2Defining Some TermsPersonality: A person’s unique and relatively stable behavior patterns; the consistency of who you are, have been, and will becomeCharacter: Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluatedTemperament: Hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, moods, irritability, and adaptabilityPersonality Trait: Stable qualities that a person shows in most situationsPersonality Type: People who have several traits in common
3Personality Types and Other Concepts Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types:Introvert: Shy, self-centered person whose attention is focused inwardExtrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outwardSelf-Concept: Your ideas, perceptions, and feelings about who you areSelf-Esteem: How we evaluate ourselves; a positive self-evaluation of ourselvesLow Self-esteem: A negative self-evaluation
4Figure 10.1FIGURE 10.1 Personality types are defined by the presence of several specific traits. For example, several possible personality traits are shown in the left column. A person who has a Type A personality typically possesses all or most of the highlighted traits. Type A persons are especially prone to heart disease (see Chapter 11).
5Figure 10.2FIGURE 10.2 English psychologist Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) believed that many personality traits are related to whether you are mainly introverted or extroverted and whether you tend to be emotionally stable or unstable (highly emotional). These characteristics, in turn, are related to four basic types of temperament first recognized by the early Greeks. The types are: melancholic (sad, gloomy), choleric (hot-tempered, irritable), phlegmatic (sluggish, calm), and sanguine (cheerful, hopeful).
6Personality Theories: An Overview Personality Theory: System of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles proposed to explain personality; includes five perspectives:Trait Theories: Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behaviorPsychodynamic Theories: Focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and strugglesBehavioristic Theories: Focus on external environment and on effects of conditioning and learningSocial Learning Theories: Attribute differences in perspectives to socialization, expectations, and mental processesHumanistic Theories: Focus on private, subjective experience and personal growth
7Gordon Allport and Traits Common Traits: Characteristics shared by most members of a cultureIndividual Traits: Describe a person’s unique personal qualitiesCardinal Traits: So basic that all of a person’s activities can be traced back to the traitCentral Traits: Core qualities of a personalitySecondary Traits: Inconsistent or superficial aspects of a person
8Raymond Cattell and Traits Surface Traits: Features that make up the visible areas of personalitySource Traits: Underlying traits of a personality; each reflected in a number of surface traitsCattell also created 16PF, personality testGives a “picture” of an individual’s personality
9Figure 10.3FIGURE 10.3 The 16 source traits measured by Cattell’s 16 PF are listed beside the graph. Scores can be plotted as a profile for an individual or a group. The profiles shown here are group averages for airline pilots, creative artists, and writers. Notice the similarity between artists and writers and the difference between these two groups and pilots.
11Figure 10.4FIGURE 10.4 The Big Five. According to the five-factor model, basic differences in personality can be “boiled down” to the dimensions shown here. The five-factor model answers these essential questions about a person: Is she or he extroverted or introverted? Agreeable or difficult? Conscientious or irresponsible? Emotionally stable or unstable? Smart or unintelligent? These questions cover a large measure of what we might want to know about someone’s personality.
12Traits and SituationsTrait-Situation Interactions: When external circumstances influence the expression of personality traitsBehavioral Genetics: Study of inherited behavioral traits
13True or False?I believe my parents have been one of the most influential forces in my development.Events that occurred in childhood still affect me today.I sometimes experience a struggle from within myself.Sometimes I am not aware of my own motivations and desires.Sometimes when I am in an argument, I feel they assume that I am upset, when I am actually fine.
14Psychoanalytic Theory and Sigmund Freud, M.D. Freud was a Viennese physician who thought his patients’ problems were more emotional than physical.Freud began his work by using hypnosis and eventually switched to psychoanalysis.Freud had many followers: Jung and Adler, to name a few.Freud used cocaine and tobacco and died from oral cancer.More than 100 years later, his work is still influential and very controversial
15Some Key Freudian Terms Psyche: Freud’s term for the personalityLibido: EnergyEros: Life instinctsThanatos: Death instinct
16Figure 10.6FIGURE 10.6 The approximate relationship between the id, ego, and superego, and the levels of awareness.
17Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: The Id Innate biological instincts and urges; self-serving, irrational, and totally unconsciousWorks on Pleasure Principle: Wishes to have its desires (pleasurable) satisfied NOW, without waiting and regardless of the consequences
18Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: The Ego Executive; directs id energiesPartially conscious and partially unconsciousWorks on Reality Principle: Delays action until it is practical and/or appropriate
19Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: The Superego Judge or censor for thoughts and actions of the egoSuperego comes from our parents or caregivers; guilt comes from the superegoTwo partsConscience: Reflects actions for which a person has been punishedEgo Ideal: Second part of the superego; reflects behavior one’s parents approved of or rewarded
20Freudian Dynamics of Personality and Anxieties Ego is always caught in the middle of battles between superego’s desires for moral behavior and the id’s desires for immediate gratificationNeurotic Anxiety: Caused by id impulses that the ego can barely controlMoral Anxiety: Comes from threats of punishment from the superegoUnconscious: Holds repressed memories and emotions and the id’s instinctual drivesConscious: Everything you are aware of at a given momentPreconscious: Material that can easily be brought into awareness
21Freudian Personality Development Develops in stages; everyone goes through same stages in same orderMajority of personality is formed before age 6Erogenous Zone: Area on body capable of producing pleasureFixation: Unresolved conflict or emotional hang-up caused by overindulgence or frustration
22Freudian Personality Development: Oral Stage Oral Stage: Ages 0-1. Most of infant’s pleasure comes from stimulation of the mouth. If a child is overfed or frustrated, oral traits will develop. Early oral fixations can cause…Oral Dependent Personality: Gullible, passive, and need lots of attention.Later oral fixations can cause…Oral-aggressive adults who like to argue and exploit others
23Freudian Personality Development: Anal Stage Anal Stage: Ages 1-3. Attention turns to process of elimination. Child can gain approval or express aggression by letting go or holding on. Ego develops. Harsh or lenient toilet training can make a child:Anal Retentive: Stubborn, stingy, orderly, and compulsively cleanAnal Expulsive: Disorderly, messy, destructive, or cruel
24Freudian Personality Development: Phallic Stage Phallic Stage: Ages 3-6. Child now notices and is physically attracted to opposite sex parent. The child is vain, sensitive, narcissistic. Can lead to:Oedipus Conflict: For boys only. Boy feels rivalry with his father for his mother’s affection. Boy may feel threatened by father (castration anxiety). To resolve, boy must identify with his father (i.e., become more like him and adopt his heterosexual beliefs).Electra Conflict: Girl loves her father and competes with her mother.Both concepts are widely rejected today by most psychologists
25Freudian Personality Development: Latency Stage Latency: Ages 6-Puberty. Psychosexual development is dormant. Same sex friendships and play occur here.
26Freudian Personality Development: Genital Stage Genital Stage: Puberty-on. Realization of full adult sexuality occurs here; sexual urges re-awaken.
27Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development The Oral Stage (The first year of life)The infant derives intense psychosexual pleasure from stimulation of the mouth, particularly from breastfeeding but from oral contact with other objects as well.Oral fixation might involve problems with eating, drinking, substance use, and issues of dependence on/independence from others.The Anal Stage (About 1 to 3 years old)The child derives intense psychosexual pleasure from stimulation of the anal sphincter, the muscles that controls bowel movements. This is partly related to toilet training, which usually occurs at this stage.Anal fixation might involve problems with extreme stinginess or need to maintain strict order. Sometimes the opposite is true, and the person is very wasteful and messy.The child derives intense psychosexual pleasure from stimulation of the genitals, and becomes attracted to the opposite-sex parent.Phallic fixation might involve fear of being castrated (in boys) or “penis envy” in girls.The Latent Period (About 6 years to adolescence)The child in this period suppresses his or her psychosexual interest. Children in this age group tend to play mostly with same sex peers.There is some evidence that the “latent period” is a cultural artifact. Children in some non-industrialized societies do not experience a period of “latency.”The Genital Stage (Adolescence and beyond)The individual in this period has a strong sexual interest in other people. If he or she has completed the other stages successfully, primary psychosexual satisfaction will be gained from sexual intercourse.The individual who is fixated in an early period of development has little libido left for this stage.Table 13.1Freud’s Stages of Psychosexual Development
28Freud’s Search for the Unconscious Breuer and Freud referred to this process as catharsis, the therapeutic release of pent-up emotional tension.Freud later expanded this “talking cure” into a method of explaining the workings of personality, based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious internal forces, and called it psychoanalysis.The unconscious mind contains memories, emotions, thoughts, some of which are illogical or socially unacceptable.These thoughts and feelings influence our behavior although we cannot talk about them and may not even be aware of them.Psychoanalysis brings these thoughts to consciousness to achieve catharsis and help the patient overcome irrational and dysfunctional impulses.Figure 13.5Freud believed that psychoanalysis could bring parts of the unconscious into the conscious mind, where the client could deal with them.
29Freudian Defense Mechanisms: Psychological Defenders of You! Defense Mechanisms: Habitual and unconscious (in most cases) psychological processes designed to reduce anxietyWork by avoiding, denying, or distorting sources of threat or anxietyIf used short term, can help us get through everyday situationsIf used long term, we may end up not living in realityProtect idealized self-image so we can live with ourselves
30Freudian Defense Mechanisms: Some Examples Denial: Most primitive; refusing to believe, denying reality; usually occurs with death and illnessRepression: When painful memories, anxieties, and so on are held out of our awarenessProjection: When one’s own feelings, shortcomings, or unacceptable traits and impulses are seen in others; exaggerating negative traits in others lowers anxietyRationalization: Justifying personal actions by giving “rational” but false reasons for themReaction Formation: Impulses are repressed and the opposite behavior is exaggerated
31Describe Your Behavior On a dateAt home with parentsIn classAt a sporting eventReading a bookIn dining hall at mealtimeTalking with a good friendChoose 2 for each: Selfish Energetic Demanding Polite Reserved Helpful
32Learning Theories and Some Key Terms Behavioral Personality Theory: Model of personality that emphasizes learning and observable behaviorLearning Theorist: Believes that learning shapes our behavior and explains personalitySituational Determinants: External conditions that influence our behaviors
33Dollard and Miller’s Theory Habits: Learned behavior patterns; makes up structure of personality. Governed by:Drive: Any stimulus strong enough to goad a person into action (like hunger)Cue: Signals from the environment that guide responsesResponse: Any behavior, either internal or observable; actionsReward: Positive reinforcement
34Social Learning Theory (Rotter) Definition: An explanation that combines learning principles, cognition, and the effects of social relationshipsPsychological Situation: How the person interprets or defines the situationExpectancy: Anticipation that making a response will lead to reinforcementReinforcement Value: Subjective value attached to a particular activity or reinforcer
35Social Learning Theory (cont'd) Self-efficacy: Capacity for producing a desired resultSelf-reinforcement: Praising or rewarding oneself for having made a particular response (getting a good grade)Social Reinforcement: Praise, attention, and/or approval from othersIdentification: Feeling emotionally connected to admired adultsImitation: Desire to act like an admired person
36Becoming Male or Female Identification: Feeling emotionally connected to admired adultsImitation: Desire to act like an admired person
37Miller and Dollard’s Four Critical Childhood Situations FeedingToilet or cleanliness trainingSex trainingLearning to express anger or aggression
38Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) and Androgyny BSRI: Created by Sandra BemConsists of 60 personal traits, 20 each for “masculine,” “feminine,” and “neutral”Androgyny: Having both masculine and feminine traits in a single personAndrogynous individuals are more adaptable in our societyRigid gender stereotypes can restrict behavior, especially in malesInstrumental Behaviors: Goal-directedExpressive Behaviors: Emotion-oriented
39Figure 10.7FIGURE 10.7 Another indication of the possible benefits of androgyny is found in a study of reactions to stress. When confronted with an onslaught of negative events, strongly masculine or feminine persons become more depressed than androgynous individuals do.
