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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10-0 CHAPTER 10 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10-0 CHAPTER 10 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)"— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved CHAPTER 10 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

2 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Chapter Outline 10.1 Individual Securities 10.2 Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance 10.3 The Return and Risk for Portfolios 10.4 The Efficient Set for Two Assets 10.5 The Efficient Set for Many Securities 10.6 Diversification: An Example 10.7 Riskless Borrowing and Lending 10.8 Market Equilibrium 10.9 Relationship between Risk and Expected Return (CAPM) Summary and Conclusions 10.1 Individual Securities 10.2 Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance 10.3 The Return and Risk for Portfolios 10.4 The Efficient Set for Two Assets 10.5 The Efficient Set for Many Securities 10.6 Diversification: An Example 10.7 Riskless Borrowing and Lending 10.8 Market Equilibrium 10.9 Relationship between Risk and Expected Return (CAPM) Summary and Conclusions

3 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Individual Securities The characteristics of individual securities that are of interest are the: Expected Return Variance and Standard Deviation Covariance and Correlation The characteristics of individual securities that are of interest are the: Expected Return Variance and Standard Deviation Covariance and Correlation

4 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance Consider the following two risky asset world. There is a 1/3 chance of each state of the economy and the only assets are a stock fund and a bond fund.

5 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance

6 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance %11)( %)28( 3 1 %)12( 3 1 %)7( 3 1 )(   S S rE rE

7 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance %7)( %)3( 3 1 7( ( 3 1 )(   B B rE rE

8 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance %24.3%)7%11( 2 

9 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance %01.%)12%11( 2 

10 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance %89.2%)28%11( 2 

11 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance %)89.2%01.0%24.3( 3 1 %05.2 

12 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return, Variance, and Covariance %3.14 

13 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Return and Risk for Portfolios Note that stocks have a higher expected return than bonds and higher risk. Let us turn now to the risk-return tradeoff of a portfolio that is 50% invested in bonds and 50% invested in stocks.

14 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Return and Risk for Portfolios The rate of return on the portfolio is a weighted average of the returns on the stocks and bonds in the portfolio: SSBBP rwrwr 

15 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Return and Risk for Portfolios The rate of return on the portfolio is a weighted average of the returns on the stocks and bonds in the portfolio: %)7(%50%)12(%50%5.9  SSBBP rwrwr 

16 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Return and Risk for Portfolios The rate of return on the portfolio is a weighted average of the returns on the stocks and bonds in the portfolio: %)3(%50%)28(%50%5.12  SSBBP rwrwr 

17 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Return and Risk for Portfolios The expected rate of return on the portfolio is a weighted average of the expected returns on the securities in the portfolio. %)7(%50%)11(%50%9  )()()( SSBBP rEwrEwrE 

18 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Return and Risk for Portfolios The variance of the rate of return on the two risky assets portfolio is BSSSBB 2 SS 2 BB 2 P )ρσ)(wσ2(w)σ(w)σ σ  where  BS is the correlation coefficient between the returns on the stock and bond funds.

19 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Return and Risk for Portfolios Observe the decrease in risk that diversification offers. An equally weighted portfolio (50% in stocks and 50% in bonds) has less risk than stocks or bonds held in isolation.

20 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Efficient Set for Two Assets We can consider other portfolio weights besides 50% in stocks and 50% in bonds … 100% bonds 100% stocks

21 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Efficient Set for Two Assets We can consider other portfolio weights besides 50% in stocks and 50% in bonds … 100% bonds 100% stocks

22 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Efficient Set for Two Assets 100% stocks 100% bonds Note that some portfolios are “better” than others. They have higher returns for the same level of risk or less. These compromise the efficient frontier.

23 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Two-Security Portfolios with Various Correlations 100% bonds return  100% stocks  = 0.2  = 1.0  = -1.0 Relationship depends on correlation coefficient -1.0 <  < +1.0 If  = +1.0, no risk reduction is possible If  = –1.0, complete risk reduction is possible Relationship depends on correlation coefficient -1.0 <  < +1.0 If  = +1.0, no risk reduction is possible If  = –1.0, complete risk reduction is possible

24 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Portfolio Risk as a Function of the Number of Stocks in the Portfolio Nondiversifiable risk; Systematic Risk; Market Risk Diversifiable Risk; Nonsystematic Risk; Firm Specific Risk; Unique Risk n  In a large portfolio the variance terms are effectively diversified away, but the covariance terms are not. Thus diversification can eliminate some, but not all of the risk of individual securities. Portfolio risk

25 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Efficient Set for Many Securities Consider a world with many risky assets; we can still identify the opportunity set of risk-return combinations of various portfolios. return PP Individual Assets

26 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Efficient Set for Many Securities Given the opportunity set we can identify the minimum variance portfolio. return PP minimum variance portfolio Individual Assets

27 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The section of the opportunity set above the minimum variance portfolio is the efficient frontier The Efficient Set for Many Securities return PP minimum variance portfolio efficient frontier Individual Assets

28 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Optimal Risky Portfolio with a Risk-Free Asset In addition to stocks and bonds, consider a world that also has risk-free securities like T-bills 100% bonds 100% stocks rfrf return 

