Presentation on theme: "Gwendolyn Cartledge, Ph.D. The Ohio State University"— Presentation transcript:
1Gwendolyn Cartledge, Ph.D. The Ohio State University Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Programs for Students with Behavioral Disorders Ohio CCBD June 26, 2009Gwendolyn Cartledge, Ph.D.The Ohio State UniversityLenwood GibsonStarr Keyes
2Presentation OutlineDisproportionality for Culturally Diverse Learners (CLD)Cultural Competence in PerceptionsCultural Competence in Behavioral InterventionsCultural Competence in Academic Interventions
3Disproportionate Minority Representation in Special Education Minority students are disproportionately over-represented in special educationAfrican American children are identified at 1.5 to 4 times the rate of white children in the disability categories of LD, MR, and EBD. They make up 14.8% of pupil population but 26.4% of students in EBD (Drakeford, Cramer, & Staples, 2006; Losen & Orfield, 2002)There is disproportionality in the representation of Native and Hispanic Americans in some areas as wellAsian American children are under identified in these areas, raising the question of whether the special education needs of these children are being met
4Prevalence of EBD in CLD groups EBD more prevalent in African-American youth from low-SES households and families without two parents(Achilles, McLaughlin, & Croninger; 2007)
5Rates of EBD by genderGirls underidentified for EBD. Possible factors:internalizing might not be detected by existing measurement/identification toolsgender role assumptions(Rice, Merves, & Srsic; 2008)Sample population in Quality of Life study:Out of 86 students, only 19 female (Sacks & Kern; 2008)
6Ohio rates by genderMales overwhelmingly identified with EBD as opposed to femalesODE Power Report enrollment by student demographic:Males comprised 80% of students enrolled w/EBD
7Ohio EBD prevalence by group School YearPercent of School PopulationMales FemalesPercent of EBD PopulationMales FemalesAsian or Pacific Islander.7.8.2Black, Non-Hispanic8.38.1257Hispanic18.104.22.168American Indian or Alaskan Native.05.1NCMultiracial22.214.171.124White, Non-Hispanic39374912
8Discipline and exclusion Highest disciplinary rates for students w/EBDEBD & ADHD more likely than LD to be excluded;African-American & Hispanics more likely than Whites to be excluded;Male and older students more likely be excluded(Achilles et al., 2007)More severe disciplinary procedures used for students with EBD (Bradley, Doolittle, & Bartolotta; 2008)
9SettingStudents with EBD participate in general education curriculum less:are more likely to be serviced with other students with EBD;are excluded from instructional settings more than any other disability category (Bradley et al., 2008)More segregated settings for AA, Hispanic, Native Am, & ELL students as opposed to White, Asian/PI, other, and non-ELL students (De Valenzuela, Copeland, Qi, & Park, 2006)
10Outcomes for Students with EBD Poor school and post-school outcomes for students with EBD; with negligible change over time (Bradley et al., 2008; Kern, Hilt-Panahon, & Sokol; 2009)More likely to receive lower grades and have the lowest high school completion rate (e.g., drop out at twice the rate of general education students)Difficulty with employment, postsecondary education, personal relationships, and high rate of involvement in justice system(Bradley et al., 2008)
11Outcomes (cont’d)Consistently highest dropout rates for students with EBD and LDLower odds of dropping out if:never have been retained;prepared for class;completed homework;tardy less oftenGreater odds of dropping out if:misbehave more;cut class;absent(Reschly & Christenson, 2006)
12Data from One Elementary School: Disciplinary Data Summary Nearly 50% of school population had disciplinary referrals.Number of referrals increased dramatically in the spring of each school year.Males received more referrals than females: 60% year 1, 73% year 2.African American males:% in population % referralsYear % %Year % %
13Data from One Elementary School: Frequent Repeaters Year 2Year 1
14Culturally competent teachers are able to face themselves - are introspective (Howard 2003) When dealing with disciplinary actions, for example, teachers need to ask:Are disciplinary actions disproportionate to one subgroup?What messages are being sent to student members of that group and to non-members?Are students punished for teachers’ lack of skill in behavior management?Are students punished for culturally specific behaviors?
15School orientation begins to dwindle at about the 4th grade School orientation begins to dwindle at about the 4th grade. Boys begin to seek other means to affirm themselves, perhaps due more to hostile school climate than to peer pressure against “acting white.”
