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Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 1 Chapter 4 Information Technology in Business: Hardware.

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Presentation on theme: "Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 1 Chapter 4 Information Technology in Business: Hardware."— Presentation transcript:

1 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 1 Chapter 4 Information Technology in Business: Hardware

2 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 2 Learning Objectives List major components of a computer and explain their functions Explain how computers communicate Classify computers into major categories, and identify their strengths and weaknesses Describe how computers have affected the development of business

3 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 3 Learning Objectives (Cont.) Define the most commonly used hardware terminology Identify and evaluate key criteria when deciding what computers or related devices to purchase Explain the controversy regarding the health hazards of computers Evaluate hardware so that you can harness it to improve managerial processes

4 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 4 The Central Tool of Modern Information Systems Computers are at the core of every modern information system –Hardware: the physical components of the computer –Software: the set of instructions that direct the hardware to perform particular tasks

5 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 5 Hardware components Input devices: receive signals from outside the computer and transfer them into the computer –Computer keyboard and mouse –Some input devices accept voice, image, or other signals

6 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 6 Most important part of any computer Accepts instructions and data Decodes and executes instructions Stores results (output) in memory for later display Central processing unit (CPU)

7 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 7 Stores data and instructions just before and immediately after the CPU processes them Includes programs currently running on a machine Intermediate results of arithmetic operations Intermediate versions of documents being word processed Data that represent pictures displayed on a computer screen Sounds played by the speakers Internal Memory or Main Memory

8 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 8 Two types of memory –RAM (random access memory) –ROM (read-only memory) The amount of memory and the speed at which it can be retrieved are two properties that determine the power of a computer Internal Memory or Main Memory (Cont.)

9 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 9 Different types of media –Magnetic disks, magnetic tapes, and optical discs Stores same types of data and information as internal memory does Allows for permanent storage and portability External Memory

10 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 10 Computer monitors and printers Deliver information from the computer to a person Audio output devices Specialized output devices: Braille writers Output devices

11 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 11 Devices for both output and input –Printers that read memory cards to print digital images Most I/O devices are peripheral devices Most processing and storage devices are internal CPU and primary memory reside on the motherboard The Central Tool of Modern Information Systems (Cont.)

12 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 12 The Central Tool of Modern Information Systems (Cont.)

13 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 13 How Computers Communicate: Bits And Bytes Computer recognizes two states: –On or off Each on or off signal represents a bit (binary digit)

14 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 14 Representation of symbols by unique strings of bits ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) originally with seven bits in a byte ASCII-8 –Newer version –Consists of eight bits per byte Encoding Schemes

15 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 15 Encoding Schemes (Cont.)

16 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 16 EBCDIC, Developed by IBM with eight bits per byte Limitations in ASCII and EBCDIC to 256 different characters Unicode, 16 bits per byte, allows for many more characters Encoding Schemes (Cont.)

17 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 17 Counting Bases –Decimal system is base 10 –Binary system is base 2 –Similar methods for calculations as humans –Store all quantities and perform calculations in binary form –Display numbers after translating to decimal presentation Understanding Computer Processing

18 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 18 Classification of Computers Supercomputers –The largest, most powerful, and most expensive –Used by universities, research institutions, and large corporations Mainframe Computers –Less powerful and less expensive than supercomputers –Used by businesses with large amounts of data that need to be stored in a central computer

19 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 19 Classification of Computers (Cont.) Midrange Computers –Often used as the host computer in a network of smaller computers –Priced in the several thousands to a few hundred thousand dollars –Manufacturers: DEC (VAX), IBM (AS/400), and Hewlett-Packard

20 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 20 Classification of Computers (Cont.) Microcomputers –Networks of microcomputers are replacing mainframes –Sometimes called workstations –Used for CAD, CAE, complex simulations and scientific applications

21 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 21 Classification of Computers (Cont.) Microcomputers (cont.) –The microprocessor chip Traditionally manufactured by Intel AMC and Cyrix are other manufacturers Macintosh are built around Motorolas PowerPC chips Sun develops its own microprocessors and computers

22 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 22 Classification of Computers (Cont.) Computers on the Go: Notebook, Handheld, and Tablet computers –Computers used outside the office –3x the desktop pc price –Tablet pc is the newest option available

23 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 23 Classification of Computers (Cont.) Internet Appliances –Handheld computers and other electronic devices manufactured with the capability to link to the Internet –Can be wireless –Considerations must be made for invasion of privacy concerns –More devices being outfitted for Internet access all the time

24 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 24 Business Evolves with Computing Mainframe to PC: Networking Businesses –With increased power of the PC, managers devise their own IS –Businesses shifting from mainframe model to the client/server model –One PC functions as the server –Connects to other PCs, the clients

25 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 25 Increasing power, decreasing cost Electronic computing began with early counting machines Electrical signals an important leap in technology 1942: first electronic computer at Iowa State Trends in Computing

26 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 26 Used by the US Government IBM machines used in 50s and 60s for business calculations, record keeping and more Today, nearly every new electronic device has a computer Trends in Computing (Cont.)

