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The Rise of Kingdoms and the Growth of Church Power

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Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Kingdoms and the Growth of Church Power"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rise of Kingdoms and the Growth of Church Power
Chapter 10 The Rise of Kingdoms and the Growth of Church Power

2 Timeline

3 The Emergence & Growth of European Kingdoms, 1000 – 1300
Kings Theory Practice Expansion of royal power in the High Middle Ages

4 England in the High Middle Ages
William of Normandy (1066 – 1087) Battle of Hastings (1066) Fusion of Normans and Anglo-Saxons Involvement in France Henry II (1154 – 1189) Plantagenet dynasty Royal courts Common law The church Thomas Becket (Archbishop of Canterbury) King John (1199 – 1216) Magna Carta Edward I (1272 – 1307) Parliament

5 The Growth of the French Kingdom
The Capetian Dynasty Little real power Royal domain limited to the Île de France Philip II Augustus (1180 – 1223) War against the English French bureaucracy Louis IX (1226 – 1270) “Saint Louis” Justice Participates in Crusades Philip IV the Fair (1285 – 1314) Royal administration Council for advice Chamber of Accounts (finances) Parlement (royal court) Estates-General (French parliament)

6 Map 10.1: England and France in the High Middle Ages

7 Christian Reconquest: The Spanish Kingdoms
Cordova Reconquista (1000 – 1492) Castile Navarre Aragón Portugal Repartimiento Fueros Alfonso X (1252 – 1284)

8 Map 10.2: Christian Reconquests in the Western Mediterranean

9 The Lands of the Holy Roman Empire: Germany and Italy
Salian Kings German Nobility Involvement in Italy The Norman kingdom in southern Italy Frederick I Barbarossa (1152 – 1190) Attempts to conquer northern Italy Pope and Italian cities oppose him Battle of Legnano (1176) Frederick II (1212 – 1250) King of Sicily, Germany, and Holy Roman Emperor Preoccupied with Italy Germany left in confusion and chaos Rudolf of Hapsburg (1273) Emergence of Italian City-States

10 Map 10.3: The Lands of the Holy Roman Empire in the Twelfth Century

11 New Kingdoms in Northern and Eastern Europe
Scandinavia Hungary Poland Germans and Slavs Teutonic Knights

12 Teutonic Knight Castle at Marienburg

13 Medieval Mongols & Russians
The Mongol Empire Temuchin – Genghis Khan (c – 1227) Khubilai Khan Advances against the Muslim world Advances against Europe The Development of Russia Kiev – Rus The church Mongol invasion Alexander Nevsky (c – 1263) Moscow

14 Map 10.4: Northern and Eastern Europe

15 The Recovery and Reform of the Catholic Church
The Problems of Decline Worldly bishops and abbots Monastic decline The Cluniac Reform Movement Cluny founded by Duke William of Aquitaine (910) Reform movement spreads Reform of the Papacy Lay investiture Pope Gregory VII (1073 – 1085) Investiture Controversy Concordat of Worms (1122)

16 Christianity and Medieval Civilization
Growth of the Papal Monarchy Administrative structure Pope Innocent III (1198 – 1216) Philip Augustus of France Interdict of England

17 New Religious Orders and Spiritual Ideals
The Cistercian Order Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090 – 1153) Women Hildegard of Bingen (1098 – 1179) Mystical visions The Franciscans Saint Francis of Assisi (1182 – 1226) The Dominicans Dominic de Guzmán (1170 – 1221)

18 Saint Bernard

19 A Group of Nuns

20 Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages
Sacraments Saints The Virgin Mary Relics

21 Map 10.6: Pilgrimage Routes in the Middle Ages

22 Voices of Protest and Intolerance
Heresy Catharism Dualist System Catholic Church was evil according to their views Albigensian Crusade (began in 1209) The Holy Office (Papal Inquisition) Persecution of the Jews The Crusades Fourth Lateran Council (1215) Expulsion Intolerance and Homosexuality Associated with other minority groups Thomas Aquinas and the “sin against nature” Punishment

23 The Crusades Background to the Crusades Islam and the Seljuk Turks
Change and disintegration in the Muslim world Seljuk Turks Nomadic people from Central Asia Capture of Baghdad (1055) Battle of Manzikert (1071) The Byzantine Empire Divisions between the Catholic and Orthodox Church Schism (1054) Alexius I Comnenus (1081 – 1118)

24 The Early Crusades Pope Urban II (1088 – 1099) Crusading Fervor
Council of Clermont (1095) Crusading Fervor “Armed pilgrimages” First Crusade (1096 – 1099) Captures Antioch (1098) Captures Jerusalem (1099)

25 Map 10.7: The Early Crusades

26 The Early Crusades, Continued
Crusader States Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli and Jerusalem Muslims strike back Fall of Edessa (1144) Second Crusade Total failure Third Crusade (1189 – 1192) Reaction to the fall of Jerusalem Saladin Led by Frederick I Barbarossa of Germany, Richard the Lionhearted of England and Philip Augustus of France

27 Crusades of the 13th Century
The Crusades of the Thirteenth Century Fourth Crusade (1202 – 1204) Sack of Constantinople Latin Empire of Constantinople (1204 – 1261) Children’s Crusade (1212) Sixth Crusade (1228)

28 Effects of the Crusades
Little impact on the Muslim world Impact on European society Cultural interaction Many young warriors removed from Europe Italian cities benefited economically Attacks on Jews

29 Richard the Lionhearted Executing Muslims at Acre

30 Discussion Questions How was royal power strengthened in France and England beginning in the Eleventh Century? What forces pulled apart the Holy Roman Empire between the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries? How was the history of Russia linked to the invasions of the Mongols? What role did Cluny play in reforming the Church and the papacy? What was the function of the pope in Medieval Europe? What fed the climate of intolerance in Europe after the Twelfth Century? What were the causes of the Crusades? Were the Crusades a success or a failure?

31 Web Links Kings and Queens of England
Paris at the Time of Philip Augustus The Royal Abbey of Fontevraud The Mongols in World History NetSerf – Religious Orders The Crusades – A Virtual Course The Medieval Crusades The Virtual Pilgrim

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