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© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Flexible Budgets and Performance Analysis Chapter 10.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Flexible Budgets and Performance Analysis Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Flexible Budgets and Performance Analysis Chapter 10

2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 2 Learning Objective 1 Prepare a flexible budget.

3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 3 Characteristics of Flexible Budgets Planning budgets are prepared for a single, planned level of activity. Performance evaluation is difficult when actual activity differs from the planned level of activity. Hmm! Comparing static planning budgets with actual costs is like comparing apples and oranges.

4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 4 Improve performance evaluation. May be prepared for any activity level in the relevant range. Show costs that should have been incurred at the actual level of activity, enabling “apples to apples” cost comparisons. Help managers control costs. Let’s look at Larry’s Lawn Service. Characteristics of Flexible Budgets

5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 5 Larry’s Lawn Service provides lawn care in a planned community where all lawns are approximately the same size. At the end of May, Larry prepared his June budget based on mowing 500 lawns. Since all of the lawns are similar in size, Larry felt that the number of lawns mowed in a month would be the best way to measure overall activity for his business. Larry’s Budget Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget

6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 6 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Planning Budget

7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 7 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Actual Results

8 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 8 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Actual Results Compared with the Planning Budget

9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 9 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Actual Results Compared with the Planning Budget F = Favorable variance that occurs when actual costs are less than budgeted costs. U = Unfavorable variance that occurs when actual costs are greater than budgeted costs. F = Favorable variance that occurs when actual revenue is greater than budgeted revenue.

10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 10 Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget Larry’s Actual Results Compared with the Planning Budget Since these variances are favorable, has Larry done a good job controlling costs? Since these variances are unfavorable, has Larry done a poor job controlling costs?

11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 11 I don’t think I can answer the questions using a static budget. Actual activity is above planned activity. So, shouldn’t the variable costs be higher if actual activity is higher? Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget

12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 12  The relevant question is... “How much of the cost variances is due to higher activity, and how much is due to cost control?”  To answer the question, we must the budget to the actual level of activity.  The relevant question is... “How much of the cost variances is due to higher activity, and how much is due to cost control?”  To answer the question, we must the budget to the actual level of activity. Deficiencies of the Static Planning Budget

13 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 13 How a Flexible Budget Works To a budget we need to know that:  Total variable costs change in direct proportion to changes in activity.  Total fixed costs remain unchanged within the relevant range. Fixed Variable

14 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 14 Let’s prepare a budget for Larry’s Lawn Service. How a Flexible Budget Works

15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 15 Preparing a Flexible Budget Larry’s Flexible Budget

16 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 16 Quick Check What should the total wages and salaries cost be in a flexible budget for 600 lawns? a. $18,000 b. $20,000. c. $23,000. d. $25,000. What should the total wages and salaries cost be in a flexible budget for 600 lawns? a. $18,000 b. $20,000. c. $23,000. d. $25,000.

17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 17 Quick Check What should be the total wages and salaries cost in a flexible budget for 600 lawns? a. $18,000 b. $20,000. c. $23,000. d. $25,000. What should be the total wages and salaries cost in a flexible budget for 600 lawns? a. $18,000 b. $20,000. c. $23,000. d. $25,000. Total wages and salaries cost = $5,000 + ($30 per lawn  600 lawns) = $5,000 + $18,000 = $23,000 What should the total wages and salaries cost be in a flexible budget for 600 lawns? a. $18,000 b. $20,000. c. $23,000. d. $25,000. What should the total wages and salaries cost be in a flexible budget for 600 lawns? a. $18,000 b. $20,000. c. $23,000. d. $25,000.

18 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 18 Learning Objective 2 Prepare a report showing activity variances.

19 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 19 Activity Variances Planning budget revenues and expenses Flexible budget revenues and expenses The differences between the budget amounts are called activity variances.

20 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 20 Let’s use budgeting concepts to compute activity variances for Larry’s Lawn Service. Let’s use budgeting concepts to compute activity variances for Larry’s Lawn Service. Activity Variances

21 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 21 Activity Variances Larry’s Flexible Budget Compared with the Planning Budget

22 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 22 Activity Variances Larry’s Flexible Budget Compared with the Planning Budget Activity and revenue increase by 10 percent, but net operating income increases by more than 10 percent due to the presence of fixed costs.

23 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 23 Learning Objective 3 Prepare a report showing revenue and spending variances.

24 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 24 Revenue and Spending Variances Flexible budget revenueActual revenue The difference is a revenue variance. Flexible budget costActual cost The difference is a spending variance.

25 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 25 Now, let’s use budgeting concepts to compute revenue and spending variances for Larry’s Lawn Service. Now, let’s use budgeting concepts to compute revenue and spending variances for Larry’s Lawn Service. Revenue and Spending Variances

26 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 26 Revenue and Spending Variances Larry’s Flexible Budget Compared with the Actual Results $1,750 favorable revenue variance

27 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 27 Larry’s Flexible Budget Compared with the Actual Results Revenue and Spending Variances Spending variances

28 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 28 Learning Objective 4 Prepare a performance report that combines activity variances and revenue and spending variances.

29 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 29 Now, let’s use budgeting concepts to combine the revenue and spending variances reports for Larry’s Lawn Service. Now, let’s use budgeting concepts to combine the revenue and spending variances reports for Larry’s Lawn Service. A Performance Report Combining Activity and Revenue and Spending Variances

30 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 30 A Performance Report Combining Activity and Revenue and Spending Variances

31 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 31 A Performance Report Combining Activity and Revenue and Spending Variances 50 lawns × $75 per lawn 50 lawns × $30 per lawn

32 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 32 A Performance Report Combining Activity and Revenue and Spending Variances $43,000 actual - $41,250 budget

33 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 33 Performance Reports in Non-Profit Organizations Non-profit organizations may receive funding from sources other than the sale of goods and services, so revenues may consist of both fixed and variable elements. Universities Tuition and fees DonationsState funding Endowments

34 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 34 Performance Reports in Cost Centers Performance reports are often prepared for cost centers. These reports should be prepared using the same principles discussed so far, except for the fact that these reports will not contain revenue or net operating income variances.

35 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 35 Learning Objective 5 Prepare a flexible budget with more than one cost driver.

36 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 36 More than one cost driver may be needed to adequately explain all of the costs in an organization. The cost formulas used to prepare a flexible budget can be adjusted to recognize multiple cost drivers. Flexible Budgets with Multiple Cost Drivers

37 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 37 Because of the large unfavorable wages and salaries spending variance, Larry decided to add an additional cost driver for wages and salaries. The variance is due primarily to the number of hours required for the additional edging and trimming. So Larry estimates the additional hours and builds those hours into both his revenue and expense budget formulas. Larry’s New Budget Flexible Budgets with Multiple Cost Drivers

38 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 38 Flexible Budgets with Multiple Cost Drivers Larry’s Budget Based on More than One Cost Driver

39 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 39 Learning Objective 6 Understand common errors made in preparing performance reports based on budgets and actual results.

40 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 40 Some Common Errors The most common errors in preparing performance reports are to implicitly assume that: 1. All costs are fixed or that 2. All costs are variable. The most common errors in preparing performance reports are to implicitly assume that: 1. All costs are fixed or that 2. All costs are variable. Assume all costs are fixed.

41 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 41 Common Error 1: Assuming All Costs Are Fixed Faulty Analysis Comparing Budgeted Amounts to Actual Amounts

42 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 42 Common Error 2: Assuming All Costs Are Variable Faulty Analysis that Assumes All budget Items Are Variable

43 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Slide 43 End of Chapter 10


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