3Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vesselsIt is also known as nasal blockage, nasal obstruction, blocked nose, stuffy nose, or stuffed up nose.
4Nasal congestion can interfere with the ears, hearing, and speech development. Significant congestion may interfere with sleep, cause snoring, and can be associated with sleep apnea.Nasal congestion can also cause mild facial and head pain, and a degree of discomfort.
5Nasal blockage can be seen in the following Diseases
6Common coldThe onset is acute, with a scratchy sore throat and cough. The nasal mucosa will appear red, boggy, and glassy. The nasal drainage will initially be clear but will later becomecolored (yellow-green).
7Allergic rhinitisAcute allergic rhinitis is often associated with eye irritation, paroyxms of sneezing,itching of the eyes, nose, or palate, and postnasal drip with cough.The nasal mucosa is bluishand pale. Seasonal rhinitis is usually caused by inhaled pollens. Perennial rhinitis is caused byallergy to animals, dust, mites, or mold.
8VasomotorrhinitisCongestion is prominent, but rhinorrhea, sneezing, and itching are not.Rhinitis medicamentosa occurs after 3 to 4 days of continuous use of a topical vasoconstrictor.
9There will be initial relief with its use that is then followed by rebound with worsened congestion. Vasomotor rhinitis may also be precipitated by cold, emotion, or sexual arousal. The turbinates are red andboggy.
10NasalpolypUnilateral airflow will be obstructed and a polyp will be visible deep inside, beyond theturbinate, as a gray structure with the appearance of a skinned grape.There is an associationbetween aspirin use, nasal polyps, and asthma, but the most common cause is chronic allergicrhinitis.
11SinusitisDrainage, if present, will be purulent, although colored drainage can be found in otherconditions.There will be a sensation of facial fullness that worsens with bending forward, oftenaccompanied by fever and a headache.
12On physical examination, there will be tenderness toconcussion and pressure, overlying warmth, and fever. The affected sinus will not transilluminate.
13DrugsCocaine, beta-blockers, reserpine, and hydralazine can each cause nasal obstruction
14Deviated septumDeviation causes chronic unilateral obstruction, which is readily observed with anasal speculum.
15Intranasal foreign body There will be nasal obstruction associated with a chronic unilateralmucopurulent discharge with a foul odour.
16SarcoidosisSarcoidosis presents with bilateral nasal congestion in as many as 20% of cases. Systemic symptoms such as fever, fatigue, or weight loss;pulmonary symptoms such as cough ordyspnea; or skin manifestations such as erythema nodosum or purple, waxy plaques are clues tothe underlying diagnosis.
17Cerebrospinal fluid leak Head trauma with a basilar skull fracture may go unrecognized.Clear nasal drainage tests positive for glucose using a urine dipstick.
18Wegener granulomatosis Wegener granulomatosisIts earliest manifestation may be nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, crusting,and chronic sinusitis with a fetid drainage. Development of a septal ulceration is present
22The treatment of nasal congestion frequently depends on the underlying cause. Both influenza and the common cold are self limiting conditions that improve with time; however, drugs such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) and ibuprofen may help with the discomfort.
23A cause of nasal congestion may also be due to an allergic reaction caused by hay fever, so avoiding allergens is a common remedy if this becomes a confirmed diagnosis.Antihistamines and decongestants can provide significant symptom relief although they do not cure hay fever.
24Topical decongestants should only be used by patients for a maximum of 3 days in a row, because rebound congestion may occur in the form of rhinitis medicamentosaThe use of nasal irrigation may help reduce nasal congestion. It involves rinsing the nasal cavity with salty water, however, this may cause further irritation.
25VaporisersThese are obtainable in ointment and oil form and have scented constituents that could assist in allaying a dripping nose or finding relief from the ‘stuffed or suffocated feeling’ by de-clogging the inflammation in the air passages.Eucalyptus and oils like peppermint, menthol, camphor act on the nasal receptors, constrict the flow of blood and hence lower inflammation.
26Menthol-based nasal strips The placing of these strips is done below the nasal bridge for allaying obstruction as it lifts open the nostrils.The menthol helps to relieve inflammation in the air passages.. Their strong-smelling nature helps to infiltrate the mucus obstruction, thus help to provisionally open the nasal passages.
27Nasal SpraysThese sprays have decongestants like oxymetazoline or xylometazoline that contract the blood vessels.They additionally aid in stopping mucous formation
28list of surgical procedures is shown below. TurbinectomyPartial turbinectomySubmucosal resection of the turbinatesSurface "scoring" techniquesLess invasive techniques