Presentation on theme: "Susan Gendron Senior Fellow, International Center August 14, 2012"— Presentation transcript:
1 Susan Gendron Senior Fellow, International Center August 14, 2012 Get Immersed in the Standards and Next Generation Assessments Bristow, OKSusan GendronSenior Fellow, International CenterAugust 14, 2012
7 PISA 2009 Overall Math Scale 25th last time 1 Shanghai-China 600 2 Singapore5623Hong Kong-China5554Korea5466Finland5419Japan52910Canada52711Netherlands52613New Zealand51915Australia51416Germany51322France49728United Kingdom49231United States48732Ireland34Spain48338Russian Federation46851Mexico41957Brazil38661Indonesia371PISA 2009Overall Math ScaleSignificantly Above OECD AverageNot Significantly Different(OECD Average 496)Significantly below OECD Average25th last time
8 PISA 2009 Overall Science Scale Last time 21 1 Shanghai-China 575 2 Finland5543Hong Kong-China5494Singapore5425Japan5396Korea5387New Zealand5328Canada52910Australia52711Netherlands52213Germany52016United Kingdom51420Ireland50823United States50227France49836Spain48839Russian Federation47850Mexico41653Brazil40560Indonesia383PISA 2009Overall Science ScaleSignificantly Above OECD AverageNot Significantly Different(OECD Average 501)Significantly below OECD AverageLast time 21
9 Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011 Reading RiskOKMapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
10 Proficiency Grade 4 Reading 2009 ProficientRequiredNAEP ScoreOklahoma62 %211Massachusetts54 %234Missouri47 %229Arizona72 %193New Mexico52 %207New York77 %200Florida74 %2062nd in the eGrade 4 from Proficient
11 Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011 Reading RiskOKMapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
12 Proficiency Grade 8 Reading 2009 ProficientRequiredNAEP ScoreOklahoma66%249Massachusetts79%Missouri50%267Florida54%262Mississippi48%254Rhode Island62%252Missouri number one
13 Mapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011 Math RiskOKMapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
14 Proficiency Grade 4 Mathematics 2009 ProficientRequiredNAEP ScoreOklahoma66 %228Massachusetts48 %255New Jersey73 %231New York87 %207New Mexico77 %224Indiana229Missouri45 %246Second in the country
15 Math RiskOKMapping State Proficiency Standards onto NAEP Scales, IES August 2011
16 Proficiency Grade 8 Mathematics 2009 ProficientRequiredNAEP ScoreOklahoma59 %269Massachusetts49 %300Missouri47 %287New Mexico43 %277Minnesota58 %New Jersey71 %272Rhode Island53 %275Third in the country
17 Elbow Partner What are your risks? How will you prepare your school if you anticipate a potential dip in scores?Do you have a communication strategy?
18 Lexile Framework® for Reading Study Summary of Text Lexile Measures Interquartile Ranges Shown (25% - 75%)160014001200Text Lexile Measure (L)1000800600PersonalUseEntry-LevelOccupa-tionsHighSchoolLit.CollegeLit.HighSchoolTextsCollegeTextsMilitarySAT 1,ACT,AP** Source of National Test Data: MetaMetrics
19 Content Reading and Writing Strategies that Work for All Students MetaMetrics Survey 2000Arkansas Democrat Gazette1230 LAssociated Press1310 LLA Times1330 LMiami Herald1200 LNew York Post1280 LOakland Tribune1210 LRaleigh News & Observer1220 LWall Street Journal1320 LUSA TodayKuzmich, 2006
20 On-the Job Lexile Requirements National Adult Literacy Study 19921,5001,4001,3001,2001,1001,000900800International Center for Leadership in Education 2009ConstructionCraftsmanNurseSalesSecretary
23 Levin and ElmoreEveryone needs to collaborate to ensure that daily teaching and learning practices are the focus of the schoolAll responsible for successPrincipals and teachers are fundamentally evaluatorsLeaders responsible for cultural changes – by displacing specific norms, structures, and processes by others
24 Hattie, 2012 Build collective capacity of teachers to show success achievementmaking learning valued outcomestudents respect themselves and othersbuild community
25 Does your culture do this? Collaboratively build teamsTeam works to solve dilemmas in learningCollectively share and critique the nature and quality of evidence that shows our impact on student learningCooperate in planning and critiquing lessons, learning intentions, and success criteriaHattie, John Visible Learning for Teachers
