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Oracle Linux July 2011

2 The following is intended to outline our general product direction
The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or functionality described for Oracle’s products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle. 2

3 Agenda Oracle Linux and Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Compatibility
Roadmap Support and Pricing Next Steps 3

4 Oracle Linux - History Launched at Oracle Open World in 2006
Compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) Freely available/distributable source and binaries Oracle offers Linux support for existing RHEL installs and Oracle Linux Oracle’s base Linux development platform Oracle does not use or test on RHEL Customers using RHN can switch in minutes – no reinstall needed of RHEL Applications run unchanged No Red Hat compatibility bug has ever been reported to Oracle 4

5 Oracle Linux Strategy Deliver the best performing, most modern and reliable Linux operating system for the data center Development of new Linux features go to kernel.org Enhanced with features and improvements from mainline Linux development Stay as close to mainline as possible Full stack tested with real world workloads Offer enterprise class support at low cost Influence Linux roadmap upstream via direct community involvement Ensure Oracle Linux customers have full legal production with complete indemnification 5

6 More Than 7,500 Customers…and Growing Rely on Oracle Linux and Oracle VM

7 Exadata Customers running Oracle Linux

8 Linux Leadership Oracle Validated Configurations #1 Linux Database
Global Support in 145 Countries Technology Contributions Oracle has been and continues to be very committed to Linux: 1. Commitment to use and improve LINUX – Oracle Runs its Business on Linux 2. Commitment to make all of our products available on LINUX – All Products Available on Linux; 9000 developers 3. Commitment & contributions to fully support LINUX for our customers – Global Linux Support in 100+ Countries 4. To make significant technology contributions to the LINUX community - Dedicated Linux Kernel Team Why - …….Good for the LINUX community and good for Oracle Back in the late 90s Oracle realized that x86 hardware was going to be a big deal and we were keen to help this trend. At the time, there were really two choices for x86 operating systems and one of them came from Redmond, Washington. So we decided on Linux. And we began investing in it. We hired developers, we put money into Red Hat and VA Linux We developed key Linux functionality such Asynchronous I/O to ensure Oracle databases could run properly on Linux We were the first company to release a commercially available relational database on Linux Fast forward 12 years or so and we’re at a point where we have a dedicated Linux kernel engineering team A global support org whose only job it is to support the Linux operating system More importantly, the very core of Oracle’s IT infrastructure, including our mission critical systems and our entire development organization runs on Linux Oracle Global IT runs Oracle Enterprise Linux with more than 42,000 servers and supporting 4+ million external users and 84,000 internal users In fact, I don’t think there are many companies with an enterprise Linux deployment larger than Oracle’s. We wouldn’t still be investing in Linux if it didn’t also produce business results Oracle Product Development on Linux Pre-installed on Sun x86 blade servers 8

9 Oracle Linux Services Oracle Linux Training and Certification
Oracle Linux Support Oracle Linux Consulting Services Oracle Linux Development Oracle has been and continues to be very committed to Linux: 1. Commitment to use and improve LINUX – Oracle Runs its Business on Linux 2. Commitment to make all of our products available on LINUX – All Products Available on Linux; 9000 developers 3. Commitment & contributions to fully support LINUX for our customers – Global Linux Support in 100+ Countries 4. To make significant technology contributions to the LINUX community - Dedicated Linux Kernel Team Why - …….Good for the LINUX community and good for Oracle Back in the late 90s Oracle realized that x86 hardware was going to be a big deal and we were keen to help this trend. At the time, there were really two choices for x86 operating systems and one of them came from Redmond, Washington. So we decided on Linux. And we began investing in it. We hired developers, we put money into Red Hat and VA Linux We developed key Linux functionality such Asynchronous I/O to ensure Oracle databases could run properly on Linux We were the first company to release a commercially available relational database on Linux Fast forward 12 years or so and we’re at a point where we have a dedicated Linux kernel engineering team A global support org whose only job it is to support the Linux operating system More importantly, the very core of Oracle’s IT infrastructure, including our mission critical systems and our entire development organization runs on Linux Oracle Global IT runs Oracle Enterprise Linux with more than 42,000 servers and supporting 4+ million external users and 84,000 internal users In fact, I don’t think there are many companies with an enterprise Linux deployment larger than Oracle’s. We wouldn’t still be investing in Linux if it didn’t also produce business results Oracle Linux Network and Management Tools Oracle Linux QA 9

