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Software Decision Analysis Techniques Chapters 10-20 in Software Engineering Economics Economics – The study of how people make decisions in resource-limited.

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Presentation on theme: "Software Decision Analysis Techniques Chapters 10-20 in Software Engineering Economics Economics – The study of how people make decisions in resource-limited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Software Decision Analysis Techniques Chapters in Software Engineering Economics Economics – The study of how people make decisions in resource-limited situations Macroeconomics –Inflation, taxation, balance of payments Microeconomics –Make-or-buy, pricing, how much to build Software economics decisions –Make-or-buy: Software Product –How many options to build? –Which DP architecture to use? –How much testing (prototyping, specifying) is enough? –How much software to re-use? –Which new features to add first?

2 Outline of Chapters Context; TPS II Example; Cost-Effectiveness Analysis –Models, optimization, production functions, economies of scale decision criteria Multiple-Goal Decision Analysis I –Net value, marginal analysis, present value, figures of merit Multiple-Goal Decision Analysis II –Goals as constraints, constrained optimization, system analysis, unquantifiable goals Dealing with Uncertainties –Expected value, utility functions, statistical decision theory, value of information

3 Master Key to Software Engineering Economics Decision Analysis Techniques Use present value techniques to convert future $ to present $ (chapter 14) Use statistical decision theory techniques (Chapters 19,20) Yes No All decision criteria (DCs) convertible to present $? All Non-$ DCs expressible as constraints? All Non- $ DCs expressed as single “benefit” criterion? All Non-$ DCs quantifiable? Use standard optimization, net value techniques (chapters 10, 13) Use standard constrained- optimization techniques (chapter 16) Use cost-benefit (CB) decision making techniques (chapters 11, 12) Use figure of-merit techniques, CB techniques (chapter 15) Use techniques for reconciling non- quantifiable DCs (chapter 18) Is outcome of decision highly sensitive to assumptions? (chapter 17) Yes End Find, use less sensitive solution When $ are a mix of present and future cash flows When some DCs involve uncertainties

4 Chapters Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Introduction Example: transaction processing system (TPS II) Performance models Cost-performance models Production functions: economies of scale Cost-effectiveness decision criteria Summary

5 TPS II Business Context Current TPS inadequate for growing workload –Travel reservations: air, rail, car, hotel –Top performance: 1000 transactions/second (tr/sec) –Need 2000 tr/sec soon –Need growth to 4000 tr/sec COTS server capability can provide over 2000 tr/sec –But can’t achieve 4000 tr/sec Consider developing your own server software

6 TPS II System Architecture - variant on COCOMO II book architecture –Companies –Travel agents –About 10/region Regional Concentrators Clients Local Concentrators Financial DB DB Server Services DB 1N Server … ………… … … ……… …

7 TPS II Concept of Operation Clients prepare and send travel-itinerary requests to local concentrator –Package of air, rail, car, hotel reservation requests Local concentrators validate requests and forward them to regional concentrators at server –Usually about 10 local concentrators per region N Regional concentrators use DB server to develop best-match travel itinerary package –Send back to clients via local concentrators –Multiprocessor overhead due to resource contention, coordination

8 COTS vs. New Development Cost Tradeoff: TPS II Build special version of server systems functions –To reduce COTS server software overhead, improve transaction throughput Server systems software size: 20,700 SLOC Server systems, library integration, status monitoring COTS license tradeoffs vs. number of regional concentrators N –Need 10 N licenses for local concentrators –$1K each for acquisition, $1K each for 5-year maintenance

9 COTS/New Development Cost Tradeoff Analysis COTS $K New Development $K Software –Cost to acquire –Integrate & test 100Included –Run-time licenses 10NNot applicable –5-year maintenance 10N N757 Server N N Total N N

10 COTS/New Development Cost Tradeoff New COTS Life Cycle Cost, $K Number of Regional Concentrators, N Now, we need to address the benefit tradeoffs

