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Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Chapter 10: Crafting the Service Environment
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Overview of Chapter 10 What Is the Purpose of Service Environments? Understanding Consumer Responses to Service Environments Dimensions of the Service Environment Putting It All Together
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Purpose of Service Environments Helps firm to create distinctive image and unique positioning Service environment affects buyer behavior in three ways: Message-creating medium: Symbolic cues to communicate the distinctive nature and quality of the service experience Attention-creating medium: Make servicescape stand out from competition and attract customers from target segments Effect-creating medium: Use colors, textures, sounds, scents and spatial design to enhance desired service experience
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Comparison of Hotel Lobbies (Fig 10.1) Four Seasons Hotel, New York Orbit Hotel and Hostel, Los Angeles Each servicescape clearly communicates and reinforces its hotel ’ s respective positioning and sets service expectations as guests arrive
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Physical surroundings help shape appropriate feelings and reactions in customers and employees For example: Disneyland, Denmark’s Legoland Servicescapes form a core part of the value proposition For example: Club Med, Las Vegas, Florida-based Muvico - Las Vegas: Repositioned itself to a somewhat more wholesome fun resort, visually striking entertainment center - Florida-based Muvico: Builds extravagant movie theatres and offers plush amenities. “What sets you apart is how you package it..” (Muvico’s CEO, Hamid Hashemi) The power of servicescapes is being discovered Servicescape as Part of Value Proposition
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter An Integrative Framework: Bitner’s Servicescape Model (2) Identifies the main dimensions in a service environment and views them holistically Internal customer and employee responses can be categorized into cognitive, emotional, and psychological responses, which lead to overt behavioral responses towards the environment Key to effective design is how well each individual dimension fits together with everything else
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Main Dimensions in Servicescape Model Ambient Conditions Characteristics of environment pertaining to our five senses Spatial Layout and Functionality Spatial layout: - Floorplan - Size and shape of furnishings, counters, machinery,equipment, and how they are arranged Functionality: Ability of those items to facilitate performance Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts Explicit or implicit signals to: - Communicate firm’s image - Help consumers find their way - Convey rules of behavior
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Impact of Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts Guide customers clearly through process of service delivery Customers will automatically try to draw meaning from the signs, symbols, and artifacts Unclear signals from a servicescape can result in anxiety and uncertainty about how to proceed and obtain the desired service For instance, signs can be used to reinforce behavioral rules (see picture on next slide)
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Signs Teach and Reinforce Behavioral Rules in Service Settings (Fig 10.7) Note: Fines are in Singapore dollars (equivalent to roughly US $300)
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter People Are Part of the Service Environment (Fig 10.8) Distinctive Servicescapes Create Customer Expectations
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Selection of Environmental Design Elements Consumers perceive service environments holistically Design with a holistic view Servicescapes have to be seen holistically: No dimension of design can be optimized in isolation, because everything depends on everything else Holistic characteristic of environments makes designing service environment an art See Research Insights 10.2: Match and Mismatch of Scent and Music in Singapore Must design from a customer’s perspective
Slide © 2007 by Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz Services Marketing 6/E Chapter Tools to Guide Servicescape Design Keen observation of customers’ behavior and responses to the service environment by management, supervisors, branch managers, and frontline staff Feedback and ideas from frontline staff and customers, using a broad array of research tools from suggestion boxes to focus groups and surveys. Field experiments can be used to manipulate specific dimensions in an environment and the effects observed. Blueprinting or service mapping—extended to include physical evidence in the environment.
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