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The FermiLab Particle Accelerator Hydrogen gas is converted into hydrogen ions here.

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Presentation on theme: "The FermiLab Particle Accelerator Hydrogen gas is converted into hydrogen ions here."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 The FermiLab Particle Accelerator

3 Hydrogen gas is converted into hydrogen ions here

4 The linear accelerator

5 accelerates the protons to 70% of the speed of light with 400 million electron volts (MeV)

6 The booster ring bends the proton beam into a circular path.

7 The Tevatron particle accelerator is 4 miles in circumference.

8 The Tevatron accelerates particles to energies of 2 trillion electron volts (TeV).

9 Particle speeds approach 95% of the speed of light.

10 When these particles collide, conditions simulating the early universe are produced.

11 Cyclotron: Underground tunnel

12 Cyclotron: Proton Gun

13 Nuclear Reactor

14 Radioactivity - 9 min

15 Lead into Gold

16 A change in the number of protons in the atomic nucleus producing an atom with a differ atomic number.

17 continued The first was performed by Lord Rutherford in 1911.

18 continued Nitrogen-14 was bombarded with alpha particles producing oxygen-17 and protons.

19 N + He O + H

20 A nuclear reaction in which a very heavy nucleus is split into two approximately equal fragments.

21 First Atomic "Pile"

22 December 2, 1942 at 3:25 pm

23 Chernobyl, USSR - April 25 & 26, 1986

24

25 Chernobyl Reactor Meltdown

26 Chernobyl Radiation

27 The Gadget

28 July 16, 1945 at 5:29:45 am

29 Trinity at 10 seconds

30 Ground Zero

31

32 "Little Boy" Hiroshima, Japan August 6, 1945

33 "Fat Man" Nagasaki, Japan August 9, 1945

34 A nuclear reaction in which two or more small nuclei are forged together to form one larger nucleus.

35

36 Fusion Reactor

37 Fusion Issues: 100 million o C activation stability reliability heat lost to environment plasma interactions

38 Hydrogen Bomb

39 First Hydrogen Bomb

40

41 "Fat Man"contained 6.15 kg of plutonium, of which only 1 kg fissioned into lighter elements.

42 Of this 1 kg, ONE GRAM of mass was converted into heat, light and radiation.

43 Because a bound system is at a lower energy level than its unbound parts, its mass must be less than the total mass of its unbound parts.

44 A dollar bill has a mass of about 1 gram.

45 E = (mass separated - mass bound ) c 2

46 E = mc 2 E/m = C 2 = (299,792,458 m/s) 2 / 1 kg 9 X joules / kg = 9 X j / g

47 That is equal to 43 million pounds of TNT, 85 billion BTU's of heat, or 25 million kilowatt-hours of electricity.

48 Grand Coulee Dam, in central WA, is the largest hydroelectric generator in the U.S.

49 Its 33 turbines need almost 4 hours to produce 25 million kw-hours of electricity.

50 A t o m i c M a s s A t o m i c N u m b e r U T h e e l e m e n t i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y i t s c h e m i c a l s y m b o l

51 alpha beta beta-plus neutron He e e n continued

52 proton 1111 H

53 continued An atomic nucleus captures an electron from its own innermost energy level. K-capture

54 continued The atomic number is decreased by one and the mass number remains the same. K-capture

55 Ru + K-capture

56 Ru +e 0 Tc K-capture

57 Nuclear equations are balanced much like chemical equations.

58 To balance nuclear equations, follow these two rules: - mass number is conserved - electric charge is conserved

59 Rule One Mass number is conserved: The sum of the mass numbers before the change must equal the sum of the mass numbers after the change.

60 Charge is conserved: The total electric charge on subatomic particles and nuclei before and after the change must be equal. Rule Two

61 alpha continued

62 alpha 4242 He continued

63 beta continued

64 beta 0 e continued

65 beta-plus continued

66 beta-plus 0 +1 e continued

67 neutron continued

68 neutron 1010 n continued

69 proton continued

70 proton 1111 H continued

71 Add 1 Daughter Particle Ru + e

72 Ru Tc Ru + e e 0 Add 1 Daughter Particle

73 Li + H He 4242 Add 1 Daughter Particle

74 Li + H He 4242 Li + H He He 4242 Add 1 Daughter Particle

75 Li + H He 4242 Li + H He He 4242 Li + H He Add 1 Daughter Particle

76 H + H n Add 1 Daughter Particle

77 H + H n H + H n He 4242 Add 1 Daughter Particle

78 C N Add 1 Daughter Particle

79 C N C N e 0 Add 1 Daughter Particle

80 Pb +4 n He4 Add 1 Daughter Particle

81 Pb +4 n He4 Pb +4 n He Th Add 1 Daughter Particle

82 Homework

83 Stability

84 Predict isotope stability with these three general rules:

85 1. The greater the binding energy per nucleon, the more stable the nucleus.

86 1. The greater the binding energy per nucleon, the more stable the nucleus. Both protons and neutrons add to the weak force. But protons also add to the electric force, which helps to destabilize the nucleus.

87 2. Nuclei with a 1:1 neutron to proton ratio are very stable.

88 This can only occur in small nuclei. 2. Nuclei with a 1:1 neutron to proton ratio are very stable.

89 3. The most stable nuclei tend to contain an even number of both protons and neutrons.

90 Half-Life

91

92 Half-life - 17 min

93 End Nuclear Chemistry End Nuclear Chemistry


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