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Reframing Organizations, 4 th ed.. Chapter 10 The Manager as a Politician.

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Presentation on theme: "Reframing Organizations, 4 th ed.. Chapter 10 The Manager as a Politician."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reframing Organizations, 4 th ed.

2 Chapter 10 The Manager as a Politician

3 Skills of the Manager as a Politician Ethics and politics

4 Skills of the Manager as a Politician Agenda Setting (knowing what you want and how you’ll try to get it) Vision or objective Strategy for achieving the vision Mapping the Political Terrain Determine the channels of informal communication Identify principal agents of political influence Analyze possibilities for mobilizing internal and external players Anticipate counterstrategies that others are likely to employ

5 Drawing the political map Frame the central issue – the key choice that people disagree about Identity the key players (those who are most likely to influence the outcome) Where does each player fall in terms of the key issue? How much power is each player likely to exert Example: Belgian bureaucracy Key issue: are automated records a good thing?

6 Figure 10-1: The Political Map as Seen by the “Techies” – Strong Support and Weak Opposition for Change Interests High Low Pro-Change Opposed to Change Techies Front-line Officials TopManagement Middle Managers Power

7 Figure 10-2: The Real Political Map: a Battle Ground With Strong Players on Both Sides Interests High Low Pro-Change Opposed to Change Techies Front-line Officials Top Management Middle Managers Middle Managers Power

8 Skills of the Manager as a Politician (II) Networking and Building Coalitions Identify relevant relationships Assess who might resist Develop relationships with potential opponents Persuade first, use more forceful methods only if necessary

9 Skills of the Manager as a Politician (III) Bargaining and Negotiation Value Creating: look for joint gain, win-win solutions Value Claiming: try to maximize your own gains

10 Value Creating: Getting to Yes (Fisher and Ury) Separate people from problem: “ deal with people as human beings, and the problem on its merits” Focus on interests, not positions Invent options for mutual gain Insist on objective criteria: standards of fairness for a good decision

11 Value Claiming: The Strategy of Conflict (Schelling) Bargaining is a mixed-motive game (incentives to complete and collaborate)] Process of interdependent decisions Controlling other’s uncertainty gives power Emphasize threats, not sanctions Threats are only effective if credible Calculate the optimal level of threat: too much or too little can undermine your position

12 Morality and Politics Ethical criteria in bargaining and organizational politics Mutuality – are all parties operating under the same understanding of the rules? Generality – does a specific action follow a principle of moral conduct applicable to all comparable situations? Openness – are we willing to make our decisions public? Caring – does this action show care for the legitimate interests of others?

13 Conclusion Politics can be sordid and destructive, but can also be the vehicle for achieving noble purposes Managers need to develop the skills of constructive politicians: Fashion an agenda Map political terrain Networking and building coalitions Negotiating


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