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Future of Education: Preparing for the 21 st Century Raymond J. McNulty, President International Center for Leadership in Education Crestwood Local Schools.

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Presentation on theme: "Future of Education: Preparing for the 21 st Century Raymond J. McNulty, President International Center for Leadership in Education Crestwood Local Schools."— Presentation transcript:

1 Future of Education: Preparing for the 21 st Century Raymond J. McNulty, President International Center for Leadership in Education Crestwood Local Schools April 4, 2011

2 Not an expert Im a learner and I change my opinion based on what I learn.

3 Why I do this work…

4 Schools are Improving School Improvement

5 Schools are Improving School Improvement Changing World

6 The Boston Globe Ray, reading the paper on your Kindle just isnt the same!

7 Almost everyone wants schools to be better, but almost no one wants them to be different.

8 Teacher – Student Comparisons T – I make learning exciting for my students. 86% S – My teachers make learning fun. 41%

9 Many of our efforts to transform education so that it works for more students is just more of the same old stuff!

10 The future is not some place we are going to, but one we (you) are creating. The paths are not found, but made, and the activity of making them, changes both the maker and the destination. --John Schaar

11 WE need to become the AGENTS of change.

12 Current System Something Different

13 The Horse The Automobile

14 Henry Ford quote… If I had asked the public what they wanted, they would have said a faster horse.

15 First practice must change, then results, then policy.

16 THEMES The Challenge We Face Three Transformative Issues Why Is It So Hard To Change? One Additional Challenge We face Best Practices, Next Practices and Innovation Conceptual Age Rigor, Relevance Relationships Closing Thoughts

17 THEME The Challenge We Face

18 Making a better 20 th Century School is not the answer.

19 The primary aim of education is not to enable students to do well in school, but to help them do well in the lives they lead outside of school.

20 NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Write clear and concise directions or procedures. GroupRank Overall9 Business/Industry2 Other Non-educators10 English Language Arts Teachers Other Educators8

21 NESS Study Subgroup Rankings ELA Skill: Write clear and concise directions or procedures. GroupRank Overall9 Business/Industry2 Other Non-educators10 English Language Arts Teachers25 Other Educators8

22 NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Math Skill: Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to right triangles. GroupRank Overall20 Business/Industry29 Other Non-educators31 Mathematics Teachers Other Educators24

23 NESS Study Subgroup Rankings Math Skill: Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to right triangles. GroupRank Overall20 Business/Industry29 Other Non-educators31 Mathematics Teachers4 Other Educators24

24 Weve created false proxies for learning… Finishing a course or textbook has come to mean achievement Listening to lecture has come to mean understanding Getting a high score on a standardized test has come to mean proficiency

25 Learning should have its roots in.. Meaning, not just memory Engagement, not simply transmission Inquiry, not only compliance Exploration, not just acquisition Personalization, not simply uniformity Collaboration, not only competition Trust, not fear

26 Basic Knowledge/Skills English Language (spoken) Reading Comprehension (in English) Writing in English (grammar, spelling, etc.) Mathematics Science Government/Economics Humanities/Arts Foreign Languages History/Geography Applied Skills Critical Thinking/Problem Solving Oral Communication Written Communication Teamwork/Collaboration Diversity Information Technology Application Leadership Creativity/Innovation Lifelong Learning/Self Direction Professionalism/Work Ethic Ethics/Social Responsibility

27 Today

28

29

30 We Need a Plan

31

32 Sir Ken Robinson

33 THEME Three Transformative Issues

34 Transformation # 1 Leadership today requires a balance of traditional skills mixed with innovation skills Stability, control and standardization mixed with uncertainty, ambiguity and disruptive thinking

35 Success breeds stewards, not entrepreneurs. Gary Hamel A Concern I have is…..

36 Transformation # 2 Making a better 20 th Century School is not the answer It is about becoming different not just better Using researched based best practices important, but for true transformation you need a mixture of BEST and NEXT practices. 70 – 30 or