26 Elbow DiscussionHow will you create a culture in your schools of ALL students “college and career ready”?
30 Application Model1. Knowledge in one discipline 2. Application within one discipline 3. Application across disciplines 4. Application to real-world predictable situations 5. Application to real-world unpredictable situations
33 Knowledge in one discipline Apply knowledge in one discipline Students gather and store bits of knowledge/information and are expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge.ApplicationAAcquisitionComprehension 2Low-level KnowledgeAwareness1Knowledge in one discipline2Apply knowledge in one discipline
34 A Quadrant Verbs Products definition worksheet list quiz test workbook namelabeldefineselectidentifylistmemorizerecitelocaterecorddefinitionworksheetlistquiztestworkbooktrue-falsereproductionrecitation
35 Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. ApplicationBApplicationComprehension 2AwarenessLow-level Application3Apply knowledge across disciplines5Apply to real-world unpredictable situation4Apply to real-world predictable situation
36 B Quadrant Verbs Products scrapbook summary interpretation collection applysequencedemonstrateinterviewconstructsolvecalculatedramatizeinterpretillustratescrapbooksummaryinterpretationcollectionannotationexplanationsolutiondemonstrationoutline
37 Knowledge in one discipline Apply knowledge in one discipline Students extend and refine their knowledge so that they can use it automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutions.EvaluationCAssimilationSynthesisAnalysisHigh-level KnowledgeApplication1Knowledge in one discipline2Apply knowledge in one discipline
39 Students think in complex ways and apply acquired knowledge and skills, even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, to find creative solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge.EvaluationDAdaptationSynthesisAnalysisHigh-level ApplicationApplication3Apply knowledge across disciplines4Apply to real-world predictable situation5Apply to real-world unpredictable situation
41 D C A B Rigor/Relevance Framework Four Quadrants of Learning AssimilationCAdaptationDComplexAnalyticalChallengingReal WorldRIGORHighAcquisitionAApplicationBABRoutineMemorizationPracticalHands OnLowLowHighRELEVANCE14
42 Rigor/Relevance Framework History - High SchoolDCSummarize global impacts of WWII and project impacts of Iraq warAnalyze original documents and summarize reasons for US opposition to entering WWIIRIGORHighABIdentify nations involved and reasons for WWIIInterview local WWII veterans and describe impacts from their perspective.LowLowHighRELEVANCE18
43 Example Multiple Performances for Single Standard Math – K-5 Level Domain: Operational Thinking for AlgebraR/RQuadrantStudent PerformanceA Use color counters to solve simple computational problemsB Sort quantities to discover fractions of the wholeC Find values in number sentences when represented by unknownsD Develop formula for determining a large quantity without counting, such as beans in a jar. International Center for Leadership in Education
45 Did Students Get it Right? Rigor/Relevance FrameworkDid Students Get it Right?DCRationalAnswerRightQuestionsRIGORHighABRightAnswerRightProcedureLowLowHighRELEVANCE
46 Rigor/Relevance Framework KNOWLEDGEProblemsDCProjectsActivitiesABA P P L I C A T I O N
47 Launched at Model Schools Conference 2012 New CCSS handbooksLaunched at Model Schools Conference 2012Visit
48 Next Generation Assessments Current AssessmentsNext Generation AssessmentsBloom’s6C DA B5Focus for Next Generation Testing4321Application
49 Goals of the PARCC System Create high-quality assessmentsBuild a pathway to college and career readiness for all studentsSupport educators in the classroomDevelop 21st century, technology-based assessmentsAdvance accountability at all levelsBuild an assessment that is sustainable and affordableNotes:4. Develop 21st century, technology-based assessments includes developing and implementing automated scoring systems and processes to deliver quick results
50 Create High Quality Assessments Performance-BasedAssessment (PBA)Extended tasksApplications of concepts and skillsRequiredEnd-of-YearAssessmentInnovative, computer-based itemsRequired2 Optional Assessments/Flexible AdministrationDiagnostic AssessmentEarly indicator of student knowledge and skills to inform instruction, supports, and PDNon-summativeMid-Year AssessmentPerformance-basedEmphasis on hard-to-measure standardsPotentially summativeTALKING POINTSGraphic depiction of the assessment system. The system includes a suite of assessments and tools that, taken together, provide a more complete picture of student mastery of standards and progress throughout the year than is currently available on state assessments.Considerations Leading to 2 optional assessments:The cost of the assessmentsFlexibility on when to administer the optional assessmentsThe amount of testing time needed to administer the assessmentsPossible disruption to school schedules caused by through-course assessment preparation and administrationConstraints the distributed design might have on the flexibility of state and local educators to sequence instruction of the CCSS and to implement their own benchmark and formative assessment initiativesThe PARCC assessment system will:Reflect the sophisticated knowledge and skills found in the English and math Common Core State StandardsInclude a mix of item types (e.g., short answer, richer multiple choice, longer open response, performance-based)Make significant use of technologyInclude testing at key points throughout the year to give teachers, parents and students better information about whether