10 Traditional Unix Vendor vs. Linux Vendor
Develops and tests hardware and OS together Develops OS only Oracle knowledge in development, QA, and support No Oracle expertise, staff Tests entire Oracle stack (hardware, OS, and Oracle Database) Limited testing of OS only Provides fixes for OS version customer runs Customer encouraged to upgrade to latest release plus fix If you compare the way traditional UNIX is developed, tested and supported against how Linux is developed by today’s Linux vendors, you see the following picture emerge: A traditional UNIX vendor, for example, Sun (now Oracle) or HP develops and tests server hardware and the OS together Whereas a Linux vendor such as RHAT only develops the OS Let’s look at Oracle expertise. Before IBM comes out with a new release of AIX, they first test it with the Oracle database. They have developers and QA engineers on staff that have deep knowledge of Oracle products. Contrast that with a Linux-only vendor such as Red Hat, and you’ll find that there is no real Oracle expertise and nobody to consider what happens when you run the Oracle database on the latest release they’re pushing out So a traditional UNIX vendor will test an entire stack of hardware, OS and Oracle database whereas a Linux-only vendor will do limited operating system testing only The last distinction is an important one. When a traditional UNIX customer runs into a bug, the UNIX vendor will provide them with a fix in the version of the OS that they are running. A Linux vendor, in most cases, will encourage the customer to upgrade to a newer release. That new release will have the fix the customer needs, but it will also have dozens if not hundreds of other changes that will have to be tested before deploying to production. With Unbreakable Linux support, our goal is to bring Linux support up to the level of quality that users have come to expect from traditional UNIX support. This means that our developers and support staff have knowledge of both Linux and Oracle, that we test Linux running with Oracle on top of it. But also, that, under our premier support offering, we provide backports of fixes to the version of Linux you are running. We will not make unreasonable requests for you to upgrade. So, two big distinctions between traditional UNIX support and Linux support are 1) The way the OS is tested; and 2) The way bugs are fixed in a customer’s environment. Let’s take a close look at how Oracle approaches testing 10

11 Red Hat issues Red Hat does not validate releases with Oracle products
Oracle spent considerable effort to find and repair regressions introduced by Red Hat No Oracle product knowledge in RH support Red Hat adopts enhancements and fixes slowly Oracle’s ability to make Linux better is constrained Much of our work is mainline (OCFS2, BTRFS, RDS, T10-dif, etc.) Delivering these enhancements to users requires either waiting on Red Hat (see above) or back porting them into Red Hat’s old kernel when we fixed bugs they took months to get included; if at all 11

12 Fast, Modern, Reliable and Optimized
Oracle Linux and the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Fast, Modern, Reliable and Optimized 12

13 The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel
Fast, modern, reliable Used by Exadata and Exalogic for extreme performance Allows Oracle to innovate without sacrificing compatibility Oracle Linux now includes both the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel and our existing Red Hat Compatible Kernel You choose at boot time: a system optimized for running Oracle software or strict Red Hat compatibility. If you look at RHEL 5, which is supported until at least 2014 it comes with a kernel that is effectively 4 years old. Four years represents a lot of innovation and development in Linux and we were looking for a way to bring modern features and performance to customers. With UEK we can do that without asking customers to upgrade to a new OS. UEK is now part of Oracle Linux 5. For customer who are ready to move to Oracle Linux 6, that has UEK as well. In both cases, customers have a choice: boot a kernel optimized for running Oracle software or a Red Hat compatible kernel Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel is now the kernel we use for all our development and testing of Oracle software and therefore, it’s the kernel we recommend to all of our customers. Oracle now recommends only the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel for all Oracle software on Linux 13