37 Best Practices to Next Practices Fueled by Empowerment

38 AYP Research Based Successful Practices Tight Critical PointRemain Tight TightEmpowerTight Loose

39 AYP

40

41

42 Transformation # 3 Collaboration is essential for success today Cooperation wont get you the results you need Collaboration is mutual engagement to solve the challenge (21 st Century) Cooperation is a division of labor approach (20 th Century)

43 THEME Why is it so hard to change?

44 Marshmallow Challenge

45 NEXT PRACTICE THINKING The Iterative Process Versions Create a disciplined, managed space for development of new ways to accomplish difficult tasks

46 Why is it so hard to change? The more successful a system is, the more difficult it is to recognize when it must change. By example, market leaders are the last ones to transform. The American Education System, The market leader during the industrial era!

47 Market Leader Thinking Dominant logic: Thats the way we do things here.

48 VII Shown below is the Roman numeral seven. By adding only a single line, turn it into an eight.

49 IX Shown below is a Roman numeral nine. By adding only a single line, turn it into a six.

50 SIX

51 IX6

52 Mental Locks We dont need to be creative for most of what we do (driving, shopping, business of living). So staying on routine thought paths enables us to do many things without having to think about it. Our training in school has taught us that there is one right answer.

53 Five beautiful and well-dressed woman are standing in a tight group. One is crying and she has never been happier. The other four are smiling and they have never been more disappointed. Why?

54 The Right Answer

55 The Second Right Answer What is the answer? What are the answers?

56 Five beautiful and well-dressed woman are standing in a tight group. One is crying and she has never been happier. The other four are smiling and they have never been more disappointed. Why?

57 The Right Answer Thats not logical

58 SOFTHARD

59 Logic Metaphor Dream Reason Precision Humor Consistency Ambiguity Play Work Exact Approximate Direct Focused Fantasy Reality Paradox Diffuse Analysis Hunch Generalization Specifics Child Adult

60 SOFT Metaphor Dream Humor Ambiguity Play Approximate Fantasy Paradox Diffuse Hunch Generalization Child HARD Logic Reason Precision Consistency Work Exact Reality Direct Focused Analysis Specific Adult

61 SOFT Shades of gray Hard to pick up Many answers Flood light, diffused HARD Black and white Easy to pick up Right answer Focused like a spot light

62 Cat - Refrigerator

63 So using what you have just learned give me at least two answers the following:

64 Tiffany and Chelsea are lumberjacks. They both work at the same rate. Tiffany works non-stop from nine in the morning until five in the afternoon. Chelsea also works the same hours, but takes a 10 minute break every hour. At the end of the day, Chelsea has cut down more trees than tiffany. Why?

65 THEME One Additional Challenge We Face

66 We live in a world obsessed with science, predictability and control. Some people believe if we cant measure something, it must not count!

67 We must consider the possibility that if we cant purely measure something, it might be the very most important thing!

68 Motivation is a key ingredient for success in learning.

69 Motivation is a soft word, people often question its importance because it cant accurately measure them.

70 Talking with kids… Its not us against them!

71

72 72 Empowering the students Day of Pink: A day to stand against bullying, harassment, and discrimination

73 Period 1 Day of Pink is a day of action, born when a youth in a high school in Cambridge, Nova Scotia, was bullied because he wore a pink shirt to school. His fellow students decided to stand up to bullying; and hundreds of students came to school wearing pink to show support for diversity and stopping discrimination. What do you feel makes you different or unique? Have you ever felt this puts you at risk for being bullied or harassed?

74 CULTURE DRIVES STRATEGY

75 Essential Design Elements EXCITEMENT PASSION MOTIVATION EMPOWERMENT VOICE Where are these elements in your school improvement plans?

76 THEME Best Practices, Next Practices and Innovation

77 Best practices allow you to do what you are currently doing a little better…..

78 Best Practices Research Based Replication 70 to 80 % of all activity should be Research Based Best Practice

79 Best practices allow you to do what you are currently doing a little better, while next practices increase your organizations capability to do things that it has never done before.

