Presentation on theme: "Zumdahl’s Chapter 10 and Crystal Symmetries"— Presentation transcript:
1Zumdahl’s Chapter 10 and Crystal Symmetries LiquidsSolids
2Contents Intermolecular Forces The Liquid State Types of Solids X-Ray analysisMetal BondingNetwork Atomic SolidsSemiconductorsMolecular SolidsIonic SolidsChange of StateVapor PressureHeat of VaporizationPhase DiagramsTriple PointCritical Point
3Intermolecular Forces Every gas liquifies.Long-range attractive forces overcome thermal dispersion at low temperature. ( Tboil )At lower T still, intermolecular potentials are lowered further by solidification. ( Tfusion )Since pressure influences gas density, it also influences the T at which these condensations occur.What are the natures of the attractive forces?
4London Dispersion Forces AKA: induced-dipole-induced-dipole forcesElectrons in atoms and molecules can be polarized by electric fields to varying extents.Natural electronic motion in neighboring atoms or molecules set up instantaneous dipole fields.Target molecule’s electrons anticorrelate with those in neighbors, giving an opposite dipole.Those quickly-reversing dipoles still attract.
5Induced Dipolar Attraction + •••••• –– •••••• +Strengths of dipolar interaction proportional to charge and distance separated.So weakly-held electrons are vulnerable to induced dipoles. He tight but Kr loose.Also l o n g molecules permit charge to separate larger distances, which promotes stronger dipoles. Size matters.
6Permanent DipolesNon-polar molecules bind exclusively by London potential R–6 (short-range)True dipolar molecules have permanently shifted electron distributions which attract one another strongly R–4 (longer range).Gaseous ions have strongest, longest range attraction (and repulsion) potentials R–2.Size being equal, boiling Tpolar > Tnon-polar
7Strongest Dipoles“Hydrogen bonding” potential occurs when H is bound to the very electronegative atoms of N, O, or F.So H2O ought to boil at about – 50°C save for the hydrogen bonds between neighbor water molecules.It’s normal boiling point is 150° higher!
8The Liquid State (Hawaii?) The most complex of all phases.Characterized byFluidity (flow, viscosity, turbulence)Only short-range ordering (solvation shells)Surface tension (beading, meniscus, bubbles)Bulk molecules bind in all directions but unfortunate surface ones bind only hemispherically.Missing attractions makes surface creation costly.
9Type of SolidsWhile solids are often highly ordered structures, glass is more of a frozen fluid.Glass is an amorphous solid. “without shape”In crystalline solids, atoms occupy regular array positions save for occasional defects.Array composed by stacking of the smallest unit cell capable of reproducing full lattice.
10Types of LatticesWhile there are quite a few Point Groups and hundreds of 2D wallpaper arrangments, there are only SEVEN 3D lattice types.Isometric (cubic), Tetragonal, Orthorhombic, Monoclinic, Triclinic, Hexagonal, and Rhombohedral.They differ in the size and angles of the axes of the unit cell. Only these 7 will fill in 3D space.
11Isometric (cubic) Cubic unit cell axes are all THE SAME LENGTHMUTUALLY PERPENDICULARE.g.,“Fools Gold” is iron pyrite, FeS2, an unusual +4 valence.
12Tetragonal Tetragonal cell axes: MUTUALLY PERPENDICULAR2 SAME LENGTHE.g., Zircon, ZrSiO4. This white zircon is a Matura Diamond, but only 7.5 hardness.Real diamond is 10.Diamonds are nottetragonal but ratherface-centered cubic.
13Orthorhombic Orthorhombic axes: MUTUALLY PERPENDICULARNO 2 THE SAME LENGTHE.g., Aragonite, whose gem form comes from the secretion of oysters; it’s CaCO3.
14Monoclinic Monoclinic cell axes: UNEQUAL LENGTH2 SKEWED but PERPENDICULAR TO THE THIRDE.g., Selenite (trans. “the Moon”) a fully transparent form of gypsum, CaSO4•2H2O
15Triclinic Triclinic cell axes: ALL UNEQUALALL OBLIQUEE.g., Albite, colorless, glassy component of this feldspar, has a formula NaAlSi3O8.Silicates are the most common minerals.