14 What is the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel?
Currently based on a stable kernel a number of enhancements already in contributed by Oracle brand new optimizations from Oracle that are all open source Covered as part of Oracle Linux support Thoroughly tested with Oracle software stack Around 80,000 QA hours every day in our test farm Default in Oracle Linux 5.6+ and Oracle Linux 6+ Existing applications run unchanged Not a new distribution but a set of additional RPMs To produce UEK, we began with a stable release of the kernel, representing a major leap forward from the RHEL kernel. Then our kernel team made enhancements focused on performance and stability. A lot of work went into making sure that heavy network and IO loads can be spread across many CPUs and also to optimize RDS and Infiniband performance. UEK represents the best Linux performance Oracle can deliver today. By moving to as base for th kernelwe also gain many features in the areas of hardware fault management, data integrity and diagnostics Customers get all this without affecting existing applications. The key message for customers is that UEK is the kernel we use to build and test Oracle software to the tune of 80,000 hours per day in the Database and FMW QA farm. 14

15 The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel: Fast
Benchmark Red Hat compatible kernel (rhel5) Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel (ol5) Gain 8kb flash cache reads (IOPS) 197 thousand 1 million 400% Solid State Disk access 4GB/second 9.5GB/second 137% Infiniband RDS messages, single card (IOPS) 89 thousand 273 thousand 200% 8 socket database OLTP (transactions per minute) 1.8 million 3.2 million 75% One significant driver behind our kernel was the Exadata X2-8 system we released last September. It’s a very large x86 system with 8 sockets, each with 8 core CPUs in them 1TB RAM 15

16 The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel: Modern
Bigger servers Up to 4096 CPUs and 2 TB of memory Up to 4 PB (petabyte) clustered volumes with OCFS2 Advanced NUMA support Power management CPUs to stay in low power state when the system is idle Fine grained CPU and memory resource control Oracle ensures that Oracle Linux can run on the biggest, current x86/x64 hardware The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel tracks mainline Linux – users get community and Oracle enhancements faster 16

17 The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel: Reliable
Eliminates silent data corruption using Data Integrity; stops corrupt data from being written; Reduces system crashes and improves system uptime via Hardware Fault Management; Improved Diagnostics Tools 17

18 Linux Development work
ALL Linux kernel enhancements described earlier for The Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel are open source and have been made available to the Linux community. Including changelogs, commit messages ... 18

19 Oracle Linux Compatibility
Since October 2006: No incompatibilities found by Oracle No incompatibilities reported by Red Hat No incompatibilities reported by ISVs No Red Hat Enterprise Linux installed at Oracle All development, testing and certification for Oracle products on Linux occur on Oracle Linux Oracle maintains a repository containing the RHEL RPMs exactly as issued by Red Hat If any RHEL RPM is released by Red Hat, the corresponding OEL RPM is created from it anew Oracle re-releases every RPM released by Red Hat If OEL modifications exist for such an updated RPM, they are reapplied to the newly imported RPM No branches of Red Hat code exist for OEL: Oracle does not branch off from major RHEL releases Oracle freezes released OEL RPMs unless a custom backport is requested by a Premier level support customer 19

20 Leading ISVs Certify Oracle Linux
Dedicated team to work with ISV/IHVs for Oracle Linux SAP Sungard Tibco Quest Informatica EMC Symantec 20

21 Support pricing is same for both
Oracle Linux Summary Choice of two kernels Red Hat Compatible Kernel Oracle’s Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Both kernels open source and are free to download; Difference is in functionality Support pricing is same for both Oracle Linux Support Program Oracle recommends using the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel 21

22 Oracle Linux Roadmap 22

23 Ksplice acquisition About Ksplice
Creator of innovative zero downtime update technology for Linux Privately-held company, founded in 2008 and based in Cambridge, MA Over 700 customers across multiple industries including High Tech, Public Sector, Financial Services, Utilities and Media and Entertainment Oracle plans to make zero downtime updates a standard feature of Oracle Linux Premier Support for the Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Because rebooting after applying Linux updates is costly and disruptive, many administrators must delay applying security updates and other critical fixes Ksplice technology will enable Oracle customers to apply updates without rebooting – increasing the security, reliability, and availability of Oracle Linux Oracle is expected to be the only enterprise Linux vendor that can offer zero downtime updates