80 College and Career Readiness Defined Cognitive strategies: Intellectual openness; inquisitiveness; analysis; interpretation; precision and accuracy; problem solving; and reasoning, argumentation, and proof. Content knowledge: Understanding the structures and large organizing concepts of the academic disciplines, resting upon strong research and writing abilities. Academic behaviors: Self-management, time management, strategic study skills, accurate perceptions of ones true performance, persistence, ability to utilize study groups, self- awareness, self-control, and intentionality. Contextual skills and knowledge: Facility with application and financial-aid processes and the ability to acculturate to college. David Conley

81 Expertise (the way we do things around here) can sometimes be a road block to problem solving and the development of Next Practices.

82 We have a flawed perspective of always listening to our best customers… They tell us how good the system is working for them!

83 BANKING Sears IBM Xerox

84 A Story…. Not a bad idea, but to earn a grade more than a C+, the idea has to be viable! (Yale Professor) Fredrick Smith The idea FedEx

85 -Shurnyu Suzuki In the beginners mind there are many possibilities; in the experts mind there are few.

86 SystemInnovation

87 Sustaining Innovation Next Practice

88 Disruptive Innovation

89 THEME Rigor and Relevance

90 Rigor and relevance is NOT a new add-on !! Rigor and relevance is a philosophy of teaching!!

91 3 Mis-Conceptions on Rigor That rigor means more Raising a grade is not rigor Being stricter and enforcing tighter policies

92 Rigor! Rigor means increasing the level of thinking in a more sophisticated and complex manner.

93 Knowledge Taxonomy 1. Recall Knowledge 2. Comprehension 3. Application 4. Analysis 5. Synthesis 6. Evaluation

94 Thinking Continuum Assimilation of knowledge Acquisition of knowledge

95 Relevance To determine a lessons Relevance you must ask the following questions… 1. Is it application? 2. Is it real world? 3. Is it unpredictable?

96 Application Model 1 Knowledge of one discipline 2 Application within discipline 3 Application across disciplines 4 Application to real-world predictable situations 5 Application to real-world unpredictable situations

97 Acquisition of knowledge Application of knowledge Action Continuum Relevance of learning to life and work

98

99 Awareness 1 Comprehension 2 Application 3 1 Knowledge in one discipline 2 Apply knowledge in one discipline A Acquisition Students gather and store bits of knowledge/information and are expected to remember or understand this acquired knowledge. Low-level Knowledge

100 A Quadrant name label define select identify list memorize recite locate record definition worksheet list quiz test workbook true-false reproduction recitation Verbs Products

101 Awareness 1 Comprehension 2 Application 3 B Application 3 Apply knowledge across disciplines 4 Apply to real-world predictable situation 5 Apply to real-world unpredictable situation Students use acquired knowledge to solve problems, design solutions, and complete work. Low-level Application

102 B Quadrant apply sequence demonstrate interview construct solve calculate dramatize interpret illustrate scrapbook summary interpretation collection annotation explanation solution demonstration outline Verbs Products

103 Application 3 Analysis 4 Synthesis 5 Evaluation 6 1 Knowledge in one discipline 2 Apply knowledge in one discipline C Assimilation Students extend and refine their knowledge so that they can use it automatically and routinely to analyze and solve problems and create solutions. High-level Knowledge

104 C Quadrant sequence annotate examine report criticize paraphrase calculate expand summarize classify diagram Verbs Products essay abstract blueprint inventory report plan chart questionnaire classification diagram discussion collection annotation

105 3 Apply knowledge across disciplines 4 Apply to real-world predictable situation 5 Apply to real-world unpredictable situation Application 3 Analysis 4 Synthesis 5 Evaluation 6 D Adaptation Students think in complex ways and apply acquired knowledge and skills, even when confronted with perplexing unknowns, to find creative solutions and take action that further develops their skills and knowledge. High-level Application

