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1 Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa USDA & USAID International Food Aid Conference Kansas City, Missouri April 6-8, 2009 Source: GAO (photos) Fighting Hunger in an Era of Global Economic Crisis
2 Proportion of Undernourishment in the World, 2003-05 There are now 963 million hungry people worldwide
3 Background From January 2007 to June 2008, food protests and riots have occurred in more than 50 countries, including at least 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa Food security and the ongoing food crisis are high on the global agenda Global hunger alleviation is a priority for the new Congress and the new U.S. administration
4 Recent and Ongoing GAO Reviews of U.S. Food Aid and International Food Security Ways to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of U.S. food aid (April 2007) Persistent food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa (May 2008) U.S. and other donors’ experiences with local and regional procurement of food aid (ongoing, due May 2009) U.S. government response to global food insecurity (new request) Monitoring and evaluation of the Food for Peace Act nonemergency food aid (new mandate)
5 Improving the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Food Aid Selected Trends in U.S. Food Aid, Fiscal Years 2001 to 2008
6 Status of GAO Recommendations on Improving the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Food Aid Implemented Pending Improving food aid logistical planning through cost-benefit analysis Enhancing the reliability and use of needs assessments for food aid Determining ways to provide nonfood resources when appropriate Developing an interagency mechanism to update food aid specifications and products Improving the monitoring of food aid programs Modernizing ocean transportation and contracting practices Minimizing the cost impact of cargo preferences Establishing a coordinated system for tracking food quality complaints Developing an information system to track monetization transactions
7 Multiple Factors Contribute to Persistent Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa Limited Agricultural Productivity
8 Multiple Factors Contribute to Persistent Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa Limited rural development Example: Rural development in sub-Saharan Africa has suffered from weak infrastructure, such as lack of rural telecommunications, electricity, and roads, as well as farmers’ lack of access to credit. Government policy disincentives Example: Tanzanian farmers must pay about 55 taxes, levies, and fees to sell their agricultural products, equivalent to 50 percent of the products’ price. Poor health Example: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has taken a heavy toll on the population, workforce, and agricultural production of sub-Saharan Africa; two-thirds of those in the world who have HIV live in that region.
9 High Commodity Prices Will Likely Exacerbate Food Insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa Changes in Commodity Prices, 2000 to 2009
10 Low Agricultural Spending by Host Governments Remains a Significant Challenge
11 Donor Efforts Limited by Declining Resources Trends in Bilateral and Multilateral Official Development Assistance to Agriculture for Africa, 1974 to 2006
12 USAID’s Food Aid for Emergencies Has Increased Substantially, but Food Aid for Development Has Not Comparison of U.S. Food Aid for Emergencies and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa under Title II of the Food for Peace Act, Fiscal Years 1992 to 2007
13 What Needs to Be Done To address global food insecurity and accelerate progress toward halving world hunger by 2015, USAID should Work in collaboration with other agencies to develop an integrated strategy for achieving food security in sub-Saharan Africa Prepare and submit an annual report to Congress detailing progress on these efforts.
14 The 2008 Farm Bill authorized $60 million to USDA for a 5-year pilot program for local and regional procurement In 2008, Congress appropriated another $125 million in supplemental International Disaster Assistance and Development Assistance funding to USAID for local and regional procurement The 2009 Omnibus Appropriations Bill provided $75 million for global food security, including for local or regional purchase GAO is completing its study of local and regional procurement practices of various donors, with a report forthcoming in May 2009 Local and Regional Procurement of Food Aid
15 Related GAO Reports International Food Security: Insufficient Efforts by Host Governments and Donors Threaten Progress to Halve Hunger in Sub-Saharan Africa by 2015, GAO-08-680, May 29, 2008GAO-08-680 Foreign Assistance: Various Challenges Impede the Efficiency and Effectiveness of U.S. Food Aid, GAO-07-560, April 13, 2007GAO-07-560 Foreign Assistance: U.S. Agencies Face Challenges to Improving the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Food Aid, GAO-07-616T, March 21, 2007GAO-07-616T Foreign Assistance: Lack of Strategic Focus and Obstacles to Agricultural Recovery Threaten Afghanistan's Stability, GAO-03-607, June 30, 2003GAO-03-607 Foreign Assistance: Sustained Efforts Needed to Help Southern Africa Recover from Food Crisis, GAO-03-644, June 25, 2003GAO-03-644 For full copies of GAO reports, click on http://www.gao.gov.http://www.gao.gov
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