24 Strategic Importance to Oracle
Oracle customers use Linux for mission critical systems High performance Significant percentage of business critical applications are deployed on Linux Linux kernel security updates are released monthly and system reboots are costly and disruptive Industry regulations require companies to apply security updates and patches regularly Security is compromised by failure to update System administrators are forced to choose between known best practices and added operational costs Oracle Linux zero downtime technology, combined with hot patches for Oracle database, further extends Oracle’s security, reliability, and availability leadership

25 Traditional Update Approach
Disruptive, Downtime and Delays Security Update Released …One Week Later …And Another 4 Hours Later System administrator negotiates with management to schedule outage windows System administrator schedules downtime the following week System administrator notifies users of planned downtime Shut down application server Shut down database Apply Linux OS update Start up database Start up application server Sanity check application Updates applied and tested Back in business after first notification of security update - typically over one week has passed

26 There Is a Better Way to Update with Ksplice
Always Accessible Systems – No Reboot Necessary Improved Availability Apply critical updates and security patches without rebooting Eliminate downtime and disruption for your users and customers - updates happen while applications are running Enhanced Security Reduce your window of vulnerability Dramatically increase compliance with OS updates Reduced Operational Cost No more long nights and weekends spent rebooting servers for kernel updates No need to coordinate with system users about outages caused by reboots One Step, Zero Downtime

27 Ksplice Solution Overview
Ksplice technology takes Oracle's Linux kernel updates and transforms them into zero downtime updates Oracle Linux servers within the customer environment connect to an Oracle Linux update server to download and apply updates while the system is running Customers can track the status of their servers via an intuitive web interface and can integrate zero downtime updates into existing management tools via an API Client Kernel update Ksplice technology Zero downtime kernel update Customer systems

28 Proven Technology Validated by Leading Enterprise Customers
“Ksplice is superb. It reduces one of the biggest costs associated with any server-system administrator maintenance time, and helps us improve the quality of service we can provide to our customers.” Dave Collins, CTO of HostGator “Ksplice enables our technical staff to reduce the amount of time we spend on routine maintenance. We’re reducing both costs and headaches at the same time.” Nick Zyren, CTO of FutureHosting “Inspires utter awe and delight in our system administrators and strengthens our business by letting us maintain servers more effectively.” Zak Boca, CEO of SingleHop

29 Industry Recognition of Ksplice’s Technology
“Until a system can be updated, it can be vulnerable to security flaws. By allowing users to install kernel updates without downtime, Ksplice technology reduces the cost of system administration and reinforces security, increasing the actual rate of compliance with security updates.”  (09/8/2010) “Ksplice came up with a technology that can patch or install a new kernel on the fly. This takes the minimal reboots of Linux to zero reboots. Ideally, this allows a machine running Linux to run indefinitely.”  (09/1/2010) "When a vendor releases software updates, Ksplice makes those updates into a module that can be applied to a server without rebooting it. This saves you the hassle of notifying customers of downtime and planning for staff members to work at 2:00 a.m. on a Sunday morning. The update can be applied painlessly and without any disruption to anyone's work“ (02/12/2010)

30 Red Hat Enterprise Linux
Oracle Linux with Premier Support Zero Downtime Updates to be a Standard Feature in Oracle Linux Premier Support  Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server Premium* Oracle Linux Premier Access to Updates and Patches 24x7 Phone and Web support No Forced Upgrades to Obtain Bug Fixes Lifetime Support Integrated Management and Monitoring Includes Clustering Software and File System Indemnification without Financial Limits Zero Downtime Updates with Ksplice Pricing $2,299 $6,498 (2 X $3,249 per socket pair) * No add-ons ** Based on 4 socket comparison and 1 year term, Oracle pricing based on Oracle Linux Premier

31 Oracle Linux Roadmap Releases and Development Focus Areas 31

32 Roadmap and Releases Continue to track RHEL releases with Oracle Linux ISO releases and errata stream Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel release stream with yearly kernel updates Current: Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release 1 Q3/Q4 FY2012: Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel Release Release 2 based on 9 month grace period allows customers to move to the next release on their own schedule Customer can stay on the same kernel release for 21 months Quarterly driver updates Grace period During this period, Oracle continues to produce errata kernels to address functionality bugs and security bugs against the prior Release of UEK 32

