle Earth’s resources. The problems we face may sometime seem insurmountable and, indeed, some problems are very difficult to solve. Nonetheless, there are still things that we can do every day to help. The following lists some practical ways you can help. They may not all be appropriate (since some depend on where you live and what you do) but there should be at least several simple things everyone can do: Ocean Literacy Principle 6(g) Everyone is responsible for caring for the ocean. The ocean sustains life on Earth and humans must live in ways that sustain the ocean. Individual and collective actions are needed to effectively manage ocean resources for all.

58 CONSERVATION 1. REDUCE YOUR FOOTPRINT If every household (in the USA) replaced just three of its incandescent light bulbs with energy-saving designs and used them for 5 hours per day, it would reduce emissions of carbon dioxide by 23 million tonnes, reduce electricity demand by the equivalent of 11 coal-fired power stations, and save $1.8bn. 2. CHANGE YOUR HABITS  Walk, bike, take public transport or carpool.  Dry laundry on a line  Eat eco-friendly seafood  Use zoned air conditioning  Install compact fluorescent lighting  Keep air conditioning temperature a few degrees higher  Unplug utilities (e.g. televisions, electric kettles)  Eliminate lawn pesticides  Reduce home water usage  Inspire your friends to take similar actions Important! We waste a lot! The key is to reduce that waste by reusing and recycling as much as we can. It is not easy but a little extra care and forethought goes a long way!

59 CONSERVATION 3. FOR DIVERS, SNORKELERS & SWIMMERS  Report any damage to the coral reef to your dive operator  Practice buoyancy control in a pool before diving on a reef  Maintain buoyancy control particularly when using cameras  Hover above the reef and do not touch the sea floor  Never touch marine life  Observe briefings from local dive professionals  Keep dive gauges tucked in  Be aware of what your fins are kicking  Don’t feed the fish Interesting! Water & Plastic Water Bottles  Bottled water may cost as much as $10 USD per gallon compared to less than 1 penny per gallon for tap water in many places  It takes 3 litres of water to produce a 1-liter bottle of water  Worldwide, 2.7 million tons of plastic are used each year to make water bottles; in the US, less the 20% of these bottles are recycled.  The total estimated energy need to make, transport and dispose of one bottle of water is equivalent to filling the same bottle one-quarter full of oil.  An estimated 40% of bottled water sold in the US is filtered tap water  Worldwide, bottled water consumption nearly doubled between 1997 and 2005.

60 CONSERVATION 4. FOR HOUSEHOLDS Reduce water consumption – go low flow  Low flow faucets/taps, low flow shower heads, low flow toilets (place a brick in the cistern)  When replacing old appliances purchase high efficiency, low flow washing machines, dishwashers.  Build a grey water garden to water your lawn. Reduce energy consumption – go solar; go fluorescent.  Solar hot water systems may be an easy and moderate cost option.  Solar electric panels can also be installed to reduce your reliance on electricity.  Low energy high efficiency fluorescent light bulbs. These are excellent for providing good lighting at a fraction of the consumption of old-fashioned incandescent bulbs. The International Energy Agency calculates that 19% of global electricity generation is used for lighting, but old-style bulbs convert only 5% of their energy into light.  Turn off unused lights and unplug electrical appliances Reduce the amount of garbage you produce  Learn how to compost your discarded food.  Reduce the use of non-recyclable items.  Take a shopping bag shopping instead of taking a new plastic bag from the shopkeeper each time.  Reuse old plastic shopping bags whenever possible.  Reuse plastic water bottles.

61 CONSERVATION 5. FOR BOATERS  Use only biodegradable cleaning agents  Maintain your engine for peak efficiency  When replacing engines purchase high efficiency four stroke engines or other new technologies  Use moorings or anchor in sand where permitted  Never anchor on coral or in sea grass beds  Pump sewage and grey water tanks into an appropriate shore facility  Never dump rubbish or anything into the ocean 6. FOR TRAVELLERS  Choose a dive operator who is aware of the marine environment.  Support environmentally responsible resorts and tour operators that properly treat sewage and wastewater.  Never eat local threatened sea food.  Never purchase souvenirs made from coral or any threatened or endangered marine species.  Hang your towels to dry so you can reuse them and reduce water and energy consumption.  Take your plastic waste and batteries home with you if possible (especially if you are visiting an island destination).

