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Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cardiovascular and Respiratory Systems
Mrs. Low’s Life Science

2 Cardiovascular System
Transports materials (gases and nutrients) to your cells. Cardio = “heart” Vascular = “vessel” Consists of: 1. Blood 2. Heart 3. Blood Vessels

3 BLOOD – made in Bone Marrow
CONNECTIVE TISSUE Red Blood Cells – Most abundant cells in blood. -SUPPLIES CELLS WITH OXYGEN – HEMOGLOBIN is the PROTEIN that gives red blood cells their color and binds oxygen. (NO NUCLEUS – live about 4 months ) White Blood Cells – Fight pathogens (things that make you sick) Platelets – pieces of larger cells. Form blood clots to stop bleeding. Clump together to “plug” damaged areas (last 5-10 days).

4 Heart - Pumps oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the body, and then oxygen poor blood from the body to the lungs. Lungs -> Pulmonary Vein -> Left Atrium -> Left Ventricle -> Aorta -> Body -> Vena Cava -> Right Atrium -> Right Ventricle -> Pulmonary Artery -> Lungs

5 Blood Vessels – Hollow tubes that transport Blood
Arteries – Carry Blood from the heart to the body. Thick walls that contain layers of smooth muscle. Must be strong to withstand blood pressure. Capillaries – Smallest Blood vessels (1/10 size of width of a hair) so blood cells must pass 1 at a time! Walls are only 1 cell thick. No cell in the body is more than 3-4 cells away from a capillary. Veins – Take blood back to the heart from the body. Have valves that keep the blood from flowing backwards. When skeletal muscle contracts it forces blood through veins.

6 Blood Flow Lungs – Heart – Arteries – Capillaries – Cells – Capillaries – Veins – Heart – Lungs Pulmonary Circulation – of blood between the heart and lungs. Systemic Circulation – Circulation of blood from heart to the body and back.

7 Blood Flows Under Pressure
Blood Pressure – Force exerted by blood on the inside walls of blood vessels. Blood pressure of 120 mm of Hg (mercury) means the pressure on the walls of the vessels is enough to push mercury about 120 mm high. Systolic pressure – Pressure inside large arteries when the ventricles contract. Diastolic pressure – Pressure inside the arteries when ventricles are relaxed. Normal Blood pressure: 120/80 120 = Systolic pressure 80 = Diastolic pressure

What’s Your Blood Type? Blood Types: A, B, AB, O – refer to the chemicals you have on the surface of your RED BLOOD CELLS. Antigens: A – has A antigens, B – has B antigens, AB – has A and B antigens, O – has NEITHER A nor B antigens. Antibodies- The body’s response to antigens that are NOT on its own Red Blood Cells. Type A – can receive A or O blood Type B – can receive B or O blood Type AB – can receive ANY blood : UNIVERSAL RECIPIENT Type O – can DONATE to anyone, but receive ONLY from type O: UNIVERSAL DONOR BLOOD TYPE A AND B ARE CODOMINANT – O is RECESSIVE!

9 Atherosclerosis – Leading cause of death in
United States Fatty material such as cholesterol builds up on inside of blood vessels. HEART ATTACK

10 Lymphatic System Collects excess fluid and returns it to the blood.
Fights pathogens (microorganisms and viruses that make you sick). LYMPH – fluid and particles absorbed into lymph capillaries. Lymphatic capillaries empty into lymphatic vessels. Lymph is PUSHED through vessels by movement of skeletal muscle. Valves prevent lymph from back flowing. Lymph eventually drains into the NECK veins of the cardiovascular system.

11 Lymphatic Organs Lymph Nodes – small bean-shaped organs where particles such as pathogens and dead cells are removed from the lymph. They FILTER the lymph Lymph Nodes contain many White Blood Cells. These cells either engulf “eat” the pathogens, or marked the pathogen to be destroyed. When you have an infection you produce more white blood cells which may cause your lymph nodes to swell.

12 Lymphatic Organs Thymus – located above your heart releases white blood cells, which then travel through the lymphatic system to different areas to fight infections. Spleen – LARGEST LYMPH ORGAN located in the upper left side of your abdomen. Filters Blood Releases White Blood Cells Older Red blood cells are broken down in the spleen where parts of them may be recycled.

13 Lymphatic Organs Tonsils – Groups of lymphatic
tissue located at the back of your nasal cavity on the inside of your mouth, and at the back of your tongue. White blood cells in the tonsils defend the body against infection. If tonsils constantly become infected they may be removed.

14 Respiratory System – the system which allows you to breath.
Respiration – the ENTIRE process by which a body obtains oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. INHALING AND EXHALING Cells need oxygen in order to perform CELLULAR RESPIRATION which allows cells to break down food in order to make ATP for energy.


16 Parts of the Respiratory System
Nose – primary passageway into and out of the respiratory system. Pharynx – (throat) leads from the nose to the larynx. Larynx – (voice box) contains the vocal cords. When air flows between the vocal cords they vibrate to make noise. Trachea – (windpipe) passageway from the larynx to the lungs Bronchi – Two tubes that split off from the trachea and lead to the lungs. Lungs – Large spongelike organs that are made of of smaller bronchiole branches which consist of tiny sacs called alveoli.

17 Breathing Diaphragm contracts and moves down allowing the lungs to expand. Air pressure forces oxygen into the lungs Hemoglobin in Red blood located in the capillaries which surround the alveoli absorb oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The diaphram relaxes and air (carbon dioxide) is forced out of the lungs.

18 Respiratory Disorders
Asthma - bronchioles constrict and secrete mucous causing difficulty breathing. Bronchitis – Inflammation of the bronchioles causing mucus and difficulty breathing. Pneumonia – bacteria of viruses infect the bronchioles and alveoli causing them to fill with fluid which could cause suffocation.

19 HAZARDS OF SMOKING Lead to lung diseases such as emphysema (COPD – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) and lung cancer.

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