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FACTOR 4 AND FACTOR 10 Isabelle Sjöberg - Alesia Nahibina - Denis Nazarov Tenel Burkitbaev Evgeny Bogatikov Åsa Larsson Xingqiang Song Fabrizio Meloni.

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Presentation on theme: "FACTOR 4 AND FACTOR 10 Isabelle Sjöberg - Alesia Nahibina - Denis Nazarov Tenel Burkitbaev Evgeny Bogatikov Åsa Larsson Xingqiang Song Fabrizio Meloni."— Presentation transcript:

1 FACTOR 4 AND FACTOR 10 Isabelle Sjöberg - Alesia Nahibina - Denis Nazarov Tenel Burkitbaev Evgeny Bogatikov Åsa Larsson Xingqiang Song Fabrizio Meloni - Frida Pollak - Technology and sustainable development

2 SITUATION TODAY Violent and life-threatening reactions of the ecosphere to the stresses imposed by human activities are still growing in all parts of the world;Violent and life-threatening reactions of the ecosphere to the stresses imposed by human activities are still growing in all parts of the world; Humanity continues to live in an increasingly dangerous and unsustainable environment;Humanity continues to live in an increasingly dangerous and unsustainable environment; More people are exposed to polluted air and have less clean water available than ever before and fertile soil is eroding fast;More people are exposed to polluted air and have less clean water available than ever before and fertile soil is eroding fast; Fresh water supplies are dwindling, bio-diversity is still rapidly declining, and so are forested areas;Fresh water supplies are dwindling, bio-diversity is still rapidly declining, and so are forested areas; Environmental damage is caused not only by pollution but also by the processes involved in extracting natural resources. Extracting resources is the more significant cause, not only because all materials taken into an economy end up sooner or later as emissions and wastes, but also because technical displacement of natural resources causes irreversible changes by itself.Environmental damage is caused not only by pollution but also by the processes involved in extracting natural resources. Extracting resources is the more significant cause, not only because all materials taken into an economy end up sooner or later as emissions and wastes, but also because technical displacement of natural resources causes irreversible changes by itself. Alesia

3 On the average, more than 90% of the resources harvested and displaced in nature are wasted on the way to producing food, machines, vehicles, and infrastructures;On the average, more than 90% of the resources harvested and displaced in nature are wasted on the way to producing food, machines, vehicles, and infrastructures; On the average, close to 100 tons of non-renewable are consumed every year per person to support the current life-style in industrialized countries.On the average, close to 100 tons of non-renewable are consumed every year per person to support the current life-style in industrialized countries. SITUATION TODAY Alesia SO, REACHING SUSTAINABILITY DEMANDS AN ABSOLUTE REDUCTION IN RESOURCES USE AT LEAST 50%

4 THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGY ( ) DILUITION (1960)DILUITION (1960) END-OF-PIPE (1970)END-OF-PIPE (1970) RECYCLING (1980)RECYCLING (1980) CLEANER PRODUCTION (1990)CLEANER PRODUCTION (1990) ECO-INTELLIGENT (2000)ECO-INTELLIGENT (2000) Alesia

5 FACTOR 4. “DOING MORE WITH LESS" Accomplish everything we do today as well as now, or better, with only one fourth the energy and materials we presently use.Accomplish everything we do today as well as now, or better, with only one fourth the energy and materials we presently use. The use of resources will be more equally divided between nations.The use of resources will be more equally divided between nations. But we need to be more efficient if we want to be ecologically sustainable.But we need to be more efficient if we want to be ecologically sustainable. Åsa

6 HOW CAN WE BE MORE EFFICIENT? Develop more efficient productsDevelop more efficient products Products which last longerProducts which last longer Second hand Second hand High quality High quality Upgrade Upgrade SubstitutionSubstitution MultipurposeMultipurpose CooperationCooperation Åsa

7 New technologies and new ways of linking them together. Big savings can then become even cheaper than small savings. Example : Super efficient car costs less to build than normal. Åsa

8 REDESIGN THE CAR FROM SCRATCH Ultra-strong yet crashworthy materialsUltra-strong yet crashworthy materials Advanced compositesAdvanced composites Better design, good aerodynamicBetter design, good aerodynamic Better tiers, less weightBetter tiers, less weight HybridHybrid Åsa

9 Increasing Efficiency and Productivity Increasing Efficiency and Productivity MAIN CRITICISM: It can be expensive It can be expensive ANSWER: It is possible reducing the wastes It is possible reducing the wastes Save resources and money at the same time Save resources and money at the same time Fabrizio HOW TO DO IT?