16Hexagonal Hexagonal cell axes: 3 EQUAL C2PERPENDICULAR TO A C6E.g., Beryl, with gem form Emerald and formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6Diamonds are cheaper than perfect emeralds.
17Rhombohedral _ 3 Rhombohedral axis: CUBE stretched (or squashed) along its diagonal. (a=b=c)DIAGONAL is bar 3“rotary inversion”E.g., Quartz, SiO2, the base for amethyst with it purple color due to an Fe impurity.
18Identification (Point Symmetry Symbols) Lattice TypeIsometricTetragonalOrthorhombicMonoclinicTriclinicHexagonalRhombohedralEssential SymmetryFour C3C4Three perpendicular C2C2None (or rather “i” all share)C6C3
19ClassesAlthough there’s only 7 crystal systems, there are 14 lattices, 32 classes which can span 3D space, and 230 crystal symmetries.Only 12 are routinely observed.Classes within a system differ in the symmetrical arrangement of points inside the unit cube.Since it is the atoms that scatter X-rays, not the unit cells, classes yield different X-ray patterns.
20Common Cubic Classes Simple cubic Body-centered cubic “Primitive” PBody-centered cubic“Interior” IFace-centered cubic“Faces” F“Capped” C if only on 2 opposing faces.BCCFCC
21Materials DensityDensity of materials is mass per unit volume.Unit cells have dimensions and volumes.Their contents, atoms, have mass.So density of a lattice packing is easily obtained from just those dimensions and the masses of THE PORTIONS OF atoms actually WITHIN the unit cell.
22Counting Atoms in Unit Cells INTERIOR atoms count in their entirety.FACE atoms count for only the ½ inside.EDGE atoms count for only the ¼ inside.CORNER atoms are only 1/8 inside.
23Gold’s Density from Unit Cell 4 ÅGold is FCC.a = b = c = 4.07 Å# Au atoms in cell:1/8 (8) + ½ (6) = 4M = 4(197 g) = 788 gVolume NAv cells:(4.0710–10 m)3 Nav3.9010–5 m3 = 39.0 cc = M / V = 20.2 g/cc
24Bravais Lattices 7 lattice systems + P, I, F, C options capped7 lattice systems + P, I, F, C optionsP: atoms only at the corners.I: additional atom in center.C: pair of atoms “capping” opposite faces.F: atoms centered in all faces.Totals 14 types of unit cells from which to “tile” a crystal in 3d, the Bravais Lattices.Adding point symmetries yields 230 space groups.
25New Names for Symmetry Elements What we learned as Cn (rotation by 360°/n), is now called merely n. 3’s a 3-fold axis.Reflections used to be but now they’re m (for mirror). So mmm means 3 mirrors.In point symmetry, Sn was 360°/n and then but now it is just n, still a 360°/n but now followed by an inversion (which is now 1).–
26Triclinic Lattice Designation All 7 lattice systems have centrosymmetry, e.g., corner, edge, face, & center inversion pts!Designation: 1These are inversion points only because the crystal is infinite!While all 7 have these, triclinic hasn’t other symmetry operations.It’s 1 means inversion.––
27Cubic (isometric) Designation The principal rotation axes are “4”, but it is the four 3 axes that are identifying for cubes.The 4–fold axes have an m to each.Each 3–fold axis has a trio of m in which it lies. All 3 to be shown.The cube is m 3 mAll its other symmetries are implied by these.3mm
28The Three Cubic Lattices Where before we called them simple, body-centered, and face-centered cubics, the are now P m3m, I m3m, and F m3m, resp.The cubic has the highest and the triclinic the lowest symmetry. The rest of the Bravais Lattices fall in between.We will designate only their primitive cells.It will help when we get to a real crystal.
