Presentation on theme: "The Role of Error Map and attribute data errors are the data producer's responsibility, GIS user must understand error. Accuracy and precision of map and."— Presentation transcript:
The Role of Error Map and attribute data errors are the data producer's responsibility, GIS user must understand error. Accuracy and precision of map and attribute data in a GIS affect all other operations, especially when maps are compared across scales.
Accuracy closeness to TRUE values results, computations, or estimates compromise on “infinite complexity” generalization of the real world difficult to identify a TRUE value e.g., accuracy of a contour Does not exist in real world Compare to other sources
Accuracy (cont.) accuracy of the database = accuracy of the products computed from database e.g., accuracy of a slope, aspect, or watershed computed from a DEM
Positional Accuracy typical UTM coordinate pair might be: Easting m Northing m If the database was digitized from a 1:24,000 map sheet, the last four digits in each coordinate (units, tenths, hundredths, thousandths) would be questionable
Testing Positional Accuracy Use an independent source of higher accuracy: find a larger scale map (cartographically speaking) use GPS Use internal evidence: digitized polygons that are unclosed, lines that overshoot or undershoot nodes, etc. are indications of inaccuracy sizes of gaps, overshoots, etc. may be a measure of positional accuracy
not the same as accuracy! repeatability vs. “truth” not closeness of results, but number of decimal places or significant digits in a measurement A GIS works at high precision, usually much higher than the accuracy of the data themselves Precision
Accuracy vs. Precision
Components of Data Quality positional accuracy attribute accuracy logical consistency completeness lineage
Lecture 10 Geographic Databases Gateway to Spatial Analysis Chapter 10 up to 10.4, Longley et al.
Definitions Database – an integrated set of attributes on a particular subject Geographic (=geospatial) database – set of attributes on a particular subject for a particular geographic area Database Management System (DBMS) – software to create, maintain and access databases
A GIS can answer the question: What is where? WHAT: Characteristics of features (= attributes). WHERE: In geographic space.
A GIS links attribute and spatial data Attribute Data Flat File or DBMS Relationships Topology Table Map Data Point File Line File Area File Topology Type
Flat File or DBMS RecordValue Attribute RecordValue RecordValue
Historically, databases were structured hierarchically in flat files...
Relational Databases rule now 2/1/98 2/4/98
Geographic Information System Database Management System Data loading Editing Visualization Mapping Analysis Storage Indexing Security Query Data System Task Role of DBMS “Programmable API”
Relational DBMS (1) Data stored as tuples (tup-el), conceptualized as tables Table – data about a class of objects Two-dimensional list (array) Rows = objects Columns = object states (properties, attributes)
Relational DBMS (2) Most popular type of DBMS Over 95% of data in DBMS is in RDBMS Commercial systems Microsoft Access Microsoft SQL Server Oracle IBM DB2 Informix Sybase
Relational Join Fundamental query operation Occurs because Data created/maintained by different users, but integration needed for queries Table joins use common keys (column values) Table (attribute) join concept has been extended to geographic case
Relational Databases 2/1/98 2/4/98
Parts of GIS database tables for U.S states (A) STATES table; (B) POPULATION table
Parts of GIS database tables for U.S states (C) joined table—COMBINED STATES and POPULATION
Tax assessment database (D) joined table (C) data partially normalized into three subtables
SQL Structured (Standard) Query Language – (pronounced SEQUEL) Developed by IBM in 1970s Standard for accessing relational databases Three types of usage Stand alone queries High level programming Embedded in other applications
Types of SQL Statements Data Definition Language (DDL) Create, alter and delete data CREATE TABLE, CREATE INDEX Data Manipulation Language (DML) Retrieve and manipulate data SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT Data Control Languages (DCL) Control security of data GRANT, CREATE USER, DROP USER
Spatial Query/Search & Retrieval: Gateway to Spatial Analysis Overlay is a spatial retrieval operation that is equivalent to an attribute join. Buffering is a spatial retrieval around points, lines, or areas based on distance.
Overlay Image courtesy of K. Foote/M. Lynch, UT-Austin
Overlay like an attribute join 2/1/98 2/4/98
Types of overlay operations Union Intersect Identity Max Min Etc.
Union computes the geometric intersection of two polygon coverages. All polygons from both coverages will be split at their intersections and preserved in the output coverage.
Union within 25 miles of a city OR within 25 miles of a major river.
Intersect computes the geometric intersection of two coverages. Only those features in the area common to both coverages will be preserved in the output coverage.
Intersect within 25 miles of a city AND within 25 miles of a major river.
Identity computes the geometric intersection of two coverages. All features of the input coverage, as well as those features of the identity coverage that overlap the input coverage, are preserved in the output coverage.
Identity within 25 miles of a city OR within 25 miles of a major river. within 25 miles of a city AND within 25 miles of a major river. Portion of the major city buffer WITHIN the major river buffer Union Intersect
Raster Retrieval: Map Algebra Raster overlay Combinations of spatial and attribute queries can build some complex and powerful GIS operations.
Compared with Input Grid A Input Grid B Output Grid C
And many more …. See spatial analysis handout on course web site.