62 CONSERVATION 7. FOR RESTAURANTS & HOTELS Establish a waste management plan  Eliminate paper and plastic products from your dining room  Recycle linen, food, office paper, and packages Establish an energy management plan  Install timers on electrical equipment such as outdoor lighting, pools and Jacuzzi jets and even kitchen equipment. Electrical items like TV’s left on ‘stand-by’ are still using electricity.  Use solar walkway lighting  Increase guest awareness of ways they can reduce energy waste, such as reusing their towels and turning off the air conditioning when they leave their rooms. Conserve water  Monitor total water use on your property  Water gardens at night  Use low flow shower, faucet/tap, and toilet fixtures  Build a grey water garden Eliminate hazardous substances  Substitute non-biodegradable toxic chemical cleaners for biodegradable non-toxic chemicals for your kitchens, rooms, and boats. Increase staff awareness  Make sure your staff is aware of the local marine protection laws  Establish an environmentally aware orientation for staff Promote sustainable fisheries  Don’t serve locally threatened fish & sea food species  Be aware of globally threatened fish and sea food and provide information to your guests as to why you are not serving these fish.

63 CONSERVATION 8. EDUCATION Learn about the ocean environment and some of the issues that it faces. Learn to appreciate both sides of the argument and make informed decisions about what to support. 9. GOVERNMENT & LAW Support a Government that is aware of environmental issues and takes action to promote conservation. The Government should also enact laws that protect the environment and allow law enforcement agencies to enforce the laws. REFERENCES & FURTHER READING - Water and plastic bottles - Human footprint – Human footprint - Advice on what seafood to eat – Advice on what seafood to eat – Green Guide to the Cayman Islands, online publication, 2007

64 ACTIVITIES

65 ACTIVITIES History CORE ACTIVITY (a) Investigate the history of people and the ocean over the last 6000 years. Initially, divide the class into four groups for example. Then assign a time period to each group as follows: PRE-1000 AD 1000 AD-1499 AD 1500 AD-1899 AD 1900 AD-TODAY (b) Assign each student within a group, a specific historical figure or event to investigate. For example, one student can research Vikings while another might investigate the life of Christopher Columbus. Students should use books or the Web to do the research. For example, see: (c) The student should write up short notes about the subject on a piece of paper and draw a picture of the subject or event. (d) When all students have finished, each student within a group should glue his/her contribution onto the group’s poster in chronological order.

66 ACTIVITIES (e) Put up all the posters along the classroom wall to get an overall timeline.

67 ACTIVITIES Final Frontier CORE ACTIVITY (a) Label the scuba diver’s equipment Mask Boots Fins Tank or cylinder Suit Regulator Buoyancy Compensation Device (BCD) Weight Belt

68 ACTIVITIES

69 ACTIVITIES (b) What does SCUBA stand for? (c) What is the difference between a “mask” and “goggles”? (d) What is the purpose of a dive suit? (e) What does a scuba diver breathe?

70 ACTIVITIES ANSWERS (a) Label the scuba diver’s equipment Mask Boots Fins Tank or cylinder Suit Regulator Buoyancy Compensation Device (BCD) Weight Belt

71 ACTIVITIES

72 ACTIVITIES (b) What does SCUBA stand for? Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (c) What is the difference between a “mask” and “goggles”? A mask covers the eyes and nose whereas a pair of goggles just covers the eyes (d) What is the purpose of a dive suit? To keep the diver warm and to protect him/her against minor scrapes (e) What does a scuba diver breathe? A scuba diver breathes compressed air (not oxygen)

73 ACTIVITIES Studying The Ocean – New Technologies EXTENDED ACTIVITY Use satellite maps to study the Earth.. Go to Set the “street map” and “satellite” view. (a) Find your school building using the street map and satellite view? (b) Which ocean (or sea) is nearest you?