29Ortho vs. Merely Rhombic Orthorhombic all 90° but a b c. Trivial.It’s mmm because:Rhombohedral all s = but 90°; a = b = cIt’s 3m because:–3–m
30Last of the Great Rectangles Tetragonal all 90° and a = b cPrinciple axis is 4 which is mBut it is also || to mmSo it is designated as 4/m mmAbbreviated 4/mmm4mmm
31Nature’s Favorite for Organics Monoclinica b c = = 90° < Then b is a 2-fold axis and to mSo it is 2/mb is a 2 because the crystal is infinite.m2
32(finally) HexagonalHexagonal refers to the outlined rhomboid ( =120° ) of which there are six around the hexagon! So a 6That 6 has a m and two || mm.m is a mirror because the crystal’s infinite.So it is 6/m mm6mmm
33Lattice Notation Summary Lattice TypeIsometric “Cubic”TetragonalOrthorhombicMonoclinicTriclinicHexagonalRhombohedralCrystal Symmetriesm 3 m ( m4 + 3+||+||+|| )4 / m mm (4 m + ||+|| )mmm (m m m)2 / m ( 2 m)(invert only)6 / m mm (6 m + ||+|| )3 m ( 3 + ||+||+|| )_
34X-ray Crystal Determination Since crystals are so regular, planes with atoms (electrons) to scatter radiation can be found at many angles and many separations.Those separations, d, comparable to , the wavelength of incident radiation, diffract it most effectively.The patterns of diffraction are characteristic of the crystal under investigation!
35Diffraction’s Source X-rays have d. X-rays mirror reflect from adjacent planes in the crystal.If the longer reflection exceeds the shorter by n, they reinforce.If by (n+½), cancel!2d sin = n , Braggreinforceddd sin
36Relating Cell Contents to Atomic positions replicate from cell to cell.Reflection planes through them can be drawn once symmetries are known.Directions of the planes are determined by replication distances in (inverse) cell units.Interplane distance, d, is a function of the direction indices (Miller indices).
37Inverse Distancesb/2The index for a full cell move along axis b is 1. Its inverse is 1.That for ½ a cell on b is ½. Its inverse is 2.Intersect on a parallel axis is ! Its inverse makes more sense, 0.Shown is (3,2,0)ca/3ab
38Interplane Spacings (cubic lattice) Set of 320 planes at right (looking down c).Their normal is yellow.(h,k,l) = (3,2,0)Shifts are a/h, b/k, c/lInverses h/a, k/b, l/cPythagoras in inverse!d–2hkl = (h/a)–2 + (k/b)–2 + (l/c)–2 for use in Bragg
39Bragg Formula 2 sin / = 1 / d (conveniently inverted) ba2 sin / = 1 / d (conveniently inverted)Let the angles opposite a, b, and c be , , and . (All 90° if cubic, etc.)Then Bragg for cubic, orthorhombic, monoclinic, and triclinic becomes:2 sin / = [ (h/a)2 + (k/b)2 + (l/c)2 + 2hkcos/ab + 2hlcos/ac + 2klcos/bc ]½
41New Space Symmetry Elements Glide PlaneSimultaneous mirror with translation || to it.a, b, or c if glide is ½ along those axes.n if by ½ along a face.d if by ¼ along a face.Screw axis, nmSimultaneous rotation by 360°/n with a m/n translation along axis.cell 232 screwcell 1a glide
42Systematic Extinctions Both space symmetries and Bravais lattice types kill off some Miller Index triples!Use missing triples to find P, F, C, IE.g., if odd sums h+k+l are missing, the unit cell is body-centered and must be I.Use them to find glide planes and screw axes.E.g., if all odd h is missing from (h,k,0) reflections, then there is an a glide (by ½) c.
43Nature’s Choice Symmetries 36.0% P 21 / c monoclinic13.7% P 1 triclinic11.6% P orthorhombic6.7% P 21 monoclinic6.6% C 2 / c monoclinic25.4% All (230 – 5 =) 225 others!75% these 5; 90% only 16 total for organics.Stout & Jensen, Table 5.1_
44A B A : hexagonal close pack Packing in MetalsA B A : hexagonal close packA B C : cubic close pack
45Relationship to Unit Cells Is FCCABCA B C : cubic close pack
46ABA (hcp) Hexagonal A B 90° The white lines indicate an elongated hexagonal unitcell with atoms at its equatorand an offset pair at ¼ & ¾.120°If we expand the cell to seeit’s shape, we get a diamondat both ends…3 make a hexagonwhose planes are 90° to thesides of the (expanded) cell.
