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PBIS in the Classroom: Differentiated Instruction for High School: Jessica Swain-Bradway, Ph.D., Midwest PBIS Network

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Presentation on theme: "PBIS in the Classroom: Differentiated Instruction for High School: Jessica Swain-Bradway, Ph.D., Midwest PBIS Network"— Presentation transcript:

1 PBIS in the Classroom: Differentiated Instruction for High School: Jessica Swain-Bradway, Ph.D., Midwest PBIS Network

2 PBIS in the Classroom: Seating Your role?? Special Educator Administrator General Educator PBIS Coach Other Please sit…

3 Agenda The Big Idea Why and What?! Supportive School Climates Foundations of Differentiation Pilot English Math Feedback from the teachers and students Questions and Answers

4 Objectives Explain the relationship between academic and social success. Describe the rationale for differentiating instruction within the high school content area classroom. Describe 2-3 strategies for increasing differentiated content delivery. Describe the importance of regular coaching in maximizing meaningful instruction.

5 Fred and Carrie

6 The Big Idea Increasingly diverse student population Language, SES, Academic ability (range) Social behaviors Stressors at home / community To meet the range of needs, teachers need to: Employ a range of instructional strategies Teach classroom routines to support higher level thinking skills Encourage student behaviors Pointed toward self-management

7 Think, Pair, Share Turn to the person next to you and talk about how the range of needs in your classes / schools impacts: Teaching? Staffing? Planning? Share with another pair. Share the top two issues of concern with the whole group.

8 Impacts…your responses

9 Supportive Climates: School Retention Literature Schools that are the most successful with supporting graduation…

10 Supportive Climates High Expectations Coupled with High Supports Adult positive interactions (Croninger & Lee, 2001) Home school connection (Dynarski, 2001) Predictable, structured day /activities (Lee & Burkham, 2003) Social and Academic supports (Kemple, Herlihy, & Smith, 2005). Fewer “basic” level classes More advanced classes, with adequate support (Jerald, 2006)

11 Supportive Climates Have classes that reflect the level of achievement we want to see NOT Where student “begin” Universal Design Differentiation of Instruction Routines, activities, environment, encouragement = academic self management and achievement

12 Supportive Climates Universal Design Approach Differentiation of routines, activities, environment, encouragement

13 Show of Hands How many of you feel as though your schools is currently providing differentiated supports in the classroom? How many of you feel as though you are maximizing academic self-management?

14 Differentiation: Foundations of Special Education

15 Differentiated Instruction Aware of and responsive to student learning needs: Includes environmental, climate, social needs to access content INCLUDES: Scaffolding Consider WHERE a student is in stages of learning Model, Lead, Test Provide as much or as little support as necessary to move to next stage Opportunities to respond that match level skill level Error analysis to guide instruction

16 Differentiated Instruction Error analysis to guide instruction Equitable distribution of opportunities: Receive instruction Engage in learning activities Receive reinforcement for engagement

17 Differentiating Content by Promoting Self-Management We want to increase meaningful opportunities to respond and receive feedback in CONTENT We are going to maximize self-management skills to: Increase those opportunities to respond Increase immediate corrective feedback Increase opportunities to receive encouragement (acknowledgements)

18 EncouragementClassroom Routines Instructional Practices Academic Self- Management FOUNDATIONS

19 Foundations for Success

20 Instructional Planning Arrange our environment & routines to maximize time engaged. To do that we need to treat self-management like a content area! Model, lead, test EVERY social and academic behavior If you want to see it, teach it Book use, test taking, asking questions, checking grades and missing work, self-advocacy, interacting with peers, etc.

21 Instructional Practices Increase Opportunities to Interact with Content: Teacher as facilitator: talk in 5-7 minute increments All “teaching” is followed by practice opportunities Small group, paired, independent, whole group Student lead instruction with peers Think, Pair, Share with peers Break instruction into small “chunks” by skill, concept, not an entire unit

22 Instructional Practices Increase Opportunities for Corrective Feedback Small groups, pairs “Expert” peers Answer keys for self/ small group check Teacher rotates among groups Share outs (in small groups) Answer cards (Example) Answers on board

23 Classroom routines Aren’t these for elementary school? On your own list some routines that happen regularly in your classrooms: Admin group, take a guess. Write 3-5 routines. Content specific is good. PEOPLE on the right side of the room ONLY: Pick an unsuspecting human on the left side of the room. ALL: Exchange ideas verbally ALL: Write down 2 that you don’t have. ALL: Be prepared to share.