33 Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel R1
Latest OFED stack (1.5.1) with RDS Advanced large NUMA system support Receive Packet Steering (RPS) and Receive Flow Steering (RFS) Improved asynchronous writeback performance SSD detection Data Integrity down to SAN OCFS2 1.6 Oracle ASM kernel module ksplice (available soon) Latest Infiniband Stack (OFED) 1.5.1 OpenFabrics Enterprise Distribution (OFED) implements Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) and kernel bypass mechanisms to deliver high- efficiency computing, wire-speed messaging, ultra-low microsecond latencies and fast I/O for servers, block storage and file systems. This also includes an improved RDS (reliable datagram sockets) stack for high speed, low latency networking. As an Infiniband Upper Layer Protocol (ULP), RDS is used to send IPC datagrams (up to 1MB) reliably, and is used currently in Oracle RAC and Exadata/Exalogic products. Advanced large NUMA system support A number of additional patches to significantly improve performance on NUMA systems with many CPUs and cores: IRQ balance IPC semaphore improvements IO affinity RPS distributes the load of received network packet processing across multiple CPUs and ensures that all packets for a specific IP address/port combination are handled by the same CPU core. This allows protocol processing (e.g. IP and TCP) to be performed on packets in parallel and avoids performance penalties that can occur due to the resulting cacheline bouncing. This solution removes a bottleneck where a single CPU core could be saturated from processing network interrupts. This feature has been back- ported from the mainline Linux kernel. Receive Flow Steering (RFS) can be considered the second stage of receive packet steering. Developed by Tom Herbert at Google, RFS is an extension of RPS that makes sure that now that processing of network packets is happening in parallel, it’s done in a coordinated fashion. Instead of performing an IP/Port match, it is doing an application match, directing the flow of traffic to where the application is waiting for it. If an application issues some system calls that trigger network packets to be sent and received, its footprint will be logged to the CPU currently executing it and any incoming packets for this application will always meet up on the same CPU, thus improving CPU locality and minimizing the performance penalty. This is more directed than receive packet steering alone. Together with RPS, this can result in tremendous performance improvements – Oracle-internal tests have shown 50% faster IP over Infiniband results on a two socket system. Improved asynchronous writeback performance The process of writing out “dirty” (modified) memory from the Linux kernel page cache to the disk is called “writeback”. It is performed by the pdflush kernel thread, based on configurable values defined in /proc/sys/vm. Depending on the amount of data and the storage sub­ systems involved in this activity, the previous implementation had some drawbacks. A new flushing system was designed and developed by Oracle engineers, which addressed these deficiencies and improved the performance for various workloads SSD detection The kernel block layer will detect devices that claim to be fast, solid state storage and tune itself accordingly. 33

34 Unbreakable Enterprise Kernel R2
Transcendent memory via cleancache Btrfs Data integrity from application to disk Resource Isolation via cgroups OS Isolation (containers) Built in virtual switch (vswitch) Ksplice 34 Oracle Confidential – Internal Use Only

35 Transcendent Memory — Cleancache
Memory area to cache clean memory pages Implemented on transcendent memory (tmem) Eliminates costly disk reads Shown to improve performance on a broad range of workloads Exposed via the VFS layer for easy integration with existing file systems This patchset introduces cleancache, an optional new feature exposed by the VFS layer that potentially dramatically increases page cache effectiveness for many workloads in many environments at a negligible cost. It does this by providing an interface to transcendent memory, which is memory/storage that is not otherwise visible to and/or directly addressable by the kernel. Instead of being discarded, hooks in the reclaim code "put" clean pages to cleancache. Filesystems that "opt-in" may "get" pages from cleancache that were previously put, but pages in cleancache are "ephemeral", meaning they may disappear at any time. And the size of cleancache is entirely dynamic and unknowable to the kernel. 35

36 Btrfs Huge file system size Simplified administration
No volume manager needed Easy to add and remove capacity Online defragmentation Built in data integrity Flexible Snapshot, rollback Mix device types 36

37 Silent Data Corruption
Data corruption that goes unnoticed No errors or warning Logical block checksum checking not enough to prevent silent data corruption Often used at READ time, when it’s already too late Requires end-to-end integrity checking to detect There are areas in the data path that can cause corruption End-to-end data protection prevents bad data from being written Regulations such as Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) mandate controls for the protection of customer data The reality is that for data being written to disk, the path between an application and the disk itself can be quite long and can involve many read/write operations. Without end-to-end checking, there is potential for error.