students are on track or need additional support in particular areasDiagnostic AssessmentsOne element of the reading diagnostic assessment is a text complexity tool, which will provide a diagnostic of a student’s ability to read texts independently in order to provide useful guidance to educators, parents, and students about appropriate texts for students when reading independently.These assessments will be useful for the implementation of the ELA/Literacy CCSS in the classroom, as they will help educators meet the demands of the ELA/Literacy standards to teach appropriately complex texts by helping teachers understand what “appropriately complex” really means.The diagnostic assessment in math will help educators understand the extent to which students have mastered the key ideas in mathematics ("highlighted domains") in order to pinpoint areas needing improvement or identify areas in which students are excelling. In addition, it will provide greater detail about students who are above and below grade level so teachers can individualize instructionTimeline: Expected Summer/Fall 2014HS AssessmentsTaken together, the PARCC assessment components comprise a comprehensive system of assessments that will provide timely information to teachers throughout the year, and provide students with meaningful information about their progress toward college and career readinessSpeaking And ListeningAssessmentLocally scoredNon-summative, required
51 Non-Summative Assessment Components FlexibleDiagnostic Assessment designed to be an indicator of student knowledge and skills so that instruction, supports and professional development can be tailored to meet student needsMid-Year Assessment comprised of performance-based items and tasks, with an emphasis on hard-to-measure standards. After study, individual states may consider including as a summative componentEarly AssessmentEarly indicator of student knowledge and skills to inform instruction, supports, and PDMid-Year AssessmentPerformance-basedEmphasis on hard to measure standardsPotentially summativeTALKING POINTSGraphic depiction of the assessment system.The PARCC assessment system will:Better reflect the sophisticated knowledge and skills found in the English and math Common Core State StandardsInclude a mix of item types (e.g., short answer, richer multiple choice, longer open response, performance-based)Make significant use of technologyInclude testing at key points throughout the year to give teachers, parents and students better information about whether students are on track or need additional support in particular areasSummative assessment for accountabilityNon-Summative assessment51
52 Summative Assessment Components Performance-BasedAssessment (PBA)Extended tasksApplications of concepts and skillsEnd-of-YearAssessmentInnovative, computer-based itemsPerformance-Based Assessment (PBA) administered as close to the end of the school year as possible. The ELA/literacy PBA will focus on writing effectively when analyzing text. The mathematics PBA will focus on applying skills, concepts, and understandings to solve multi-step problems requiring abstract reasoning, precision, perseverance, and strategic use of toolsEnd-of-Year Assessment (EOY) administered after approx. 90% of the school year. The ELA/literacy EOY will focus on reading comprehension. The math EOY will be comprised of innovative, machine-scorable itemsTALKING POINTSGraphic depiction of the assessment system.The PARCC assessment system will:Better reflect the sophisticated knowledge and skills found in the English and math Common Core State StandardsInclude a mix of item types (e.g., short answer, richer multiple choice, longer open response, performance-based)Make significant use of technologyInclude testing at key points throughout the year to give teachers, parents and students better information about whether students are on track or need additional support in particular areasSummative assessment for accountabilityNon-Summative assessment52
53 Technology-Enhanced Items Electronic Item Banking Use of TechnologyTechnology-Enhanced ItemsPresent assessment material and capture student responses in a way that cannot be accomplished with paper and pencilEx.: simulation, interactivity, drag-and-dropElectronic Item BankingAdherence to recognized technology standards will allow for supports and accessibility information to be embedded in digital test itemsStudent Access & EngagementElectronically tagged items will allow for proper supports to activate for individual students, promoting access for students with disabilities and ELLs.Technology-enhanced items may include interactive elementsConfidential - Not for Distribution
54 Technology Guidelines for PARCC Version 1.0, April 2012 MinimaProcessor SpeedRAMAvailable Memory/StorageResolutionDisplay SizeHardware1.0 GHz1 GB1024x76810” ClassOperating SystemsMac 10.7Windows 7Linux (Ubuntu 11.10; Fedora 16)Apple iOSAndroid 4.0Desktops, laptops, netbooks (Windows, Mac, Chrome, Linux), thin client, and tablets (iPad, Windows, and Android) will be compatible devices provided they are configured to meet the established hardware, operating system, and networking specifications- and are able to be “locked down”.More on Security:Eligible devices of any form factor or operating system must have the administrative tools and capabilities to “lock down” the device, to temporarily disable features, functionalities, and applications that could present a security risk during test administration. These include, but are not limited to, Web browser access, cameras (still and video), screen capture (live and recorded), , instant messaging, Bluetooth connections, application switching, and printing.