10 - 93 % of the materials used never end up in saleable products - 80 % of the products become wastes after a single use - 99 % of the materials used become a waste within 6 weeks of sale HOW MUCH IS WASTED? HOW MUCH CAN BE SAVED? - 10÷30 %in the 1970s - 90÷99 %in the 1990s $/y lost by an average American for energy wastes ECONOMIC CONVENIENCE Fabrizio SOME NUMBERS

11 A change in the culture and behaviour of society is strongly needed Fabrizio PROBLEMS TO DO IT Conventional education and the high costs for replace personnel;Conventional education and the high costs for replace personnel; Inertia of capital owners and customers. Inertia of capital owners and customers. Discriminatory financial criteria Discriminatory financial criteria Prices that sometimes distort actual costs to the environment and to the future generations; Prices that sometimes distort actual costs to the environment and to the future generations; Obsolete regulations that discourage efficiency;Obsolete regulations that discourage efficiency; The universal practice to regulate utilities for increasing use and consumption.The universal practice to regulate utilities for increasing use and consumption.

12 FACTOR 10 Factor 10 is an absolute target forFactor 10 is an absolute target for lowering the distribution of natural resources = lowering the distribution of natural resources = increase the resource productivity increase the resource productivity ”rich” countries must make environmental space available for the ”poor” countries by at least a Factor 10 ”rich” countries must make environmental space available for the ”poor” countries by at least a Factor 10 Factor 10 includes changes in technology, culture, economy, and institutional organizations Factor 10 includes changes in technology, culture, economy, and institutional organizations Frida

13 DIFFERENT TOOLS FOR MEASURING MIPS = the material input per total unit of servicesMIPS = the material input per total unit of services FIPS = the surface coverage per unit serviceFIPS = the surface coverage per unit service TOPS = the eco-toxic exposure equivalent per unit serviceTOPS = the eco-toxic exposure equivalent per unit service S/MI = the measure of resource productivityS/MI = the measure of resource productivity Ecological rucksack = the total quantity (in kg) of natural material used minus the products own weightEcological rucksack = the total quantity (in kg) of natural material used minus the products own weight Frida

14 TOOLS FOR REACHING FACTOR 10 1.Changing of environmental policies. Present environmental policies: end-of-pipe solutions, treating or re-cycling solutions.Present environmental policies: end-of-pipe solutions, treating or re-cycling solutions. Changing of focus of environmental policies from tail to front-end solutions is needed.Changing of focus of environmental policies from tail to front-end solutions is needed. Denis, Tenel

15 Changing of energy consumtion 2. Changing of energy consumtion For changing in energy consumption pattern less resource intensive fuel should be used: wind power, solar power.For changing in energy consumption pattern less resource intensive fuel should be used: wind power, solar power. Great attention should be taken on renewable fuel – fuel with low MI.Great attention should be taken on renewable fuel – fuel with low MI. Dematerialising an economy by Factor 10 will lead to an energy reduction of roughly a factor 5 overall.Dematerialising an economy by Factor 10 will lead to an energy reduction of roughly a factor 5 overall. Achieving Factor 10 therefore means the end of the fossil age as well as the end of the debate about nuclear power.Achieving Factor 10 therefore means the end of the fossil age as well as the end of the debate about nuclear power. Denis, Tenel

16 Minimization of rebound effect. 3. Minimization of rebound effect. Rebound (”boomerang”) effects – effects that counteract reductions of resource use, waste avoidance and emission decreases, achieved on the level of individual production and consumption.Rebound (”boomerang”) effects – effects that counteract reductions of resource use, waste avoidance and emission decreases, achieved on the level of individual production and consumption. Example: energy savings by improved car engines are frequently “eaten-up” by bigger cars, faster driving and longer distances.Example: energy savings by improved car engines are frequently “eaten-up” by bigger cars, faster driving and longer distances. Denis, Tenel

17 Population growth limitation. 4. Population growth limitation. The larger the world population becomes, the fewer natural recourses are available.The larger the world population becomes, the fewer natural recourses are available. Limitations in population growth are needed (as in China now).Limitations in population growth are needed (as in China now). The tendency to “singles” is very dangerous.The tendency to “singles” is very dangerous. Denis, Tenel

18 Change in psychology. 5. Change in psychology. Change in psychology is needed: we should change our consuming pattern from goods to services.Change in psychology is needed: we should change our consuming pattern from goods to services. We should forget about stuff like prestige and boasting, to buy things only on the base of their practical parameters, not fashion or prestige.We should forget about stuff like prestige and boasting, to buy things only on the base of their practical parameters, not fashion or prestige. Denis, Tenel

19 New innovation and design. 6. New innovation and design. Massive technological and social innovation as well as re-direction of consumption are unavoidable.Massive technological and social innovation as well as re-direction of consumption are unavoidable. Basic requirement of eco-design: to generate as much units of service of utility (and fun) as possible out of the smallest possible quantity of natural resources (including rucksacks) for the longest possible time period.Basic requirement of eco-design: to generate as much units of service of utility (and fun) as possible out of the smallest possible quantity of natural resources (including rucksacks) for the longest possible time period. Denis, Tenel

