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 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10- 1 Chapter 10 The Tools of Quality.

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Presentation on theme: " Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall. 10- 1 Chapter 10 The Tools of Quality."— Presentation transcript:

1  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Chapter 10 The Tools of Quality

2  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Chapter 10  Improving the system  Ishikawa’s basic seven tools of quality  Seven new tools for improvement  Other tools for performance measurement

3  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Improving the System The business must balance the needs of the basic functional areas:  Marketing  Accounting  Human Resources  Operations  Engineering  Strategy

4  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Improving the System A quality system uses the business model with a focus on the customer and includes the dynamics of continual improvement.

5  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Process maps  A closer look at Quality  Check sheets  Histograms  Scatter plots

6  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Control charts  Cause and effect diagrams  Pareto analysis  And - Seven new tools for improvement (N7)

7  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Process maps A picture of the process The first step of the process is to create a map of the process as it exists.

8  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Process maps A picture of the process  Using simple symbols chart the process from the beginning.

9  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Process maps A picture of the process  Develop a general process map and then fill it out by adding more of sub- flow-diagrams

10  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Process maps A picture of the process  Determine which steps add value to the process and which don’t in an effort to simplify the work.

11  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Process maps A picture of the process  Before simplifying work, determine whether the work really needs to be done in the first place.

12  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  A closer look at quality  Extended Process Mapping of Supply Chains  Map  Supplier process  Receiving  Internal Processes  Shipping  Customer service processes

13  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Check Sheets  Data gathering tools that can be used in forming histograms  They can be either tabular or schematic

14  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Histograms  A representation of data in a bar chart format  Also used to observe the shape of data.  “How are the data distributed?”

15  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Histograms  The are several rules for developing histograms  The width of the histogram bars must be consistent  The classes mutually exclusive and all-inclusive or collective exhaustive

16  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality A rule of thumb for the number of classes: # of Observations # of Classes 9 to to to to to 2568

17  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Scatter Diagrams  Used to examine the relationship between variables  Sometimes used to identify indicator variables in organization  Quite easy to develop using the charting facilities in spreadsheets packages such as Excel.

18  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Scatter Diagrams

19  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Control charts  Used to determine whether a process will produce a product or process with consistent measurable properties

20  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Cause and effect diagrams  The “Fishbone” or Ishikawa Diagram  Looks like the skeleton of a fish  The head is the problem  The ribs are the major causes  Sub-causes forming smaller “bones” off of the ribs.

21  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Cause and effect diagrams  State the problem clearly in the head of the fish  Draw the backbone and ribs  Ask the participants to identify the major causes of the problem  Continue to fill out the diagram asking “Why?” about each problem or cause

22  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Cause and effect diagrams  It usually takes no five levels of questioning … “Five why’s”  View the diagram and identify core causes  Set to goals to address the core causes.

23  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Pareto Analysis  Aided by the 80/20 rule.  80% of the problems are created by … 20% of the causes

24  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Pareto Analysis  Information must be selected based on types or classification of defects  Data must be collected and classified into categories  A frequency chart is constructed showing the number of occurrences

25  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Pareto Analysis  Steps used include :  Gathering categorical data relating to quality Problems  Drawing a frequency chart  Focusing on the tallest bars of the frequency chart first

26  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Seven new tools for improvement (N7)  GOAL/QPC recommends that the N7 tools be used in a “Cycle of Activity”

27  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  The Affinity Diagram creates a hierarchy of ideas  Identify the problem  Have the team members write down issues  Allow 10 minutes for this activity  Lay out the written cards on a flat surface so that all can see them

28  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  The Affinity Diagram creates a hierarchy of ideas  Let everyone move the cards into groups silently  If you disagree – say nothing but move the card  You have reached consensus when all cards are in groups and no one is moving them  Draw the affinity diagram

29  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Interrelationship Digraph after completing the affinity diagram  Construct an affinity diagram  Examine the cards one by one asking “What other issues are caused or influenced by this issue? Draw a one way arrow from the first issue to the second

30  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Interrelationship Digraph after completing the affinity diagram  Count the number of arrows pointing to each note.  Identify the cards with the most issues as the “key factors”

31  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Interrelationship Digraph after completing the affinity diagram  Draw a double box around the key factors and brainstorm ways to address these issues

32  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Seven new tools for improvement (N7) The Tree Diagram is useful to identify the steps needed to address the given problem

33  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Seven new tools for improvement (N7)  The Prioritization Grid is used to make decisions based on multiple criteria. It involves assigning percentages and weights to each criterion and ranking them

34  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Seven new tools for improvement (N7)  The Matrix Diagram is similar to the quality function deployment  It is used as a brainstorming tool

35  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Seven new tools for improvement (N7)  The Process Decision Program Chart is a tool to help brainstorm possible contingencies. Steps are:  Develop a tree chart, placing first level boxes in sequential order  Moving the second level list implementation details at a fairly high level

36  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Ishikawa’s Seven Basic Tools of Quality  Seven new tools for improvement (N7)  The Process Decision Program Chart is a tool to help brainstorm possible contingencies. Steps are:  At the third level ask “What could go awry?”  At the fourth level Brainstorm counter measures to the third level  Evaluate the countermeasures for feasibility

37  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall Strategic Quality Planning The Tools of Quality Summary  The B7 and N7 are useful in their simplicity and power  Cultural change is needed is needed … to ensure that implementation can be successful

38  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.


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