55 Technology Transition Technology Readiness ToolSix data collection windows between spring 2012 and summer 2014Contains data to support local/state planning for the transition to consortia assessment systemsRelease of Technology Minimum Device SpecificationsReadiness for online assessments has different dimensions:1. Computers & other devicesMinimum system requirements2. Ratio of devices to testersIncluding testing window and session scheduling3. Network and infrastructureBandwidth, network utilization, size of content4. Personnel (staffing & training)
56 Technology Transition (continued) Spring 2012March – JuneReports available July 2012Fall 2012September – DecemberReports available January 2013Spring 2013January – AprilReports available May 2013Fall 2013Reports available January 2014Spring 2014Reports available May 2014Summer 2014June – AugustReports available September 2014Data Collection Windows
57 Developing the PARCC Assessment System K-12 EducatorsHE Faculty
58 Key Shifts Articulated in the Common Core ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS/LITERACYBuilding knowledge through content-rich non-fiction and informational textsReading and writing grounded in evidence from textRegular practice with complex text and its academic vocabularyMATHEMATICSFocus strong where the Standards focusCoherence: Think across grades, and link to major topics within gradesRigor: Require fluency, application, and deep understandingTALKING POINTSELA/LITERACYReadingBalance of literature and informational textsFocus on text complexity and what students readWritingEmphasis on argument and informative/explanatory writingWriting about sources (evidence) – answer questions that require students to have read the textInclusion of formal and informal talkLiteracy standards for history, science and technical subjectsPromotes the idea that teaching literacy skills is not just the job of the English teacherComplements rather than replaces those subjectsMATHEMATICSFocus, coherence and clarityFocus on key topics at each grade levelCoherent progressions across grade levelsAddresses long-heard criticism of mile-wide, inch-deep math curriculaBalance between procedural fluency and understanding of concepts and skillsContent standards require both conceptual understanding and procedural fluencyMathematical proficienciesMathematical proficiencies students should develop (e.g., abstract reasoning, modeling, precision, perseverance, strategic use of tools, making arguments)Using mathematics to understand a problem – even in new or unfamiliar contextsSpeaking and Listening (if you want to discuss)BOTH CONTENT AREASAnchored in college and career readinessExplicitly define the knowledge and skills that students must master to be college and career ready by the end of high school, and the knowledge and skills in each grade that build towards that goalThese are the key “shifts” in the Common Core.Work that is being informed by these shifts. Model Content FrameworksItem PrototypesItem Development workANCHORED IN COLLEGE AND CAREER READINESS
59 Claims Driving Design: Mathematics Students are on-track or ready for college and careersStudents solve problems involving the major content* for their grade level with connections to practicesStudents solve problems involving the additional and supporting content* for their grade level with connections to practicesStudents express mathematical reasoning by constructing mathematical arguments and critiquesStudents solve real world problems engaging particularly in the modeling practiceStudent demonstrate fluency in areas set forth in the Standards for Content in grades 3-6*See PARCC Model Content Frameworks for details
60 Innovation: Modeling (not an actual PARCC item) Karnataka is a state in southwest India. The accompanying table is agricultural data on fertilizer use and grain crop yield in Karnataka. Fertilizer is measured in 100,000 tons. Crop yield is measured in 10 kilograms per hectare. Throughout the years over which these data were gathered, the amount of land in cultivation remained fairly constant. Write a mathematical function that models the relationship between fertilizer use and grain crop yield. Show your work.Use the function you have chosen to predict the yield if the fertilizer use is 500,000 tons.How precise is the prediction you made in Question (b)? Explain.Based on the data and your function, what advice can you offer the government of Karnataka about fertilizer use? ExplainPage 392 of 404 in PARCC Item Development ITNUsed with permission from COMAP, 2009
61 Claims Driving Design: ELA/Literacy Students are on-track or ready for college and careersStudents read and comprehend a range of sufficiently complex texts independentlyReading LiteratureReading Informational TextVocabulary Interpretation and UseStudents write effectively when using and/or analyzing sources.Written ExpressionConventions and Knowledge of LanguageStudents build and present knowledge through research and the integration, comparison, and synthesis of ideas.Confidential - Not for Distribution
62 ELA/Literacy Assessment Items Evidence-Based Selected Response itemsTechnology-Enhanced Constructed Response itemsProse Constructed Response items--Each of these different types of items allow us to capture crucial shifts defined in the standards and elucidated in the Model Content Frameworks, as well as some critical “next generation assessment innovations.”--EBSR items allow students to refer to and cited textual references to support understandings of text. There are no plans at this time for stand alone SR questions—all will call for evidence (give example). These items also allow for students to show divergent thinking (give example) and for students to earn partial credit (showing what they do know, not just what they don’t know)—give examples. All these gains occur without the need for extensive student writing and in machine-scorable formats.--TECR items allow students to demonstrate complex relationships among ideas without writing extensively and in machine-scorable formats. (give ranking example)--Prose Constructed Response items have several key innovations: they allow for analytic prompts (give example); they allow for reading and writing and language conventions to be assessed simultaneously (connecting Reading standard 1 with Writing standard 9 as was the intent of the CCSS); they allow for multiple standards to be assessed simultaneously—thereby allowing for the kinds of text-dependent questions worthy of writing to in the first place.