74 ACTIVITIES (c) Use the controls on your screen to pan and zoom in and out looking at places of interest. For each place in the following list, find and note the nearest ocean(s) and/or sea(s):  Greenland  Tierra Del Fuego  Great Barrier Reef, Australia  Hawaii, USA  San Francisco, USA  New York City, USA  London, England  Manaus, Brazil  Mumbai, India  Cayman Islands  Hong Kong  Antarctic Peninsula

75 ACTIVITIES ANSWERS Use satellite maps to study the Earth.. Go to Set the “street map” and “satellite” view. (a) Find your school building using the street map and satellite view? N/A (b) Which ocean (or sea) is nearest you? N/A

76 ACTIVITIES (c) Use the controls on your screen to pan and zoom in and out looking at places of interest. For each place in the following list, find and note the nearest ocean(s) and/or sea(s): Greenland – Arctic Ocean and Atlantic Ocean Tierra Del Fuego – Atlantic Ocean (also very close to Pacific and Antarctic Oceans) Great Barrier Reef, Australia – Pacific Ocean Hawaii, USA – Pacific Ocean San Francisco, USA – Pacific Ocean New York City, USA – Atlantic Ocean London, England – Atlantic Ocean Manaus, Brazil – Atlantic Ocean Mumbai, India – Indian Ocean Cayman Islands – Caribbean Sea Hong Kong – South China Sea Antarctic Peninsula – Antarctic Ocean

77 ACTIVITIES Studying The Ocean – New Fields EXTENDED ACTIVITY Ask your students to choose an ocean career they might be interested in pursuing and write a report as if they were such a professional. Choose one of the following: (a) Imagine you are a marine biologist. Write a report on an animal that interests you the most. Be sure to include details and draw pictures to illustrate the animal. What kind of animal is it (invertebrate or vertebrate, crustacean, mollusc, fish, mammal, etc.)? What does the animal look like (length, height, weight, etc). What does it eat? How does it reproduce? How does it breathe? Other interesting things about the animal

78 ACTIVITIES (b) Imagine you are a marine geologist. Write a report about a part of the sea that interests you the most. Draw pictures to illustrate your topic. For example: Ocean trenches Cold seeps Hydrothermal vents Underwater volcanoes Tectonic movement Draw pictures to illustrate your topic (c) Imagine you are a oceanographer. Write a report about a part of the sea that interests you the most. Draw pictures to illustrate your topic. For example: Tsunamis & Waves Cold & Warm Currents Waves Tides Climate Weather El Niño & La Niña

79 ACTIVITIES Write A Sea Story CORE ACTIVITY Write a story about the sea. Include three (or more) of the phrases listed below in your story:  Above Board  As the Crow Flies  At Loggerheads  Avast  Back and Fill  Bear Down  Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea  Bitter End  Buoyed Up  By and Large  Chock-a-Block  Cut and Run  Cut of His Jib  Over the Barrel  Overbearing  Overhaul  Overreach  Overwhelm  Piece of Eight  Pipe Down  Pooped  Press Into Service  Rummage Sale

80 ACTIVITIES  Davy Jones’ Locker  Dressing Down  First Rate  Fly-by-Night  Footloose  Garbled  Give (someone) a Wide Berth  Gone By the Board  Groggy  Leeway  Let the Cat Out of the Bag  No Great Shakes  No Room to Swing a Cat  Scuttlebutt  Shiver me timbers  Skyscraper  Son of a Gun  Square Meal  Start Over with a Clean Slate  Taken Aback  Taking the wind out of his sails  The Devil to Pay  Three Sheets to the Wind  To Know the Ropes  Toe the Line  Touch and Go  Turn a blind eye  Under the Weather  Windfall

81 ACTIVITIES If you are not sure what these phrases mean, look them up on the Web using the following sites: - Nautical phrases - Nautical terms - Nautical terms - Nautical origins of common expressions Examples: (a) The pirate captain squinted into his telescope to see how far away the treasure ship lay. “About 10 miles as the crow flies”, he thought to himself. The Spanish treasure ship was laden with gold, jewels, and pieces of eight… (b) I started out as a midshipman in His Majesty’s Navy at the age of 14 and learned the ropes through a sailor named Jack Hanson. He used to work the top sails and skyscrapers which was a task reserved only for the very best sailors. (c) The first-mate shouted at the deck-hand “Avast, there! This is a first-rate ship and I’ll not have you take us to Davy Jones Locker through your incompetence”…

82 ACTIVITIES Conservation CORE ACTIVITY (a) List some of the reasons we need the ocean (b) What are some of the problems we are causing? (c) Name some forms of pollution? (d) What are some of the ways you can help save the ocean?

