Presentation on theme: "Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems"— Presentation transcript:
1Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems Mrs. Low’s Life Science
2Cardiovascular System Transports materials (gases and nutrients) to your cells.Cardio = “heart” Vascular = “vessel”Consists of:1. Blood2. Heart3. Blood Vessels
3BLOOD – made in Bone Marrow CONNECTIVE TISSUERed Blood Cells – Most abundant cells in blood. -SUPPLIES CELLS WITH OXYGEN – HEMOGLOBIN is the PROTEIN that gives red blood cells their color and binds oxygen. (NO NUCLEUS – live about 4 months )White Blood Cells – Fight pathogens (things that make you sick)Platelets – pieces of larger cells. Form blood clots to stop bleeding. Clump together to “plug” damaged areas (last 5-10 days).
4Heart - Pumps oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the body, and then oxygen poor blood from the body to the lungs.Lungs ->Pulmonary Vein-> Left Atrium-> Left Ventricle-> Aorta-> Body-> Vena Cava-> Right Atrium-> Right Ventricle-> Pulmonary Artery-> Lungs
5Blood Vessels – Hollow tubes that transport Blood Arteries – Carry Blood from the heart to the body. Thick walls that contain layers of smooth muscle. Must be strong to withstand blood pressure.Capillaries – Smallest Blood vessels (1/10 size of width of a hair) so blood cells must pass 1 at a time! Walls are only 1 cell thick. No cell in the body is more than 3-4 cells away from a capillary.Veins – Take blood back to the heart from the body. Have valves that keep the blood from flowing backwards. When skeletal muscle contracts it forces blood through veins.
6Blood FlowLungs – Heart – Arteries – Capillaries – Cells – Capillaries – Veins – Heart – LungsPulmonary Circulation – of blood between the heart and lungs.Systemic Circulation – Circulationof blood from heart to the bodyand back.
7Blood Flows Under Pressure Blood Pressure – Force exerted by blood on the inside walls of blood vessels.Blood pressure of 120 mm of Hg (mercury) means the pressure on the walls of the vessels is enough to push mercury about 120 mm high.Systolic pressure – Pressure inside large arteries when the ventricles contract.Diastolic pressure – Pressure inside the arteries when ventricles are relaxed.Normal Blood pressure: 120/80120 = Systolic pressure80 = Diastolic pressure
8BLOOD TYPE A AND B ARE CODOMINANT – O is RECESSIVE! What’s Your Blood Type?Blood Types: A, B, AB, O – refer to the chemicals you have on the surface of your RED BLOOD CELLS.Antigens: A – has A antigens, B – has B antigens, AB – has A and B antigens, O – has NEITHER A nor B antigens.Antibodies- The body’s response to antigens that are NOT on its own Red Blood Cells.Type A – can receive A or O bloodType B – can receive B or O bloodType AB – can receive ANY blood : UNIVERSAL RECIPIENTType O – can DONATE to anyone, but receive ONLY from type O: UNIVERSAL DONORBLOOD TYPE A AND B ARE CODOMINANT – O is RECESSIVE!
9Atherosclerosis – Leading cause of death in United StatesFatty material such as cholesterol builds up on inside of blood vessels. HEART ATTACK
10Lymphatic System Collects excess fluid and returns it to the blood. Fights pathogens (microorganisms and viruses that make you sick).LYMPH – fluid and particles absorbed into lymph capillaries.Lymphatic capillaries empty into lymphatic vessels. Lymph is PUSHED through vessels by movement of skeletal muscle.Valves prevent lymph from back flowing.Lymph eventually drains into the NECK veins of the cardiovascular system.
11Lymphatic OrgansLymph Nodes – small bean-shaped organs where particles such as pathogens and dead cells are removed from the lymph. They FILTER the lymphLymph Nodes contain many White Blood Cells. These cells either engulf “eat” the pathogens, or marked the pathogen to be destroyed.When you have an infection you produce more white blood cells which may cause your lymph nodes to swell.
12Lymphatic OrgansThymus – located above your heart releases white blood cells, which then travel through the lymphatic system to different areas to fight infections.Spleen – LARGEST LYMPH ORGAN located in the upper left side of yourabdomen.Filters BloodReleases White Blood CellsOlder Red blood cells are broken down in the spleen where parts of them may be recycled.
13Lymphatic Organs Tonsils – Groups of lymphatic tissue located at the back ofyour nasal cavity on the insideof your mouth, and at the back of your tongue.White blood cells in the tonsils defend the body against infection.If tonsils constantly become infected they may be removed.
14Respiratory System – the system which allows you to breath. Respiration – the ENTIREprocess by which a body obtainsoxygen and gets rid of carbondioxide.INHALING AND EXHALINGCells need oxygen in order to perform CELLULAR RESPIRATION which allows cells to break down food in order to make ATP for energy.
16Parts of the Respiratory System Nose – primary passageway into and out of the respiratory system.Pharynx – (throat) leads from the nose to the larynx.Larynx – (voice box) contains the vocal cords. When air flows between the vocal cords they vibrate to make noise.Trachea – (windpipe) passageway from the larynx to the lungsBronchi – Two tubes that split off from the trachea and lead to the lungs.Lungs – Large spongelike organs that aremade of of smaller bronchiole brancheswhich consist of tiny sacs called alveoli.
17BreathingDiaphragm contracts and moves down allowing the lungs to expand.Air pressure forces oxygen into the lungsHemoglobin in Red blood located in the capillaries which surround the alveoli absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide.The diaphram relaxes and air (carbon dioxide) is forced out of the lungs.
18Respiratory Disorders Asthma - bronchiolesconstrict and secretemucous causing difficultybreathing.Bronchitis – Inflammation of the bronchioles causing mucus and difficulty breathing.Pneumonia – bacteria of viruses infect the bronchioles and alveoli causing them to fill with fluid which could cause suffocation.
19HAZARDS OF SMOKINGLead to lung diseases such as emphysema (COPD – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and lung cancer.