27 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 27 Business Evolves with Computing

28 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 28 Business Evolves with Computing

29 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 29 A Peek Inside the Computer

30 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 30 A Peek Inside the Computer (Cont.) The Central Processing Unit (CPU) –The brain of the computer –Has two components that store and process data: Control unit Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) –Silicon chip with multiple circuits

31 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 31 A Peek Inside the Computer (Cont.)

32 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 32 A Peek Inside the Computer (Cont.) The Central Processing Unit (CPU) (cont.) –Microprocessor Carries signals that execute all processing More transistors on the chip, the greater the power of the processor Silicon chip embedded with transistors, or semiconductors

33 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 33 Machine Cycle CPUs execution of four functions is one cycle: –Fetch, Decode, Execute, Store Rate of repetitive cycles is Clock Rate One cycle per second is one hertz –Computer frequencies are measured in megahertz (MHzmillions of hertz) or gigahertz (GHzbillions of hertz) System clock synchronizes all these tasks

34 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 34 A Peek Inside the Computer (Cont.)

35 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 35 The Word: maximum number of bits fetched in one cycle The Arithmetic Logic Units Operations: where all arithmetic and logical operations take place Reduced Instruction Set Computing: fewer instructions resulting in faster computing A Peek Inside the Computer (Cont.)

36 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 36 A Peek Inside the Computer (Cont.) Memory –Registers –Primary Memory Random access memory (RAM) Cache Memory Read-only memory (ROM) –Volatile v. Nonvolatile

37 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 37 Computer Power Clock rate Bus: amount of information the CPU can process per second Throughput: speed determined only by combination of both factors

38 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 38 Input Devices Keyboard Mouse, Trackball, and Track Pad Touch Screen Source Data Input Devices Imaging Speech Recognition

39 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 39 Input Devices (Cont.)

40 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 40 Output Devices Soft-Copy Output Devices –Cathode-Ray Tube (CRT) Monitor –Flat-Panel Monitor –Speech Output Hardcopy Output Devices –Nonimpact Printers (most common) –Impact Printers

41 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 41 Output Devices (Cont.)

42 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 42 External Storage Media Important Properties to Consider –Capacity, Access Speed, Access Mode, Cost Mode of Access –Sequential v. Direct Access Magnetic tapes

43 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 43 External Storage Media (Cont.) Magnetic Disks Optical Disks Optical Tapes Flash Memory and Thumb Drives

44 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 44 Business Considerations of Storage Media Trade-offs Modes of Access –Sequential Access: Tapes –Direct Access: Disks

45 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 45 External Storage Media (Cont.)

46 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 46 External Storage Media (Cont.)

47 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 47 Considerations in Purchasing Hardware What should you consider when buying hardware? –Power -- speed, size of memory, storage capacity –Expansion and upgrade capability –Ports for external devices like printers, hard disks, communication devices –Ergonomics: Keyboard, Monitor

48 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 48 Considerations in Purchasing Hardware (Cont.) What should you consider when buying hardware (cont.)? –Footprint –Vendor reliability, warranty policy, vendor support –Compatibility –Cost

49 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 49 Factor What to Look For PowerGreater frequency and word size, larger ExpandabilityGreater number of board slots for additional RAM PortsGreater number of ports for printer, external hard disk, communication devices and other peripherals ErgonomicsGreater comfort and safety CompatibilityComparability with many other computers and peripheral devices, as swell as software packages FootprintSmaller area SupportAvailability of telephone and on-line support for troubleshooting WarrantyLonger warranty period Cost Lower cost Considerations in Purchasing Hardware (Cont.)

50 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 50 Factor What to Look For PowerGreater frequency and word size, larger ExpandabilityGreater number of board slots for additional RAM PortsGreater number of ports for printer, external hard disk, communication devices and other peripherals ErgonomicsGreater comfort and safety CompatibilityComparability with many other computers and peripheral devices, as swell as software packages FootprintSmaller area SupportAvailability of telephone and on-line support for troubleshooting WarrantyLonger warranty period Cost Lower cost Considerations in Purchasing Hardware (Cont.)

51 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 51 Ethical and Societal Issues Computers May Be Hazardous to Your Health Physical and Emotional Stress –General physical and emotional stress –Muscular-skeletal problems Repetitive Stress Injuries (RSI) –Vision problems

52 Management Information Systems, 4 th Edition 52 Summary Computer components and their functions Computer communication Categories of computers have different strengths and weaknesses Understand commonly used hardware terminology Identify and evaluate key criteria for purchasing decisions


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