11 TPS Decision 1 How Many Regional Concentrators in Server? Performance Parameters N, number of processorsN = ? S, processor speed (MOPS/sec)S = 1000 P, processor overhead (MOPS/sec)P = 200 M, multiprocessor overhead factorM = 80 [overhead=M(N-1) MOPS/sec] T, transaction processing time (MOPS/TR) T = 1.0 Performance (TR/sec) MOPS/sec available for processing MOPS/TR required per transaction N[S-P-M(N-1)] T E(N) =

12 TPS Performance, E(N) KOPS/sec available for processing KOPS/sec required per transaction NE(N) N [ (N-1)] 1.0 = N [ )-80N 2 = 880N – 80N 2 = 80N(11-N) dE(N) dN 160N* = 880 N* = 5.5 E(N)* = 2440 E(N) = 0 = = N* =

13 E(N) (tr/sec) NE(N) TPS throughout: E(N) versus number of processors, N Number of processors N

14 TPS Decision 2 Which Operating System? OptionA (Accept Available OS) B (Build New OS) Cost ($k) N N Multiprocessor overhead factor M O/H = M(N-1) 8040 N( (N-1)) E(N) = = 840N-40N 2 Option B: 1.0 = 40N(21-N) For N = 10, E(N) = 40(10)(11) = 4400

15 Cost-Effectiveness Comparison: TPS II Options A, B Option B E(N) = 40N(21 – N) C(N) = N Cost C, $K

16 Segments of Production Function Output Investment High payoffDiminishing returns Input

17 Production Function Achievable output = F (input consumed) -Assuming only technologically efficient pairs: No higher level of output achievable, using given input X Output Input PF is nonnegative PF is nondecreasing

18 Animated displays Secondary application functions User amenities Main application functions Natural speech input Tertairy application functions Basic application functions Data management system Operating System InvestmentHigh-payoffDiminishing returns Cost of software product Value of software product to organization

19 Software Gold-Plating Frequently Gold-Plating –Instant response –Pinpoint accuracy –Unbalanced systems Usually Not Gold-Plating –Humanized input –Humanized output Sometimes Gold-Plating –Highly generalized control, data structures –Sophisticated command languages –General-purpose utilities –Automatic trend analysis –Agents with attitudes –Animated displays –“everything for everybody” –Modularity, info. hiding –Measurement, diagnostics

20 P 11 P 12 P 13 P 21 P 22 P 23 Trans. in 1 2 Module 1 Module 2 Processed Transaction out Modular Transaction Processing System E(2 x 3) = 2 x E(3) = 3840 vs. 2400

21 Software Project Diseconomies of Scale Person – Months Input SLOC Output PM = C (KSLOC) 1 + x The best way to combat diseconomies of scale is to Reduce the Scale

22 Cost-Effectiveness Decision Criteria 1.Maximum available budget 2.Minimum performance requirement 3.Maximum effectiveness/cost ratio 4.Maximum effectiveness – cost difference 5.Return on investment (ROI) 6.Composite alternatives

23 Production Functions for TPS II Options A, B B A X Y Q Z P E (tr/sec)

24 Maximum Effectiveness/Cost Ratio R L Eff/Cost = 8 K Eff/Cost = 3.69 C, $K E (tr/sec)

25 Maximum Effectiveness-Cost Difference B-Build new OS A-Accept available OS Cost C, $K Throughput E(TR/sec)

26 Return on Investment ROI ROI = E-C C Cost C ($K) A B

27 Production Function for TPS Composite Alternative E C, $K E (r/sec)

28 Summary – Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Microeconomic concepts help structure, resolve software decision problems –Cost-effectiveness –Production functions –Economies of scale –C-E decision criteria No single decision criterion dominates others –Each is best for some situations –Need to perform sensitivity analysis: Slightly altered situation doesn’t yield bad decision


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