2 The Manager as a Politician Chapter 10The Manager as a Politician
3 The Manager as a Politician Skills of the Manager as a PoliticianEthics and politics
4 Skills of the Manager as a Politician Agenda Setting (knowing what you want and how you’ll try to get it)Vision or objectiveStrategy for achieving the visionMapping the Political TerrainDetermine the channels of informal communicationIdentify principal agents of political influenceAnalyze possibilities for mobilizing internal and external playersAnticipate counterstrategies that others are likely to employ
5 Drawing the political map Frame the central issue – the key choice that people disagree aboutIdentity the key players (those who are most likely to influence the outcome)Where does each player fall in terms of the key issue?How much power is each player likely to exertExample: Belgian bureaucracyKey issue: are automated records a good thing?
6 Power Interests TopManagement Techies Middle Managers Front-line Figure 10-1: The Political Map as Seen by the “Techies” – Strong Support and Weak Opposition for ChangeHighTopManagementTechiesPowerMiddleManagersFront-lineOfficialsLowPro-Change Opposed to ChangeInterests
7 Power Interests Top Management Techies Front-line Middle Officials Figure 10-2: The Real Political Map: a Battle Ground With Strong Players on Both SidesHighTop ManagementTechiesMiddleManagersFront-lineOfficialsMiddleManagersPowerLowPro-Change Opposed to ChangeInterests
8 Skills of the Manager as a Politician (II) Networking and Building CoalitionsIdentify relevant relationshipsAssess who might resistDevelop relationships with potential opponentsPersuade first, use more forceful methods only if necessary
9 Skills of the Manager as a Politician (III) Bargaining and NegotiationValue Creating: look for joint gain, win-win solutionsValue Claiming: try to maximize your own gains
10 Value Creating: Getting to Yes (Fisher and Ury) Separate people from problem: “ deal with people as human beings, and the problem on its merits”Focus on interests, not positionsInvent options for mutual gainInsist on objective criteria: standards of fairness for a good decision
11 Value Claiming: The Strategy of Conflict (Schelling) Bargaining is a mixed-motive game (incentives to complete and collaborate)]Process of interdependent decisionsControlling other’s uncertainty gives powerEmphasize threats, not sanctionsThreats are only effective if credibleCalculate the optimal level of threat: too much or too little can undermine your position
12 Morality and PoliticsEthical criteria in bargaining and organizational politicsMutuality – are all parties operating under the same understanding of the rules?Generality – does a specific action follow a principle of moral conduct applicable to all comparable situations?Openness – are we willing to make our decisions public?Caring – does this action show care for the legitimate interests of others?
13 ConclusionPolitics can be sordid and destructive, but can also be the vehicle for achieving noble purposesManagers need to develop the skills of constructive politicians:Fashion an agendaMap political terrainNetworking and building coalitionsNegotiating