16When removal from classroom life begins at an early age, it is even more devastating, as human possibilities are stunted at a crucial formative period of life. Each year the gap in skills grows wider and more handicapping, while the overall process of disidentification … encourages those who have problems to leave school rather than resolve them in an educational setting (Ferguson, p. 230).
17Cultural CompetenceWays in which schools aggravate social adjustment problems of culturally diverse learners:Monocultural curriculum (fail to recognize background of culturally diverse learner)Individualistic/competitive environmentsDisproportionate disciplinary referrals with harsher penaltiesMore restrictive educational placementsLow expectations
18Cultural CompetenceClash between culture of school (control/authority) & males (need to be empowered/affirmed) cultural discontinuitiesNeed for greater cultural competence by school personnelReduce hostile school climate through culture of caringDevelop positive student - teacher relationshipsProvide direct and intense instruction in desired social and academic skills
19Social skill instruction in needed behaviors Cultural CompetenceEmpower and affirm males through:Social skill instruction in needed behaviorsIndividualized behavior plansEffective/intensive academic instruction
20Social Skills Instruction Motivation and RationaleSkill Components/StepsModelingGuided Rehearsal and PracticeIndependent PracticeSkill Review and ReinforcementMaintenance and Generalization
21“Responding to Conflicts and Aggression” Instruction Using folktale to teach social skills (Cartledge & Kleefeld, 1994; in press)A Lot of Silence Makes a Great Noise
22Skill ComponentsWhen someone says or does something to bother or threaten us, we:Don’t look at the person.Don’t talk to the person.Think about how to get away.If you can, get away.Go to a safe place.If necessary, call for help.
23Modeling, Guided, and Independent Practice Situation: You are walking home from school. Two bullies, both bigger than you are, call you names and threaten you.I’m not going to look at them.I’m not going to talk to them.I’m going to ignore them and continue walking.I’m going to walk faster so that I can get home quickly and safely.
24Reinforcement, Maintenance, Generalization Self-managementWhen someone teases me or challenges me,I …..MonTuesWedThursFriDon’t lookXDon’t talkWalk awayTell my teacherTouchdown
25Reinforcement, Maintenance, Generalization Integrated curriculum (e.g., culturally specific literature, journal writing)Classwide and schoolwide instructionCollaboration with family and community membersGroup contingencyAs peer coach
27James Brown as our very own Quarterback AffirmationFor his good team work and leadership…By the power invested in Ms. Jones’ 3rd grade class… we hereby announce…James Brown as our very ownQuarterback
28Reinforcing Appropriate Behavior “[B]ehaviors which are supported and recognized are the ones which will increase” (Rhode, Jenson, & Reavis, 1992, p. 27).“Good job, James, for following directions.”vs.“Stop it, James. You are interrupting the class.”If the student’s appropriate behavior does not increase, whatever you are doing is not reinforcing to the student (not working).
30Academic Instruction Good teaching as first line of defense Many students’ problem behavior are results of poor academic achievement“I can’t do the work. I’m bored. So let’s find something else to do!!” (academic escape)Good teaching produces “double” effectsGood teaching requiresMaximum number of instructional trials (fast pace + no down time)Students’ overt responsesError correction with repeated practice
32Early Identification Identify children at-risk as early as possible Children born into high risk situations considered for intervention from birthHigh quality in home and preschools programs4 and 5 year olds participating in a half day preschool had 32% fewer special ed placements(Conyers, Reynolds, & Ou, 2003)
33Early Academic Intervention School-based assessment to identify at-risk studentsLink between academic deficits and behavior problemsIncreased focus on early reading skillsDynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBLES)Focuses on phonemic awareness and oral reading fluency
34Importance of P.A. and ORF Students still behind in third grade rarely catch up to peersThese skills should be assessed and taught earlyResearch demonstrates intervention for PA and ORF successful in increasing targeted skills and reducing behavior disruptions(Kourea, Cartledge, & Musti-Rao, 2007; Koutsofats, Harmom, & Gray, 2008; Lane, Menzies, Munton, Von Duering, & English, 2005; Staubitz, Cartledge, Yurick, and Lo, 2005)