106 D Quadrant evaluate validate justify rate referee infer rank dramatize argue conclude evaluation newspaper estimation trial editorial radio program play collage machine adaptation poem debate new game invention VerbsProducts

107

108 Theme Relationships

109 Rigor Relevance Relationships

110 Relevance Rigor

111 It is virtually impossible to make things relevant for or expect personal excellence from a student you dont know. Carol Ann Tomlinson

112 You cant teach kids you dont know….

113 Participation Gap Self-Worth: Self-Worth occurs when students know they are valued members of the community; have a person they can trust; believe they can achieve. Active Engagement: Active Engagement happens when students are deeply involved in the learning process. Purpose: Purpose exits when students take responsibility for who and what they want to become.

114 STUDENT ASPIRATIONS / PARTICIPATION GAP SELF WORTH ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT PURPOSE Belonging Heroes Sense of Accomplishment Fun & Excitement Curiosity & Creativity Spirit of Adventure Leadership & Responsibility Confidence to Take Action Relationships Relevance Rigor

115 SELF WORTH Belonging Heroes Sense of Accomplishment STATEMENT 54%49%I am proud of my school. 49%49%I enjoy being at school. 58%41%Teachers care about my problems and feelings. 54%46%Teachers care about me as an individual. 50%45%Teachers care if I am absent from school. 19%21%I have never been recognized for something positive at school. 52%48%If I have a problem, I have a teacher with whom I can talk. 68%51%Teachers respect students. 49%37%Students respect teachers. 36%29%Students respect each other. NATIONAL DATA

116 STATEMENT 42%48%School is boring. 68%55%At school I am encouraged to be creative. 47%37%My classes help me understand what is happening in my everyday life. 67%54%Teachers enjoy working with students 47%37%Teachers have fun at school. 41%28%Teachers make school an exciting place to learn. 79%71%My teachers present lessons in different ways. ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT Fun & Excitement Curiosity & Creativity Spirit of Adventure NATIONAL DATA

117 STATEMENT 62%64%I am a good decision maker. 54% 59%I see myself as a leader. 30% 35%Other students see me as a leader. 91%91%I believe I can be successful. 80%77%Teachers expect me to be successful. 58%64%I believe I can make a difference in this world. 79%66%I put forth my best effort at school. 44%36%I know the goals my school is working on. 41%30%Students council represents all students at school. PURPOSE Leadership & Responsibility Confidence to Take Action NATIONAL DATA

118 I am proud of my school.T = 85 S = 50 I am excited to be working with students.T = 96 Teachers enjoy working with students.S = 56 Students have fun at school.T = 78 School is boring.S = 47 Students make school an exciting place to work.T = 87 Teachers make school an exciting place to learn.S = 31 I have fun at school.T = 85 Teachers have fun at school.S = 39 NATIONAL DATA Delusional Discrepancies Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute

119 I am excited to tell my colleagues when I do something well.T = 59 I am excited to tell my friends when I get good grades.S = 57 I feel comfortable asking questions in staff meetings.T = 66 I feel comfortable asking questions in class. S = 66 NATIONAL DATA Sad Similarities Copyright 2008 Quaglia Institute

120 THEME Conceptual Age

121 Key Questions What will the world be like 20 years from now? What skills will you need to be successful in that world? What should the learning system look like?

122 Theme Closing Thoughts

123 Think Differently, which means second and third answers Use best and next practices Create versions of your solutions Culture Drives Strategy Use quantitative and qualitative data, ask questions

124 TO DO THE JOB WELL QUANTITATIVE DATA QUALITATIVE DATA GREAT QUESTIONS…

125 BE EXTRAORDINARY

126 BEING EXTRAORDINARY Committed to the truth Be committed to delaying gratification Be someone who always has the chance of saying yes Live a life where you do not make others wrong

127 BEING EXTRAORDINARY Be committed to courage Be someone who produces results with absolutely no force Be a person who is peaceful in chaos