40HumanismApproach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and idealsHuman Nature: Traits, qualities, potentials, and behavior patterns most characteristic of humansFree Choice: Ability to choose that is NOT controlled by genetics, learning, or unconscious forcesSubjective Experience: Private perceptions of realitySelf-Actualization (Maslow): Process of fully developing personal potentialsPeak Experiences: Temporary moments of self-actualization
41Carl Rogers’ Self Theory Fully Functioning Person: Lives in harmony with his/her deepest feelings and impulsesSelf: Flexible and changing perception of one’s identitySelf-Image: Total subjective perception of your body and personalityIncongruence: Exists when there is a discrepancy between one’s experiences and self-imageIdeal Self: Idealized image of oneself (the person one would like to be)Positive Self-Regard: Thinking of oneself as a good, lovable, worthwhile personUnconditional Positive Regard: Unshakable love and approval
42Figure 10.8FIGURE 10.8 Incongruence occurs when there is a mismatch between any of these three entities: the ideal self (the person you would like to be), your self-image (the person you think you are), and the true self (the person you actually are). Selfesteem suffers when there is a large difference between one’s ideal self and self-image. Anxiety and defensiveness are common when the self-image does not match the true self.
43More Rogerian Concepts Conditions of Worth: Internal standards of evaluation used by childrenPositive Self-Regard: Thinking of oneself as a good, lovable, worthwhile personOrganismic Valuing: Natural, undistorted, full-body reaction to an experienceUnconditional Positive Regard: Unshakable love and approval
44Personality Assessment Interview: Face-to-face meeting designed to gain information about someone’s personality, current psychological state, or personal historyUnstructured Interview: Conversation is informal, and topics are discussed as they ariseStructured Interview: Follows a prearranged plan, using a series of planned questionsDirect Observation: Looking at behavior
45Other Types of Personality Assessments Behavioral Assessment: Recording the frequency of specific behaviorsSituational Test: Real life situations are simulated so that someone’s spontaneous reactions can be recordedIn-Basket Test: Simulates decision-making challenges that executives faceBasket full of memos is given to applicant, and applicant must act appropriately as quickly as possibleLeaderless Group Discussion: Test of leadership that simulates group decision making and problem solving
46More Types of Personality Assessments! Reliability: Does a test give close to the same score each time it is given to the same person?Validity: Does the test measure what it claims to measure?Personality Questionnaire: Paper-and-pencil test consisting of questions that reveal personality aspectsMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): Widely used objective personality questionnaireHonesty (Integrity) Test: Assumes that poor attitudes toward dishonest acts predispose a person to dishonest behavior
47Figure 10.9FIGURE 10.9 Sample rating scale items. To understand how the scale works, imagine someone you know well. Where would you place check marks on each of the scales to rate that person’s characteristics?
48Projective TestsPsychological tests that use ambiguous or unstructured stimuli; person needs to describe the ambiguous stimuli or make up stories about themRorschach Technique: Developed by Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach; contains 10 standardized inkblots (the “inkblot” test)Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): Developed by Henry Murray, personality theorist; projective device consisting of 20 drawings (black and white) of various situations; people must make up stories about the people in it
49ShynessDefinition: Tendency to avoid others and feeling uneasiness and strain when socializingSocial Anxiety: Feeling of apprehension in the presence of othersEvaluation Fears: Fears of being inadequate, embarrassed, ridiculed, or rejectedPrivate Self-Consciousness: Attention to inner feelings, thoughts, and fantasiesPublic Self-Consciousness: Intense awareness of oneself as a social object