24 Classroom routines Your responses (someone who is good at writing on board / Has or Needs social capital)

25 Classroom routines TEACH routines: Teacher and student identified Entering and leaving classroom Test taking Asking questions Checking progress (grades, missing work, projects, etc.) Constructive feedback to peers Synthesis of material Participating in groups Practice and encourage

26 Think Aloud In a small group, share the most difficult classroom routines to manage Write down the top 3 Move to another group Share the top three most difficult routine As a group select 1 Generate a strategy to manage this routine effectively Be prepared to share with the entire group

27 Encouragement Teacher encouragement of student efforts Academic / Social Asking questions Constructive feedback Active listening Using index

28 Encouragement Specific verbal praise Grades Stars on board Post-it notes GROUP REWARDS Sit where you want on Friday Pick the order of activities Quiet music during work time Make the teacher do something silly…

29 How do you feel? Own your own… What thoughts do you have when you hear “teach and reward everything you want to see in your classroom”? What will your co-workers feel? Take a guess Think about it (give it a hug)

30 Academic Self-Management Instructional practices, classroom routines, and encouragement are all set up to explicitly support academic self-management on the part of the students. What tools and skills do students need to operate independently in your classroom?

31 Academic Self-Management Identify the skills (and pre-skills) and set up the classroom to explicitly teach, and acknowledge these skills as if you expect the students to not have them at all. Point all instructional practices, classroom routines, and encouragement toward self-management

32 Include Students in the Process Maximize student input Routines Acknowledgements Agenda (order, content, types of activities) Increase motivation Model and lead executive thinking skills

33 Pilot Math and English Classrooms 1 hour per week Worked on foundations COACHING Provided small, doable tips at each meeting, coached on use of those tips via , or at next session

34 Cody: Algebra and Geometry Met for one hour per week March- June Coached on teaching to mastery: Efficient teaching Small groups with like skills Catch students before making errors repeatedly

35 Cody: Algebra and Geometry Explicit teaching of classroom routines that provide access to academic success: Working in groups Peer tutoring Using text book Asking questions Preparing to take a concept test Self-monitoring Class arrangement: Small groups with like skills Flexible groups Independent work at end of semester to allow students to work on own goals

36 Fred: Literature Met 5-6 times for 90 minutes each March – June Coached on: Social routines to increase academic access Expectations and reinforcers for work completion Explicit teaching of academic pre-skills How to complete focus questions How to lead and contribute to class discussion Facilitating learning versus dictating learning Students gradually took over the discussions Increase higher-level critical thinking skills

37 Fred: Literature Modified Class arrangement: 1 group (12 students) “Book club” All students sitting at 1 large table facing each other and Fred Conversational – hand raising not necessary

38 Coaching Both Cody and Fred indicated that the coaching was the most important component Numerous in-services / trainings Train and Hope Coaching was contextual, real-life and in the NOW Sustained implementation of strategies for the duration of the coaching

39 Outcomes: English Lit. The first week of the “new” model, first time all year that ALL students completed homework reading (persisted over the semester) Increased student participation Higher quality academic output Increased student satisfaction Less teacher stress and more increased work satisfaction

40 Direct Observation Data

41 Outcomes: Math Better attendance More participation Faster rate of completion of concept tests Less teacher stress and increased job satisfaction Reduction in office referrals Increased student initiative in work completion and asking for assistance

42

43 From the teachers… I have learned that establishing tight systems of classroom management, along with individual and whole-class goals, relies on increasing motivation. I have WAY fewer discipline issues when I do considerably less talking to the entire class. It ended up being about self-management; a life skill that these kids need to learn immediately. Kids who could help felt more empowered. Kids who needed help felt the power of asking questions without feeling embarrassed by asking in front of the whole class.

44 From the teachers… Most of the students hated coming to the class and I disliked teaching it. The majority of the fifteen students were not doing their work – … the class took ownership of their book club… by asking them how we should handle motivation. As the weeks moved on, the students were given more and more responsibility for leading our discussions and for asking for what they needed Twice during the quarter, I asked the class to write how they felt about this "new" way of working. The responses were overwhelmingly positive.

45 From the students… Being in a small group helps me concentrate The help is focused on me I get embarrassed / frustrated in a big group Small groups work better because people don’t need to worry about asking “stupid” questions It feels good to accomplish something on my own I can learn at a comfortable pace I enjoy independent work more because I like working at my own pace with no pressure. I get more work done in small groups It’s funner and more interactive!

46 From the students I feel like I did better than most, boosting my self-esteem! I felt respected! The rewards were nice but not necessary- this was fun! I get more help and the checklists help you set goals and when goals are set it makes you want to reach them. I can pay attention better It’s easier to take notes and get work done without dealing with distractions I feel like I get more work done this way I get more help With small groups I push myself harder to do the work and gain more understanding.

47 Thinking back What are your “take aways”? What else do you need to know?

48 Resources Anita Archer (reading) Universal Design National center of Accessible Instructional materials: Differentiated Instruction and Response to Intervention:

49 Coaching Opportunity I would love to coach a coach, a team, or a teacher! Please contact me:


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