128 BEING EXTRAORDINARY Be committed to courage Be someone who produces results with absolutely no force Be a person who is peaceful in chaos Be committed to managing success, while being aware of its dangers (lottery winners and GM)

129 Future of Education: Preparing for the 21 st Century Raymond J. McNulty, President International Center for Leadership in Education Crestwood Local Schools April 4, 2011

130 Middle – High Reading in the Content Area Raymond J. McNulty, President International Center for Leadership in Education Crestwood Local Schools April 4, 2011

131 Lexile Framework Semantic Difficulty Syntactic Complexity

132 Lexile Literature On Ancient Medicine The Scarlet Letter Brown vs. Board of Ed War and Peace Pride and Prejudice Black Beauty Tom Swift in the Land of Wonders The Adventures of Pinocchio Bunnicula: A Rabbit Tale of Mystery A Baby Sister for Frances The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth Frog and Toad are Friends Cliffords Manners

133 Lexile Texts The Making of Memory: From Molecules to Mind; Doubleday Philosophical Essays; Hackett Publishing Psychology: An Introduction; Prentice Hall Business; Prentice Hall America: Pathways to Present; Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Gold Level; Prentice Hall World Cultures: A Global Mosaic; Prentice Hall Word 97; Glencoe/McGraw-Hill World Explorer: The U.S. & Canada; Prentice Hall Science (Grade 4); Addison-Wesley People and Places; Silver Burdett Ginn Imagine That!; Scholastic Inc My World; Harcourt Brace

134 Personal Use Aetna Health Care Discount Form (1360) Medical Insurance Benefit Package (1280) Application for Student Loan (1270) Federal Tax Form W-4 (1260) Installing Your Child Safety Seat (1170) Microsoft Windows User Manual (1150) G.M. Protection Plan (1150) CD DVD Player Instructions (1080)

135 Newspapers Reuters (1440) NY Times (1380) Washington Post (1350) Wall Street Journal (1320) Chicago Tribune (1310) Associated Press (1310) USA Today (1200)

136 16 Career Clusters Department of Education

137 Reading Requirements Findings Entry-level Highest in 6/16 Second Highest in 7/16 Consistent Across Country

138 Human Services

139 Construction

140 Manufacturing

141 On-the Job Lexile Requirements Construction 1,500 1,400 1,300 1,200 1,100 1, Lexile Craftsman NurseSalesSecretary National Adult Literacy Study 1992 International Center for Leadership in Education 2006

142 Lexile Framework ® for Reading Study Summary of Text Lexile Measures Text Lexile Measure (L) High School Literature College Literature High School Textbooks College Textbooks Military Personal Use Entry-Level Occupations SAT 1, ACT, AP* * Source of National Test Data: MetaMetrics Interquartile Ranges Shown (25% - 75%)

143 Lexile Framework ® for Reading Study Summary of High School Textbook Lexile Measures Text Lexile Measure (L) ELAScience Social StudiesArtsCTE Math Subject Area Textbooks Interquartile Ranges Shown (25% - 75%)

144 Some Beliefs Not every students ability to read will develop in the same way. Prose literacy (fiction, nonfiction, drama and poetry) is important, but no longer sufficient.

145 Some Steps Expand the reading curriculum to reflect todays broad text sources. Use proven, research based instructional tools based on sound pedagogy.

146 Breaking the Failure Cycle In working with students who had not become competent readers by middle school it was clear that they had two significant problems with respect to reading: Inability to decode and read connected text fluently. Inability to create mental models from text.

147 Fluency

148 What is Fluency? Fluency can be defined as the ability to perform skills and demonstrate knowledge both accurately and quickly, without hesitation. Fluency is the building block of expertise in all things that we do well.

149 Importance of Fluency... the automaticity with which skillful readers recognize words is the key to the whole system. The readers attention can be focused on the meaning and message of a text only to the extent that its free from fussing with the words and letters Marilyn Adams

150 Mental Models

151 A mental model consists of mental tokens arranged in a structure that depicts the situation described by a text. McNamara, Miller & Bransford, 1991) Three turtles rested on a floating log, and a fish swam beneath them.