20 Market, fiscal reforms and employment 7. Market, fiscal reforms and employment Currently market prices are too low to stimulate development of factor 10 and more.Currently market prices are too low to stimulate development of factor 10 and more. Chances and timing of reaching Factor 10 depends to a considerable degree upon increasing the relative prices of natural resources. The higher prices, the more will competition among producers push innovation toward dematerialised products and services.Chances and timing of reaching Factor 10 depends to a considerable degree upon increasing the relative prices of natural resources. The higher prices, the more will competition among producers push innovation toward dematerialised products and services. Tax-relieves for products with low-MIPSTax-relieves for products with low-MIPS Shifting sources of public reveneu from labor to sources.Shifting sources of public reveneu from labor to sources. Shifting from a throughput economy to one where longevity of products becomes the standart of success.Shifting from a throughput economy to one where longevity of products becomes the standart of success. Denis, Tenel

21 World trade and foreign aid. 8. World trade and foreign aid. Most products and services traded on the world market today are “high-MIPS” in nature.Most products and services traded on the world market today are “high-MIPS” in nature. The infrastructures, buildings, products, food and services provided to developing countries today within the context of foreign aid must be viewed as ecological time bombs.The infrastructures, buildings, products, food and services provided to developing countries today within the context of foreign aid must be viewed as ecological time bombs. Foreign aid policies and export to developing countries must change as soon as possible.Foreign aid policies and export to developing countries must change as soon as possible. Denis, Tenel

22 ECO-EFFICIENCY A concept for improving the ecological character of production related activities while maintaining/improving their profitabilityA concept for improving the ecological character of production related activities while maintaining/improving their profitability Both economy and ecology includedBoth economy and ecology included An operational concept: less nature use for more outputAn operational concept: less nature use for more output Compatible with MIPS and factor 10Compatible with MIPS and factor 10 Isabelle

23 LIMITATIONS Refers exclusively to the production sectorRefers exclusively to the production sector Does not consider importance of minimising the use of spaceDoes not consider importance of minimising the use of space Isabelle

24 ECO-INTELLIGENCE Includes material, energy, surface coverage and dispersion of toxic materials – from cradle to graveIncludes material, energy, surface coverage and dispersion of toxic materials – from cradle to grave Eco-intelligentEco-intelligent - production systems - economies - consumption Isabelle

25 CONCLUSIONS Sustainable development includes not only the ecological sustainability, but the economic, technological and social sustainability as well. Sustainable development of natural resources is imperative for society.Sustainable development includes not only the ecological sustainability, but the economic, technological and social sustainability as well. Sustainable development of natural resources is imperative for society. The chances for moving toward sustainability depend critically upon the increase of the resource productivity of all economic activities.The chances for moving toward sustainability depend critically upon the increase of the resource productivity of all economic activities. Xingqiang Song

26 Factor 4 and factor 10 are two approaches and the latter is a necessary strategy for sustainable development. They predict that we can vastly increase our resource efficiency.Factor 4 and factor 10 are two approaches and the latter is a necessary strategy for sustainable development. They predict that we can vastly increase our resource efficiency. Factor 10 is not an economic goal. It indicates how many industrialized countries have to increase their resource productivity to approach sustainability from the point of life cycle. Factor 10 is not an economic goal. It indicates how many industrialized countries have to increase their resource productivity to approach sustainability from the point of life cycle. Xingqiang Song

27 A factor of 4 to 10-Fold increase in resource efficiency has been proposed for industrial countries for the next 30 to 50 years in order to cut by half the global resource requirements.A factor of 4 to 10-Fold increase in resource efficiency has been proposed for industrial countries for the next 30 to 50 years in order to cut by half the global resource requirements. The aim to increase resource productivity 4 to 10-Fold has attracted wide attention. Several countries included the aim in political programmes and many countries take positive attitude towards them.The aim to increase resource productivity 4 to 10-Fold has attracted wide attention. Several countries included the aim in political programmes and many countries take positive attitude towards them. Xingqiang Song

28 However, the implementation of adequate management measures and the monitoring of effectiveness of many measures will depend on available analytical instruments.However, the implementation of adequate management measures and the monitoring of effectiveness of many measures will depend on available analytical instruments. Factor 10 is a system innovation. Resource productivity improvement need technological innovations, infrastructure change and change of consumer lifestyle.Factor 10 is a system innovation. Resource productivity improvement need technological innovations, infrastructure change and change of consumer lifestyle. Xingqiang Song

29 Sustainable development is a global issue. Only when stakeholder including companies and governments indeed realize the present awful situations, can some solutions (for example, the factor 4 and 10) be carried out smoothly, widely and feasibly.Sustainable development is a global issue. Only when stakeholder including companies and governments indeed realize the present awful situations, can some solutions (for example, the factor 4 and 10) be carried out smoothly, widely and feasibly. Xingqiang Song

30 FACTOR 4 AND FACTOR 10 Isabelle Sjöberg - Alesia Nahibina - Denis Nazarov Tenel Burkitbaev Evgeny Bogatikov Åsa Larsson Xingqiang Song Fabrizio Meloni - Frida Pollak - Technology and sustainable development


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