Presentation on theme: "The FermiLab Particle Accelerator Hydrogen gas is converted into hydrogen ions here."— Presentation transcript:
The FermiLab Particle Accelerator
Hydrogen gas is converted into hydrogen ions here
The linear accelerator
accelerates the protons to 70% of the speed of light with 400 million electron volts (MeV)
The booster ring bends the proton beam into a circular path.
The Tevatron particle accelerator is 4 miles in circumference.
The Tevatron accelerates particles to energies of 2 trillion electron volts (TeV).
Particle speeds approach 95% of the speed of light.
When these particles collide, conditions simulating the early universe are produced.
Cyclotron: Underground tunnel
Cyclotron: Proton Gun
Radioactivity - 9 min
Lead into Gold
A change in the number of protons in the atomic nucleus producing an atom with a differ atomic number.
continued The first was performed by Lord Rutherford in 1911.
continued Nitrogen-14 was bombarded with alpha particles producing oxygen-17 and protons.
N + He O + H
A nuclear reaction in which a very heavy nucleus is split into two approximately equal fragments.
First Atomic "Pile"
December 2, 1942 at 3:25 pm
Chernobyl, USSR - April 25 & 26, 1986
Chernobyl Reactor Meltdown
July 16, 1945 at 5:29:45 am
Trinity at 10 seconds
"Little Boy" Hiroshima, Japan August 6, 1945
"Fat Man" Nagasaki, Japan August 9, 1945
A nuclear reaction in which two or more small nuclei are forged together to form one larger nucleus.
Fusion Issues: 100 million o C activation stability reliability heat lost to environment plasma interactions
First Hydrogen Bomb
"Fat Man"contained 6.15 kg of plutonium, of which only 1 kg fissioned into lighter elements.
Of this 1 kg, ONE GRAM of mass was converted into heat, light and radiation.
Because a bound system is at a lower energy level than its unbound parts, its mass must be less than the total mass of its unbound parts.
A dollar bill has a mass of about 1 gram.
E = (mass separated - mass bound ) c 2
E = mc 2 E/m = C 2 = (299,792,458 m/s) 2 / 1 kg 9 X joules / kg = 9 X j / g
That is equal to 43 million pounds of TNT, 85 billion BTU's of heat, or 25 million kilowatt-hours of electricity.
Grand Coulee Dam, in central WA, is the largest hydroelectric generator in the U.S.
Its 33 turbines need almost 4 hours to produce 25 million kw-hours of electricity.
A t o m i c M a s s A t o m i c N u m b e r U T h e e l e m e n t i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y i t s c h e m i c a l s y m b o l
alpha beta beta-plus neutron He e e n continued
proton 1111 H
continued An atomic nucleus captures an electron from its own innermost energy level. K-capture
continued The atomic number is decreased by one and the mass number remains the same. K-capture
Ru + K-capture
Ru +e 0 Tc K-capture
Nuclear equations are balanced much like chemical equations.
To balance nuclear equations, follow these two rules: - mass number is conserved - electric charge is conserved
Rule One Mass number is conserved: The sum of the mass numbers before the change must equal the sum of the mass numbers after the change.
Charge is conserved: The total electric charge on subatomic particles and nuclei before and after the change must be equal. Rule Two
alpha 4242 He continued
beta 0 e continued
beta-plus 0 +1 e continued
neutron 1010 n continued
proton 1111 H continued
Add 1 Daughter Particle Ru + e
Ru Tc Ru + e e 0 Add 1 Daughter Particle
Li + H He 4242 Add 1 Daughter Particle
Li + H He 4242 Li + H He He 4242 Add 1 Daughter Particle
Li + H He 4242 Li + H He He 4242 Li + H He Add 1 Daughter Particle
H + H n Add 1 Daughter Particle
H + H n H + H n He 4242 Add 1 Daughter Particle
C N Add 1 Daughter Particle
C N C N e 0 Add 1 Daughter Particle
Pb +4 n He4 Add 1 Daughter Particle
Pb +4 n He4 Pb +4 n He Th Add 1 Daughter Particle
Predict isotope stability with these three general rules:
1. The greater the binding energy per nucleon, the more stable the nucleus.
1. The greater the binding energy per nucleon, the more stable the nucleus. Both protons and neutrons add to the weak force. But protons also add to the electric force, which helps to destabilize the nucleus.
2. Nuclei with a 1:1 neutron to proton ratio are very stable.
This can only occur in small nuclei. 2. Nuclei with a 1:1 neutron to proton ratio are very stable.
3. The most stable nuclei tend to contain an even number of both protons and neutrons.