152 Mental Models A large part of comprehension ability rests on the ability to construct appropriate mental models. (Bransford, Goin, Hasselbring, Kinzer, Sherwood and Williams, 1988)

153 Mental Models For a variety of reasons, many students are unable to construct mental models from text. Often it is because they do not have the necessary background knowledge to construct an accurate mental model.

154 The Hatch The real hatch would begin around two in the afternoon and last for at least a few hours. It would be all BWOs for a while, then Olives mixed with Pale Morning Duns, then those two mixed with a few bigger Sulphurs. Scattered in there at various times you could also see a few small Red Quills, maybe some caddis, or even a few rare, late-season Green Drakes.

155 Mental Models Johnson-Laird (1983) argued that the inadequate construction of a mental model causes errors in comprehension.

156 Background Knowledge When background knowledge does not exist it is necessary to provide that knowledge as a starting point for deepening understanding.

157 Some Steps Expand the reading curriculum to reflect todays broad text sources. Use proven, research based instructional tools based on sound pedagogy. Commit to a school or district wide literacy plan.

158 STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS

159 Design and Organization Three main sections K-5 (cross-disciplinary) 6-12 English Language Arts 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Shared responsibilities for students literacy development Three appendices A: Research and evidence; glossary of key terms B: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasks C: Annotated student writing samples

160 Key Points in Reading Reading Framework for NAEP 2009 Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70%

161 Key Points in Reading Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile RangesLexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectations K-1N/A CCR

162 Key Points in Writing Write Logical Arguments GradeTo PersuadeTo ExplainTo Convey Experience 430%35% 8 30% 1240% 20%

163 Key Points in Writing Research The Use of Technology Write Routinely Samples of Student Writing Appendix C

164 Summary In ELA… literacy will be a shared responsibility In ELA…students will read more complex text In ELA… more informational text will be read In ELA… more writing and research In ELA… speaking and listening

165 Middle – High Reading in the Content Area Raymond J. McNulty, President International Center for Leadership in Education Crestwood Local Schools April 4, 2011

166 Primary - Intermediate Literacy Raymond J. McNulty, President International Center for Leadership in Education Crestwood Local Schools April 4, 2011

167 Lexile Framework Semantic Difficulty Syntactic Complexity

168 Lexile Literature On Ancient Medicine The Scarlet Letter Brown vs. Board of Ed War and Peace Pride and Prejudice Black Beauty Tom Swift in the Land of Wonders The Adventures of Pinocchio Bunnicula: A Rabbit Tale of Mystery A Baby Sister for Frances The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth Frog and Toad are Friends Cliffords Manners

169 Lexile Texts The Making of Memory: From Molecules to Mind; Doubleday Philosophical Essays; Hackett Publishing Psychology: An Introduction; Prentice Hall Business; Prentice Hall America: Pathways to Present; Prentice Hall Writing and Grammar Gold Level; Prentice Hall World Cultures: A Global Mosaic; Prentice Hall Word 97; Glencoe/McGraw-Hill World Explorer: The U.S. & Canada; Prentice Hall Science (Grade 4); Addison-Wesley People and Places; Silver Burdett Ginn Imagine That!; Scholastic Inc My World; Harcourt Brace

170 Personal Use Aetna Health Care Discount Form (1360) Medical Insurance Benefit Package (1280) Application for Student Loan (1270) Federal Tax Form W-4 (1260) Installing Your Child Safety Seat (1170) Microsoft Windows User Manual (1150) G.M. Protection Plan (1150) CD DVD Player Instructions (1080)

171 Newspapers Reuters (1440) NY Times (1380) Washington Post (1350) Wall Street Journal (1320) Chicago Tribune (1310) Associated Press (1310) USA Today (1200)

172 Some Beliefs Not every students ability to read will develop in the same way. Prose literacy (fiction, nonfiction, drama and poetry) is important, but no longer sufficient.