83 ACTIVITIES ANSWERS (a) List some of the reasons we need the ocean Water – most rainwater comes from the ocean Oxygen – nearly all Earth’s oxygen comes from ocean blue-green bacteria, algae and plants Climate & Weather – moderates climate and influences weather Food – e.g. fish, crustaceans Medicines – e.g. LAL from horseshoe crab blood Natural Energy Resources & Minerals – e.g. oil, gas, salt, bromine, magnesium Jobs & Economy – e.g. fishermen, researchers Transportation & National Security – e.g. transport of goods Recreation – e.g. swimming, snorkeling, boating, surfing (b) What are some of the problems we are causing? Pollution – putting hazardous materials into the ocean Physical modifications – changing the ocean through development and erosion Over-exploitation – extracting too much from the ocean – over-fishing, poor practices, etc. (c) Name some forms of pollution? Sewage Runoff Warm Water Fresh Water Plastic Noise

84 ACTIVITIES (d) What are some of the ways you can help save the ocean? You can reduce, reuse and recycle items: 1. Reduce your “footprint” Replace incandescent light bulbs with energy-saving designs. 2. Change your habits Walk, bike, take public transport or carpool. Dry laundry on a line Eat eco-friendly seafood Use zoned air conditioning Install compact fluorescent lighting Keep air conditioning temperature a few degrees higher Unplug utilities (e.g. televisions, electric kettles) Eliminate lawn pesticides Reduce home water usage Inspire your friends to take similar actions

85 ACTIVITIES 3. Divers, Snorkelers & Swimmers Report any damage to the coral reef to your dive operator Practice buoyancy control in a pool before diving on a reef Maintain buoyancy control particularly when using cameras Hover above the reef and do not touch the sea floor Never touch marine life Observe briefings from local dive professionals Keep dive gauges tucked in Be aware of what your fins are kicking Don’t feed the fish

86 ACTIVITIES Reducing Your Ecological Footprint CORE ACTIVITY (a) Several organizations have developed a simple and fun online calculator for you to estimate how much land and water you need to support your current consumption and lifestyle. Take the quiz from one of the following and see what your “ecological footprint” is. (b) What are some ways of reducing your “ecological footprint”? (c) Look around the classroom. How many items of plastic can you find? (d) Can you think of alternative substances you could make the items out of? (e) How might you dispose of some of the plastic items?

87 ACTIVITIES ANSWERS (a) Several organizations have developed a simple and fun online calculator for you to estimate how much land and water you need to support your current consumption and lifestyle. Take the quiz from one of the following and see what your ecological footprint is. (b) What are some ways of reducing your ecological footprint? Replace incandescent light bulbs with energy-saving designs Walk, bike, take public transport or carpool Dry laundry on a line Use zoned air conditioning Install compact fluorescent lighting Keep air conditioning temperature a few degrees higher Unplug utilities (e.g. televisions, electric kettles) Reduce home water usage

88 ACTIVITIES (c) Look around the classroom. How many items of plastic can you find? Electric plug Wires (covered in plastic) Computer Pen Watch Clothes (e.g. clothes made of artificial fibres) Desk Chairs Binders Water bottles Lunch boxes

89 ACTIVITIES (d) Can you think of alternative substances you could make the items out of? Some items can be made using natural materials. For example, a desk and chairs might be made of wood or bamboo. Clothes may be cotton or silk as opposed to synthetic materials. Electric wires used to be covered in rubber. Water bottles were made of glass (not plastic). However, it is very difficult to make many items without using plastic. (e) How might you dispose of some of these plastic items? Organic items like food, cotton, silk, and paper can be degraded by microorganisms – they are said to be “biodegradable”. However, it is very difficult to dispose of certain items such as the plastic and metallic components in computers. Scientists are currently working on ways to make plastics biodegradable but until there is a solution we have to be careful with our use of plastics because they are vital in many situations but they are also very difficult to dispose of. Some simple things you can do: Reduce the use of non-recyclable items. Take a shopping bag shopping with you to reduce wasting grocery bags. Reuse old plastic shopping bags where possible. Reuse plastic water bottles (e.g. use one; wash thoroughly after use; use it multiple times).


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