63 Item Review ProcessCore Leadership CommitteesComprised of State DOE K-12 and higher education officialsLocal Educator CommitteesComprised of LEA K-12 staff and higher education facultyBias & Sensitivity CommitteesComprised of citizens and educators from various backgrounds100% of PARCC items will be reviewed prior to and following field testingA total of 24 review meetings will take place throughout the contract period, beginning in spring 2012
65 Educator Leader Cadres K-12 EngagementDevelop expertise on the CCSS and PARCC; develop state and peer leaders; build and expand the number of educators who understand and feel ownership for implementing the CCSS and PARCC AssessmentsState teams of K-12 teachers, school and district leaders, local and state curriculum directors, and postsecondary representativesNational Math and Science Initiative/Lay The FoundationAnnual meetings beginning in July 2012Educator Leader Cadres
66 Instructional Supports and Tools Support implementation of the CCSS; support development of assessment blueprints; provide guidance to state, district- and school-level curriculum leaders in the development of aligned instructional materialsReleased November 9, 2011; Re-Release late June; Final in August.Model Content FrameworksModel Instructional UnitsProvide educators with examples of ways to implement the CCSS in schools; allow for the development and sharing of ideas for instructional implementation of the CCSS; encourage development of additional PARCC toolsExpected Spring 2013Professional Learning ModulesModel Content Frameworks:The Model Content Frameworks for English language arts/Literacy (ELA/literacy) and Mathematics aim to serve as a bridge between the standards and the PARCC assessments.The Model Content Frameworks are voluntary and are not intended to be curricula or scopes and sequences. Rather, they provide further articulation of the key shifts in the CCSS and their connection to the PARCC assessment system. The frameworks can be useful to states and districts as they engage in professional development and in their own curricular development efforts.The Model Content Frameworks were developed through a collaborative state-led process that included mathematics and ELA/literacy content experts in PARCC member states and members of the Common Core State Standards writing team; PARCC helped manage this process. The development process included three rounds of review, including a public review in which about two-thirds of the nearly 2,000 comments were submitted by K-12 educators.In Spring 2012, PARCC will once again solicit feedback from educators and the public to refine the frameworks as necessary. The updated Model Content Frameworks will be available Summer 2012.Audience: State and local curriculum directors (primary audience) ; teachersModel Instructional Units:Any model instructional units developed by PARCC will be voluntary and aim primarily to provide a common illustration of how the Common Core may be organized and taught in the classroom.The model instructional units will reflect, build on, and fill gaps in existing or in-process state-developed model units aligned to the Common Core State Standards and the PARCC assessments.The model units will be developed with educator input to ensure PARCC is developing materials that are most useful to educators.The model units will add to the robust set of instructional materials being developed across PARCC states, individually and collectively.The units will serve as resources that teachers can use in their classroom but will also serve as models for teachers and curriculum directors to use as they develop additional materials aligned to the CCSS.Audience: Teachers; local and state curriculum directorsModel Instructional Units
67 Revised High School Mathematics Frameworks (Under Review) As with the 3 – 8 Content Frameworks, the Major, Supporting, and Additional Content is labeled.There are a few things that still need to be worked out and are still under discussion, like where to place Probability and Statistics and whether or not to include the plus standards in this document.
68 Revised High School Mathematics Frameworks (Under Review)
69 Revised High School Mathematics Frameworks (Under Review)
70 Supports and Tools (continued) Develop models of innovative, online-delivered items and rich performance tasks proposed for use in the PARCC assessments.Expected Summer 2012Item and Task PrototypesOne-stop shop for PARCC resources; provide an online warehouse for all PARCC tools and resources as well as other instructional material being developed by PARCC states and districts and national organizationsExpected Spring 2013Partnership Resource CenterDevelop professional development modules focused on assessments to help teachers, school and district leaders, and testing coordinators understand the new assessment system and use of the dataExpected Fall 2013Professional Development Modules
72 PARCC Timeline Through 2011-2012 PARCC Tools & ResourcesModel Content Frameworks released(Nov 2011)Educator Leader Cadres launchedItem & task prototypes releasedFall2011Winter2012SpringSummerFall2012Updated Model Content Frameworks ReleasedItem development beginsPARCC Assessment Implementation
73 Timeline Through First PARCC Administration in 2014-2015 PARCC Tools & ResourcesPartnership Resource Center launchedProfessional development modules releasedK-2 Formative Tools ReleasedCollege-ready tools releasedDiagnostic assessments releasedSummative PARCC AssessmentsSpring2013SummerWinter2014FallWinter2015Spring2015Pilot/field testing beginsModel Instructional Units ReleasedExpanded field testing of diagnostic assessmentExpanded field testingOptional Diagnostic and Midyear PARCC AssessmentsStandard Setting in Summer 2015PARCC Assessment Implementation
74 Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers
75 LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS STANDARDS FORENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS&LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES,SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTSJUNE 201075