173 Some Steps Expand the reading curriculum to reflect todays broad text sources. Use proven, research based instructional tools based on sound pedagogy.

174 Breaking the Failure Cycle In working with students who had not become competent readers by middle school it was clear that they had two significant problems with respect to reading: Inability to decode and read connected text fluently. Inability to create mental models from text.

175 Fluency

176 What is Fluency? Fluency can be defined as the ability to perform skills and demonstrate knowledge both accurately and quickly, without hesitation. Fluency is the building block of expertise in all things that we do well.

177 Importance of Fluency... the automaticity with which skillful readers recognize words is the key to the whole system. The readers attention can be focused on the meaning and message of a text only to the extent that its free from fussing with the words and letters Marilyn Adams

178 Mental Models

179 A mental model consists of mental tokens arranged in a structure that depicts the situation described by a text. McNamara, Miller & Bransford, 1991) Three turtles rested on a floating log, and a fish swam beneath them.

180 Mental Models A large part of comprehension ability rests on the ability to construct appropriate mental models. (Bransford, Goin, Hasselbring, Kinzer, Sherwood and Williams, 1988)

181 Mental Models For a variety of reasons, many students are unable to construct mental models from text. Often it is because they do not have the necessary background knowledge to construct an accurate mental model.

182 The Hatch The real hatch would begin around two in the afternoon and last for at least a few hours. It would be all BWOs for a while, then Olives mixed with Pale Morning Duns, then those two mixed with a few bigger Sulphurs. Scattered in there at various times you could also see a few small Red Quills, maybe some caddis, or even a few rare, late-season Green Drakes.

183 Mental Models Johnson-Laird (1983) argued that the inadequate construction of a mental model causes errors in comprehension.

184 Background Knowledge When background knowledge does not exist it is necessary to provide that knowledge as a starting point for deepening understanding.

185 Some Steps Expand the reading curriculum to reflect todays broad text sources. Use proven, research based instructional tools based on sound pedagogy. Commit to a school or district wide literacy plan.

186 STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS

187 Design and Organization Three main sections K-5 (cross-disciplinary) 6-12 English Language Arts 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Shared responsibilities for students literacy development Three appendices A: Research and evidence; glossary of key terms B: Reading text exemplars; sample performance tasks C: Annotated student writing samples

188 Key Points in Reading Reading Framework for NAEP 2009 Grade Literary Informational 4 50% 8 45% 55% 12 30% 70%

189 Key Points in Reading Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile RangesLexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectations K-1N/A CCR

190 Key Points in Writing Write Logical Arguments GradeTo PersuadeTo ExplainTo Convey Experience 430%35% 8 30% 1240% 20%

191 Key Points in Writing Research The Use of Technology Write Routinely Samples of Student Writing Appendix C

192 Summary In ELA… literacy will be a shared responsibility In ELA…students will read more complex text In ELA… more informational text will be read In ELA… more writing and research In ELA… speaking and listening

193 16 Career Clusters Department of Education

194 Reading Requirements Findings Entry-level Highest in 6/16 Second Highest in 7/16 Consistent Across Country

195 Construction

196 Lexile Framework ® for Reading Study Summary of Text Lexile Measures Text Lexile Measure (L) High School Literature College Literature High School Textbooks College Textbooks Military Personal Use Entry-Level Occupations SAT 1, ACT, AP* * Source of National Test Data: MetaMetrics Interquartile Ranges Shown (25% - 75%)

197 Lexile Framework ® for Reading Study Summary of High School Textbook Lexile Measures Text Lexile Measure (L) ELAScience Social StudiesArtsCTE Math Subject Area Textbooks Interquartile Ranges Shown (25% - 75%)

198 Primary - Intermediate Literacy Raymond J. McNulty, President International Center for Leadership in Education Crestwood Local Schools April 4, 2011


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