29 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Now investors can allocate their money across the T-bills and a balanced mutual fund 10.7 Riskless Borrowing and Lending 100% bonds 100% stocks rfrf return  Balanced fund CML

30 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Riskless Borrowing and Lending With a risk-free asset available and the efficient frontier identified, we choose the capital allocation line with the steepest slope return PP efficient frontier rfrf CML

31 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Market Equilibrium With the capital allocation line identified, all investors choose a point along the line—some combination of the risk-free asset and the market portfolio M. In a world with homogeneous expectations, M is the same for all investors. return PP efficient frontier rfrf M CML

32 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Separation Property The Separation Property states that the market portfolio, M, is the same for all investors—they can separate their risk aversion from their choice of the market portfolio. return PP efficient frontier rfrf M CML

33 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Separation Property Investor risk aversion is revealed in their choice of where to stay along the capital allocation line—not in their choice of the line. return PP efficient frontier rfrf M CML

34 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Market Equilibrium Just where the investor chooses along the Capital Asset Line depends on his risk tolerance. The big point though is that all investors have the same CML. 100% bonds 100% stocks rfrf return  Balanced fund CML

35 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Market Equilibrium All investors have the same CML because they all have the same optimal risky portfolio given the risk-free rate. 100% bonds 100% stocks rfrf return  Optimal Risky Portfolio CML

36 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Separation Property The separation property implies that portfolio choice can be separated into two tasks: (1) determine the optimal risky portfolio, and (2) selecting a point on the CML. 100% bonds 100% stocks rfrf return  Optimal Risky Portfolio CML

37 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Optimal Risky Portfolio with a Risk-Free Asset By the way, the optimal risky portfolio depends on the risk-free rate as well as the risky assets. 100% bonds 100% stocks return  First Optimal Risky Portfolio Second Optimal Risky Portfolio CML 0 CML 1

38 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Definition of Risk When Investors Hold the Market Portfolio Researchers have shown that the best measure of the risk of a security in a large portfolio is the beta (  )of the security. Beta measures the responsiveness of a security to movements in the market portfolio. Researchers have shown that the best measure of the risk of a security in a large portfolio is the beta (  )of the security. Beta measures the responsiveness of a security to movements in the market portfolio. )( )( 2, M Mi i R RRCov  

39 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Estimating  with regression Security Returns Return on market % R i =  i +  i R m + e i Slope =  i Characteristic Line

40 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Estimates of  for Selected Stocks StockBeta Bank of America1.55 Borland International2.35 Travelers, Inc.1.65 Du Pont1.00 Kimberly-Clark Corp.0.90 Microsoft1.05 Green Mountain Power 0.55 Homestake Mining0.20 Oracle, Inc.0.49

41 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved The Formula for Beta )( )( 2, M Mi i R RRCov   Clearly, your estimate of beta will depend upon your choice of a proxy for the market portfolio.

42 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Relationship between Risk and Expected Return ( CAPM ) Expected Return on the Market: Expected return on an individual security: Market Risk Premium This applies to individual securities held within well- diversified portfolios.

43 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Expected Return on an Individual Security This formula is called the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) )(β F M iF i RRRR  Assume  i = 0, then the expected return is R F. Assume  i = 1, then Mi RR  Expected return on a security = Risk- free rate + Beta of the security × Market risk premium

44 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Relationship Between Risk & Expected Return Expected return  )(β F M iF i RRRR  F R 1.0 M R

45 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Relationship Between Risk & Expected Return Expected return  %3  F R %3 1.5 %5.13 %10  M R

46 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Summary and Conclusions This chapter sets forth the principles of modern portfolio theory. The expected return and variance on a portfolio of two securities A and B are given by By varying w A, one can trace out the efficient set of portfolios. We graphed the efficient set for the two-asset case as a curve, pointing out that the degree of curvature reflects the diversification effect: the lower the correlation between the two securities, the greater the diversification. The same general shape holds in a world of many assets. This chapter sets forth the principles of modern portfolio theory. The expected return and variance on a portfolio of two securities A and B are given by By varying w A, one can trace out the efficient set of portfolios. We graphed the efficient set for the two-asset case as a curve, pointing out that the degree of curvature reflects the diversification effect: the lower the correlation between the two securities, the greater the diversification. The same general shape holds in a world of many assets. ABAABB 2 BB 2 AA 2 P )ρσ)(wσ2(w)σ(w)σ σ  )()()( BBAAP rEwrEwrE 

47 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Summary and Conclusions The efficient set of risky assets can be combined with riskless borrowing and lending. In this case, a rational investor will always choose to hold the portfolio of risky securities represented by the market portfolio. return PP efficient frontier rfrf M CML Then with borrowing or lending, the investor selects a point along the CML.

48 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Corporate Finance, 7/e © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved Summary and Conclusions The contribution of a security to the risk of a well-diversified portfolio is proportional to the covariance of the security's return with the market’s return. This contribution is called the beta. The CAPM states that the expected return on a security is positively related to the security’s beta: The contribution of a security to the risk of a well-diversified portfolio is proportional to the covariance of the security's return with the market’s return. This contribution is called the beta. The CAPM states that the expected return on a security is positively related to the security’s beta: )( )( 2, M Mi i R RRCov   )(β F M iF i RRRR 


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