38 Data Integrity Today Q4 2011 Data Integrity Extensions T10 PI T10-PI
Oracle Application sends block with protection information to Emulex Adapter through Linux I/O stack Emulex LightPulse LPe1200x HBA validates protection information Emulex HBA sends data block with protection information across SAN to the array Array validates protection information Array sends block to drive. Drive firmware validates protection information before writing to media Oracle Database Linux OS HBA Switch Storage Array Disk drive Data Integrity Extensions T10 PI T10-PI Application-to-Disk Data Integrity: current and future support 38

39 Resource Isolation: cgroups
Fine grained control of CPU and memory resources Protect memory for a given set of processes, e.g. CRS Ensure that a set of processes always run on the same NUMA node and use NUMA-local memory DB consolidation on large NUMA servers Device whitelisting 39

40 OS Isolation: Linux Containers
OS Isolation via resource management Multiple userspace versions of an OS on the same server Resource isolation No overhead VE VE VE Create Freeze Destroy Restart Apps Apps Apps System Libs System Libs System Libs Root Root Root Linux Kernel 40

41 Networking: Built in Virtual Switch
Network virtualization virtual network cards VLANs virtual switches Resource management QoS sFlow monitoring Based on Open vSwitch 41

42 Enterprise-Class, Global, 24x7 Linux Support
Oracle Linux Support Program Enterprise-Class, Global, 24x7 Linux Support 42

43 Oracle Linux Premier Support
True Enterprise Support for Linux Premier backports - fixes for the OS version you run; no forced upgrades Single number to call for the entire stack ability to provide zero downtime diagnostics patches and security updates (ksplice technology) * Full Indemnification without Financial Limits Dedicated, Global Linux Support Team Backed by 28 global support centers, speaking 29 local languages across 145 countries Lower Overall Costs Integrated management and monitoring tools Free server lifecycle management and clustering software Included in Oracle Premier Support for Systems on Oracle x86 architecture hardware * there are very few cases where this is not feasible

44 Premier Backporting Premier Backports allow customers to upgrade on their own schedule while still getting bug fixes No forced upgrades Modeled after the way we support traditional Oracle products Provided for packages up to six months after a newer version of that package has been released Example: A bug is reported by customer against Latest kernel version is Oracle support provides kernel : the same kernel the customer was running on, with the fix for the problem they hit 44

45 Focus on Linux Testing Dedicated Linux QA team
Real-world regression and stress testing Customer-centric testing: Test Linux features that matter to Oracle customers Oracle and non-Oracle workloads (e.g. backup) running concurrently Adverse conditions (low memory, low disk space, etc.) Long, continuously running stress tests (detect memory leaks) Check for performance regression and degradation We have worked with Oracle customers on Linux for many years working through issues so we have a good idea of the kinds of configurations and cases that matter to them. 45

46 Testing: Oracle Validated Configurations
Pre-tested, validated, and supported Linux architectures, including Software, hardware, storage, drivers, networking components Best practices for Linux deployment Real-world testing of complete stack More than 120 configurations published, freely available for download oracle.com/linux Oracle Database Fusion Middleware Oracle Linux Oracle VM Server Storage Speed successful deployment of Linux Reduce expensive testing Achieve faster time to market Lower infrastructure costs Improve performance, scalability, reliability Mitigate risk So, that’s how we approach Linux testing at Oracle. Let’s take a look at how we approach fixing customer bugs Oracle Validated Configurations offer faster Linux deployments while lowering infrastructure costs 46

47 Price Comparison 47

48 External Resources Linux Home Page oracle.com/linux
Follow us on Twitter twitter.com/ORCL_Linux Become a fan in Facebook Facebook.com/OracleLinux Subscribe to YouTube YouTube.com/OracleLinuxChannel Free Download: Oracle Linux edelivery.oracle.com/linux 48


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