76 Shared Responsibility for Students’ Literacy Development “The Standards insist that instruction in reading, speaking, listening, and language be a shared responsibility within the school” (p. 4).“This division reflects the unique time-honored place of ELA teachers in developing students’ literacy skills while at the same time recognizing that teachers in other areas must have a role in this development as well” (p. 4).Adapted from “Key Design Considerations” (page 4 of the Standards)
78 Increasing Sophistication Reading Anchor Standard #9 Integration of Knowledge and IdeasAnalyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.KindergartenGrades 11-CCRIntegration of Knowledge and Ideas9. Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.Integration of Knowledge and Ideas9. Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
79 Six Shifts in ELA/Literacy Balancing Informational and Literary TextBuilding Knowledge in the DisciplinesStaircase of ComplexityText-Based AnswersWriting From SourcesAcademic Vocabulary
80 Balancing Literature and Informational Text Shift 1Balancing Literature and Informational Text
81 Literary/Informational Text LiteratureInformational TextStoriesDramaPoetryLiterary Nonfiction and Historical, Scientific, and Technical TextsIncludes children’s adventure stories, folktales, legends, fables, fantasy, realistic fiction, and mythIncludes staged dialogue and brief familiar scenesIncludes nursery rhymes and the subgenres of the narrative poem, limerick, and free verse poemIncludes biographies and autobiographies; books about history, social studies, science, and the arts; technical texts, including directions, forms, and information displayed in graphs, charts, or maps; and digital sources on a range of topics
82 Reading Framework for NAEP 2009 GradeLiteraryInformational450%845%55%1230%70%Standards demand a greater focus on informational text literary non fictionMajor focus in 6-12
83 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading Integration of Knowledge and Ideas7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.*8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
85 Building Knowledge in the Disciplines Shift #2Building Knowledge in the Disciplines
86 Why Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical? Students are consistently unable to meet the demands of reading text within a particular discipline.Reading within a discipline is different than reading literature.The ability to read within the discipline is important to citizenship.Being literate across a broad range of disciplines is required to be considered College and Career Ready.
87 How is reading history/social studies different from other types of reading? History is interpretive.History is an argument in favor of a particular narrative.Who the author is matters. (sourcing)The author’s purpose matters. (bias and perspective)A single text is problematic. (corroboration)
88 How is reading science and technical reading different from other types of reading? Focus is on claims and counter claimsPrecise details, complex details and processesAnalyze results by comparingDetermining what question is being raisedNavigate text, graphs, tables, chartsEvaluate basis for claims
89 Elbow DiscussionHow are you insuring that literacy is a shared responsibility
90 Staircase of Txt Complexity Shift #3Staircase of Txt Complexity
91 Text complexity is defined by: Overview of Text ComplexityReading Standards include over exemplar texts (stories and literature, poetry, and informational texts) that illustrate appropriate level of complexity by gradeText complexity is defined by:QualitativeQualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demandsQuantitativeQuantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexityBest measured by an attentive readerAbility to make an informed decision about the difficulty of a textKnowledge of four factors in developing effective tools:Levels of Meaning or PurposeReader and Task: Determining whether a given text is appropriate for the student:Cognitive abilitiesMotivationTopic knowledgeLinguistic and discourse knowledgeComprehension strategiesExperiences“Reading for Understanding, 2002, The RAND Reading Study group”Quantitative:Word length or frequency (Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level text, Dale-Chall Readability Formula, Lexile)Sentence lengthText cohesion (University of Memphis, Coh-Metrix)Measurement tools ( Lexile exampleStructureLanguage Conventionality & ClarityKnowledge DemandsReader and TaskReader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned
92 Step 1: Qualitative Measures Measures such as:Levels of meaningLevels of purposeStructureOrganizationLanguage conventionalityLanguage clarityPrior knowledge demands
94 Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges Text Complexity Grade Band in the StandardsOld Lexile RangesLexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectationsK-1N/A2-34-56-89-1011-CCRMetametrics has realigned its Lexile ranges to match the Standards’ text complexity grade bands and has adjusted upward its trajectory of reading comprehension development through the grades
100 Key Ideas and DetailsRI.7.1. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.RI.7.2. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.RI.7.3. Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).Craft and StructureRI.7.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.RI.7.5. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas.RI.7.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.Integration of Knowledge and IdeasRI.7.7. Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words).RI.7.8. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.RI.7.9. Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.
101 Performance TaskStudents determine the figurative and connotative meanings of words such as wayfaring, laconic, and taciturnity as well as of phrases such as hold his peace in John Steinbeck’s Travels with Charley: In Search of America. They analyze how Steinbeck’s specific word choices and diction impact the meaning and tone of his writing and the characterization of the individuals and places he describes. [RI.7.4]Grade Seven
103 High-quality, Text-dependent Questions & Tasks “Among the highest priorities of the Common Core Standards is that students can read closely and gain knowledge from texts.”“More questions that can be answered only with reference to the text.”“Sequences of questions should elicit a sustained discussion.”Tasks must “require the use of more textual evidence.”