47Alloys (vary properties of metals) SubstitutionalHeteroatoms swap originals, e.g., Cu/Sn (bronze)IntersticialSmaller interlopers fit in interstices (voids) of metal structure, e.g., Fe/C (steels)MixedSubstitutional and intersticial in same metal alloy, e.g., Fe/Cr/C (chrome steels)
48Phase Changes Solid-to-Gas Liquid-to-Gas Solid-to-Solid Phase changes meanStructure reorganizationEnthalpy changes, HVolume changes, VSolid-to-SolidE.g., red to white PSolid-to-LiquidHfusion significantVfusion smallSolid-to-GasHsublimation very largeVsublimation very largeLiquid-to-GasHvaporization largeVvaporization very largeAll occur at sharply defined P,T, e.g., P 1 bar; Tfusion normal FP
50Equilibrium Vapor Pressure, Peq At a given P,T, the partial pressure of vapor above a volatile condensed phase.If two condensed phases present, e.g., solid and liquid, the one with the lower Peq will be the more thermodynamically stable.The more volatile phase will lose matter by gas transfer to the less (more stable) one because such equilibrium are dynamic!
51Liquid Vapor Pressures Measure the binding potential in the liquids.Vary strongly with T since the fraction of molecules energetic enough at T to break free is e–Hvap / RT.Will be presumed ideal.Equal 1 bar at “normal” boiling point, Tboil.Decrease as liquid is diluted with another.
52Temperature Dependence of P The thermodynamic relationship between Gibbs Free energy, G, and gas pressure, P, can be shown to define P as a function of T.We’ll see this in Chapter 6.PT / P’T’ = e–Hvap / RT / e–Hvap / RT’ orJust the ratio of molecules capable of overcoming HvapP = P’ e –[Hvap / R] [ (1/T ) – (1/T ’) ]The infamous Clausius-Clapeyron equation.
53Raoult’s Law: PA varies with XA Ideal solutions composed of molecules with A–A binding energy the same as A–B.Vapor pressures are consequence of the equilibrium between evaporation and condensation. If evaporation slows, P falls.But only XA of liquid at surface is A, then its evaporation rate varies directly with XA.PA = P °A XA and PB = P °B XBWhere P ° means P of pure (X=1) liquid.
54Consequences of Ideality Measured vapor pressures predict mole fractions (hence concentrations) of solutes.Pressure – solution equilibria predict solute – solution equilibria.While gases are adequately ideal, solutions almost never are ideal.Positive deviations of P from P°X imply A–B interactions are not as strong as A–A ones.
55Pure Compound Phase Diagram Predicts the stable phase as a function of Ptotal and T.Characteristic shape punctuated by unique points.Phase equilibrium linesTriple PointCritical PointPSolidLiquidGasT
56Phase Diagram Landmarks Triple Point (PT,TT)where SLG coexist.Critical Point (PC,TC)beyond this exist no liquid/vapor property differences.P = 1 barNormal fusion TF and boiling TB points.PTPCTC1TFTBPTTT
57Inducing Phase Changes Below PT or above PCDeposition of gas to solid induced by dropping T or raising PSublimation is reverse.Between PT and PCLiquid condensation vs. vaporization.Normally, pressure on liquid solidifies it (unless solid < liquid)PTfusiongelationfreezingvaporizationcondensationdepositionsublimation
58Impure (solution) Phase Diagram Adding a solute to a pure liquid elevates its Tboil by lowering its vapor pressure.(Raoult’s Law)It also stabilizes liquid against solid (lowers Tfusion)Lower P wins, remember?Click to see the new liquid regions and2 colligative properties in 1!PT
59Clausius–Clapeyron Lab Fix dP/dT = PHvap/RT 2from thermodynamicsP’=Pe–[H/R][(1/T)–(1/T ’)]But only if H f(T)If H ~ a + bTwhere b related to CPP=P’(T/T ’)b/R e–[a/R][(1/T)–(1/T ’)]assumes only CP are fixed.A better approximation.PTClausius–Clapeyron