35Reading Intervention First-graders in two schools 6 boy and 2 girls Ages 6 to 8 years oldAfrican-AmericanLow-income, urban schoolsIdentified as “at-risk”DIBELS winter benchmarkOral reading fluency scoresAll students were either “at-risk” or “some risk”
36Intervention Computer based reading program Students used program: Focused on increasing reading fluencyRepeated reading sequenceStand aloneSupplemental reading curriculumStudents used program:30 minutes per day3 to 4 times per week5 months (Jan to May)
37Oral Reading Fluency Rates (measured as correct words per minute) ResultsOral Reading Fluency Rates (measured as correct words per minute)Treatment GeneralizationStudentBLTX1TX2Lance134458111527Stevie517081425Sheba201002422Ashley28803650Marvin124246191730Clyde165241Malik647443Tyrone61713438
38DIBELS Winter and Spring Benchmarks DIBELS WinterDIBELS Spring1st Grade-BenchmarksStudentORFRisk StatusWords GainedLance6At Risk21Some Risk+15Stevie7+14Sheba1640Low Risk+24Ashley1549+34MarvinClyde931+22Malik1427+13Tyrone25+16
395 out of 8 students lowered risk status on DIBELS Summary of ResultsSchool 1School 2TxGenBaseline16 CWPM24 CWPM18 CWPM17 CWPMIntervention52 CWPM32 CWPM63 CWPM30 CWPMGains+ 36 CWPM+ 8 CWPM+ 45 CWPM+ 13 CWPM5 out of 8 students lowered risk status on DIBELS
40ReferencesAchilles, G. M., McLaughlin, M. J., & Croninger, R. G. (2007). Sociocultural correlates of disciplinary exclusion among students with emotional, behavioral, and learning disabilities in the SEELS national dataset. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 15(1),Bradley, R., Doolittle, J., & Bartolotta, R. (2008). Building on the data and adding to the discussion: The experiences and outcomes of students with emotional disturbance. Journal of Behavior Education, 17, 4-23.Cartlege, G., & Kleefeld, J. (in press). Working together: Building children’s social skills through folk literature. Research PressConyers, M. J., Reynolds, A. J., & Ou, S-R. (2003). The effects of early childhood intervention and subsequent special education services: Findings for the Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25,De Valenzuela, J. S., Copeland, S. R., Qi, C. H., & Park, M. (2006). Examining educational equity: Revisiting the disproportionate representation of minority students in special education. Exceptional Children, 72(4),Drakeford, W., Cramer, E., Staples, J. (2006). Minority confinement in the juvenile justise system: Legal, social, and racial factors. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39 (1), 52-8.Ferguson, A.A. (2001). Bad boys: Public schools in the making of black masculinity. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.Kern, L., Hilt-Panahon, A., & Sokol, N. G. (2009). Further examining the triangle tip: Improving support for students with emotional and behavioral needs. Psychology in the Schools, 46(1),Kourea, L., Cartledge, G., & Musti-Rao, S. (2007). Improving the reading skills of urban elementary students through total class peer tutoring. Remedial and Special Education, 28,Koutsofats, A. D., Harmom, M. T., & Gray, S. (2009). The effects of a tier 2 intervention for phonemic awareness in a respons-to-intervention model in low-income preschool classrooms. Language Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 40,Lane, K. L., Menzies, H. M., Munton, S. M., Von Duering, R. M., & English, G. L. (2005). The effects of a supplemental early literacy program for a student at risk: A case study. Preventing School Failure, 50,Losen, D.J., & Orfield, G. (2002). Racial inequality in special education. Cambridge, MA: Harvarrd Education Publishing Group.Reschly, A. L., & Christenson, S. L. (2006). Prediction of dropout among students with mild disabilities: A case for the inclusion of student engagement variables. Remedial and Special Education, 27(5),Rhode, G., Jenson, W.R., & Reavis, H.K. (1992). The tough kid book: Practical classroom management strategies.Longmont, CO: Sopris West.Rice, E. H., Merves, E., & Srsic, A. (2008). Perceptions of gender differences in the expression of emotional and behavioral disabilities. Education and Treatment of Children, 31(4),Sacks, G. & Kern, L. (2008). A comparison of quality of life variables for students with emotional and behavioral disorders and students without disabilities. Journal of Behavior Education, 17,Staubitz, J. E., Cartledge, G., Yurick, A. L., & Lo, Y. (2005). Repeated reading for students with emotional or behavioral disorders: Peer- and trainer-mediated instruction. Behavioral Disorders, 31,