106 College and Career Readiness Anchor Writing Standards Research to Build and Present KnowledgeConduct short, as well as more sustained research projects based on questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
107 Writing and Research the Analyzes and Deploys Evidence Draw evidence from texts to support and develop:AnalysisReflectionResearchIncrease opportunities to write in response to sourcesExtensive practice with short, focused research projects“typically taking a week and occurring—at a minimum—quarterly”Increase focus on argumentation and informative writing, less narrative writing
108 K- argument, The writer of this piece•tells the reader the name of the book (in the title of the paper). oMy fabit (favorite) Book is do you Want to be my FRIEND•states an opinion or preference about the book. o. . . my fait (favorite) pot (part) is the hos (horse)
114 Language Progressive Skills Tier I - words of everyday speechTier II - general academic words, typically found in text, ways to communicate simple ideasTier III - domain-specific words (informational text)Handout to be used with language section
116 Developing Literacy Plan Examine your student dataDevelop a deliberate process for selecting textFocus on Literary and Information textFocus on Text dependent questionsEngage students in writing across the content areas, common process, rubricsOne research project per quarterFocus on domain specific vocabularyRigor/Relevance – Quadrant DRefer to Literacy Checklist
117 Solid Implementation Focus Fidelity of Implementation Leading and Lagging Indicators
118 Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8th grade ELA distribution
119 Proportions of students scoring in each decile of the MCAS 8th grade Math distribution
120 MCAS Math gains 8th to 10th grade, compared to others from the same 8th grade decile(School Rank Percentile)
121 MCAS ELA gains 8th to 10th grade, compared to others from the same 8th grade decile(School rank percentile/100)
129 Item PromptBased on the text, what inference can be made about how tests and testing should occur to ensure an accurate measurement of overall water quality? Explain your inference using details from the text.
132 Grade 11 Constructed Response Stimulus Text:Read the following texts then answer the question.Text 1The following excerpt comes from a speech written in 1872 by women’s rights pioneer Susan B. Anthony. Anthony was arrested after attempting to vote in the 1872 presidential election. After her conviction Anthony wrote this speech to make a constitutional argument for giving women the right to vote.
133 Grade 11 Constructed Response Text 2The following excerpt comes from the Second Treatise of Government by John Locke, published in 1690.Item Prompt: Identify the idea common to these two texts. Explain how the ideas in Locke’s treatise support the ideas in Anthony’s argument.
138 What’s different about CCSS? These Standards are not intended to be new names for old ways of doing business. They are a call to take the next step. It is time for states to work together to build on lessons learned from two decades of standards based reforms. It is time to recognize that standards are not just promises to our children, but promises we intend to keep.— CCSS (2010, p.5)Too often in the past, important components of NCTM Standards, such as the process standards, were voluntary for teachers to implement.Now, with CCSS, standard assessments are part of state’s adoptions of the standards. And, because those assessments will address all aspects of the standards, implementing these more challenging aspects of the standards will be mandatory, not voluntary.
139 Mathematics Instructional Shifts 1. Focus2. Coherence3. Fluency4. Deep Understanding5. Application6. Dual IntensityDual intensity – students are practicing and understanding
140 Focus – Shift # 1 Key ideas, understandings, and skills are identified Deep learning of concepts is stressedThat is, time is spent on a topic and on learning it well. This counters the “mile wide, inch deep” criticism leveled at most current U.S. standards.
141 Coherence – Shift #2Articulated progressions of topics and performances that are developmental and connected to other progressionsConceptual understanding and procedural skills emphasized equallyNCTM states coherence also means that instruction, assessment, and curriculum are aligned
142 Top Achieving Countries Topic Placement inTop Achieving CountriesTopics (32) that at least 2/3 of the top achieving countries include in their ‘core’ curriculum. Grades 1-8.
143 Topic Placement in the U.S. Composite math standards from 21 states with topics covered by 2/3 of the statesStructure of increasing complexity not seen. Topics are taught repeatedly throughout the grades. Many more topics at each grade level means topics receive less depth. Early introduction of many demanding topics (transformational geometry, measurement error, functions) . Empty rows reflect non-consensus of when to teach a topic, such as properties of common and decimal fractions.Seems to be more of a laundry list approach.Not reflecting the structure of mathematics complexity which requires pre-requisite knowledge
144 Domains for K-8Say, “This table is from the Ohio Department of Education. It includes the domains for K–8; in addition, it has the conceptual categories for high school. This table is organized a bit differently from the one on the previous slide. Instead of just listing each domain, they’ve grouped related domains together. For each “colored row,” they identify how domains at the earlier grades progress and lead to domains at the middle and high school levels. The right side of the chart lists the five conceptual categories for high school: Number and Quantity, Algebra, Functions, Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. If you select one conceptual category and move left along the row, you’ll find the domains at the middle and elementary school levels from which this concept builds.”
145 Format of Pre-K-8 Standards DomainGrade Level2.NBT (code)ClusterHadingClusterStandard2.NBT.1 (code)Click to show the headings used to categorize the standards. The broadest header is “Domain” which is the larger groups of related standards. There is a code for each grade level with an abbreviation for the domain (2.NBT)Clusters are groups of related standards under the domain.Standards define specifically what students should know and be able to do and are numbers starting with #1.The coherence of the standards at each grade level is demonstrated through the domains and clusters. The standards are grouped first by domain then by cluster. Each grade has up to 6 domains, and each domain is divided into one or more clusters.(The next slide will show the progression of domains through grade 8.)FocusCoherenceClarityRigor
147 Rigor -Require fluency, application, and deep understanding Conceptual understanding – solving short conceptual problems, applying math in new situations, and speaking about their understandingProcedural skill and fluency - speed and accuracy in calculation.Application - “real world” situations
148 Reasoning Invite Exploration of important mathematical concepts Allow students to solidify and make connectionsMake connections and develop coherent framework for mathematical ideasProblem formulation, problem solving and mathematical reasoning
149 Reasoning More than one solution Development of all students’ disposition to do math
150 Mathematically proficient students Make conjecturesBuild logical progressions to explore the truth of their conjecturesJustify and communicate their conclusionsRespond to arguments
151 Which number does not belong? Why? Instead of asking which numbers are odd?From: Math for All: Differentiating Instruction, Grades 3-5, Dacey and Lynch
152 Procedural Fluency Knowledgeable about procedures Know when and how to use themSkill in performing procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and with understanding
153 GradeFluencyKAdd/subtract within 51Add/subtract within 102Add/subtract within 20 Add/subtract within 100 (pencil and paper)3Multiply/divide within 100Add/subtract within 10004Add/subtract within 1,000,0005Multi‐digit multiplication6Multi‐digit division Multi‐digit decimal operations78Solve simple 22 systems by inspection
155 Cognitively-Guided Instruction Process Start the study of a new concept with a rich problem or hypothesisInvite your students to engage in the problemCommunicate multiple representations of solutionsQuestions, justify, and critique thinkingUse your understanding of student thinking to guide further instruction
157 Domains for K-8Say, “This table is from the Ohio Department of Education. It includes the domains for K–8; in addition, it has the conceptual categories for high school. This table is organized a bit differently from the one on the previous slide. Instead of just listing each domain, they’ve grouped related domains together. For each “colored row,” they identify how domains at the earlier grades progress and lead to domains at the middle and high school levels. The right side of the chart lists the five conceptual categories for high school: Number and Quantity, Algebra, Functions, Geometry, and Statistics and Probability. If you select one conceptual category and move left along the row, you’ll find the domains at the middle and elementary school levels from which this concept builds.”
161 Mathematics/Standards for Mathematical Practice Make sense of problems and persevere in solving themReason abstractly and quantitativelyConstruct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of othersModel with mathematicsUse appropriate tools strategicallyAttend to precisionLook for and make use of structureLook for and express regularity in repeated reasoning1.Analyze givens, constraints, relationships and goals
162 Viewing Mathematical Practices/Inside Mathematics Choose one lesson and watch approximately 5-7 minutes of instruction using your rubric. Have a discussion on evidence of the mathematical practice.Practice 1Practice 2Practice 3Practice 4Practice 5Practice 6Practice 7Practice 8Say, “This video is from the website, Inside Mathematics, an initiative funded by the Noyce Foundation. The website includes demonstration lessons, tools and resources to support mathematics educators, and a professional learning community to encourage reflective practice.”“The video we are going to watch is not intended to be an exemplar. Instead, it is meant to provide us with a common context so that we can discuss evidence of student proficiency of the practice standards that we are exploring. As you’re watching the video, consider the questions on the slide.”
165 As Felicia gets on the freeway to drive to her cousin's house, she notice that she is a little low on gas. There is a gas station at the exit she normally takes, and she wonders if she will have to get gas before then. She normally sets her cruise control at the speed limit of 70mph and the freeway portion of the drive takes about an hour and 15 minutes. Her car gets about 30 miles per gallon on the freeway, and gas costs $3.50 per gallon.Describe an estimate that Felicia might do in her head while driving to decide how many gallons of gas she needs to make it to the gas station at the other end.Assuming she makes it, how much does Felicia spend per mile on the freeway? Alignment 1: N-Q.1, N-Q.3
166 Modeling Identify the problem Formulate a model Analyze and perform operationsInterpret resultsValidate the conclusionReport on the conclusion
176 ResourcesNational Council of Supervisors of Math:Mathematics Assessment Project (MAP):
177 Recommended Professional Development Grades K–2, Counting and Cardinality and Number and Operations in BaseGrades K–5 Operations and Algebraic ThinkingGrades 3–5 Number and Operations—FractionsGrades 6–7 Ratios and Proportional ReasoningGrade 8 Geometry
178 Practical strategies to support school and district leaders: Supporting teachers in changing instruction to meet the requirements of the Common Core State Standards and Next Generation AssessmentsApproaching evaluation from the broader perspective of selection, support, and evaluation of all educatorsProviding meaningful Teacher Evaluations even with limited time and resources
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