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Oral Health for MCAH Populations Childrens Oral Health Program Contra Costa Health Services November 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Oral Health for MCAH Populations Childrens Oral Health Program Contra Costa Health Services November 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Oral Health for MCAH Populations Childrens Oral Health Program Contra Costa Health Services November 2008

2 Presentation Outline Overview Early childhood caries Periodontal disease and perinatal health Adolescent oral health: Oral piercing and grills Prevention of dental decay Access to oral health care Take-home messages

3 A Silent Epidemic Dental disease is the most common chronic and infectious disease affecting children in the U.S. Five times more common than asthma 7% of Contra Costa children miss school because of a dental problem

4 National Policy All children should see a dentist by age one or six months after the eruption of the first tooth – American Academy of Pediatrics – American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry

5 What are Early Childhood Caries (ECC)? Previously known as Baby Bottle Tooth Decay (BBTD) or Nursing Caries Can appear as soon as the first tooth erupts (around 6 months of age) ECC is an infectious and transmissible disease; however, it is preventable

6 ECC is an infectious, transmissible disease Mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and other acid- producing bacteria Transmission is both vertical and horizontal

7 Colonization Can begin even before the eruption of teeth

8 The Chain of Decay Cariogenic Bacteria (S. mutans, lactobacilli) Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose, Starch Acids dissolve tooth mineral Caries No Caries Fluoride

9 White Spot Lesions The first visible sign of tooth decay Reversible with fluoride varnish

10 White Spot Lesions

11 Mild/Moderate ECC

12 Severe ECC

13 Risk Factors for Caries Having a mother with a high caries rate or a high bacterial count of cavity-causing germs Demonstrable caries, plaque, demineralization, and/or staining Being a later-order offspring Sleeping with a bottle or breastfeeding throughout the night Low socioeconomic status Lack of access to dental care

14 Children with Disabilities and Other Special Needs Reduced saliva flow Sweetened medications Competing medical needs

15 The Effects of ECC Loss of primary teeth Pain Infection Self-esteem

16 Loss of Primary Teeth Primary teeth are important for: – Nutrition – Speech development – Holding spaces for permanent teeth Untreated decay in primary teeth can lead to decay in permanent teeth, or permanent teeth may not erupt at all

17 Primary and Permanent Teeth

18 Pain Children learn to live with the pain Missed preschool and school days Inability to concentrate; impairs school readiness Can affect sleep and overall health and well-being

19 Infection Failure to thrive and delayed growth patterns

20 Self-esteem Stainless steel crowns Unattractive smiles

21 Importance of Oral Health for Pregnant Women Periodontal disease in a pregnant woman has been linked to increased risk for preterm delivery and having a low birth weight baby For mom: pain, infection, poor nutrition, sleep deprivation, inability to concentrate, work or take care of children

22 Bacteria in PD Blood Placenta Inflammation Cervical Dilation and Uterine Contractions Possible Biological Pathway Between PD and PTB/LBW

23 Periodontal Disease Gingivitis Periodontal Disease

24 Gingivitis Early stage of gum disease – only gums are infected Caused by bacterial plaque and host risk factors: smoking, diabetes, stress, genetics Bacteria in plaque create toxins that irritate the gums and cause redness, swelling, bleeding Reversible with good oral hygiene

25 Pregnancy Gingivitis Infection that is more superficial and brought on by hormonal changes during pregnancy

26 Periodontitis An inflammation and degeneration below the gum line (bone and tissues surrounding the teeth) Multi-factorial and episodic in nature Prevalence in women of childbearing age is 5-40% Destruction of the bone is not reversible If left untreated can cause tooth loss

27 Progression of Periodontitis

28 Severe Periodontitis - Gingival Recession in Incisors

29 Treatment of Periodontal Disease Professional deep scaling and root planing Anti-microbial mouth rinse (chlorhexidine) Systemic and/or site-specific antibiotics Gum surgery

30 Adolescent Oral Health: Oral Piercing Potential consequences of oral piercing include: – Infection; – Prolonged or uncontrolled bleeding; – pain and swelling (in extreme cases, a severely swollen tongue can close off the airway and restrict breathing); – Chipped or cracked teeth; – Injury to the gums, possibly resulting in bone loss and root decay; – Problems with chewing, swallowing, and pronouncing words properly; – Blood-borne diseases including various strains of hepatitis; and – Endocarditis, an inflammation of the heart valves or tissues.

31 Adolescent Oral Health: Oral Piercing Because of the risks involved even after an initial oral piercing wound has healed, the ADA recommends that both teens and adults avoid oral piercing.

32 Adolescent Oral Health: Grills Made from gold, silver, or jewel- encrusted precious metals Use of permanent cement not intended for internal use Do-it-yourself kits and unlicensed jewelers

33 Adolescent Oral Health: Grills Grills can wear away the enamel on the opposing teeth and inflame the gums; cement can damage teeth and gum tissues Food collects tooth decay ADA recommends that youth avoid wearing grills, but if they are considering it, youth should: – talk to their dentists first – find out what materials the grills are made of – limit the time the grills are worn – remove the grills when eating – practice good oral hygiene

34 Prevention of Dental Decay Regular dental visits starting at age 1 – Referral by medical providers Oral hygiene Fluoride Dental Sealants Healthy feeding practices Modifying caregivers oral health: Xylitol

35 Oral Hygiene: Infants Before teeth come in, wipe gums clean with gauze or washcloth, before or after last feeding at night

36 Oral Hygiene: Lift the Lip When teeth are in, lift the lip monthly to check for chalky white spots or brown spots

37 Oral Hygiene: Brushing Begins when first tooth erupts An adult should help brush a childs teeth until child is around 8 years old

38 Fluoride Toothpaste Encourage daily use in the morning and before bed A small smear is the appropriate amount Apply toothpaste across width, not length of toothbrush

39 Fluoride Varnish Brown resin that sets on contact with moisture in the mouth Prevents ECC Easy application Contains 5% of NaF

40 Community Water Fluoridation Only about 30% of Californians have fluoridated drinking water (vs. 67% nationwide) San Francisco Public Utilities Commission areas all fluoridated All of Contra Costa is fluoridated except Bay Point, Byron, Knightsen, and Brentwood

41 Dental Sealants Plastic coatings that dentists apply to the chewing surfaces of the molars Make it difficult for plaque to adhere to the grooves of these teeth, reducing the risk of developing cavities Most effective in children who have newly developed molars (ages six and 12) Last for several years

42 Dental Sealant Placement

43 Healthy Feeding Practices Eat healthy foods and avoid sticky, starchy foods between meals Dont let infants and toddlers go to bed with a bottle or sipper cup or carry one around during the day, unless it contains only water

44 Caregivers Oral Health Modify caregivers dental flora during the period from birth until the child is 2 years old Use anti- bacterials like xylitol

45 Xylitol An antibacterial, non-cariogenic sweetener Used in some foods, chewing gum, candies; available over-the-counter and online Caries-causing bacteria cannot feed on xylitol (it does not produce acid) Increases saliva flow Studies show that when used by mothers, there is a 30 to 60% reduction in tooth decay in their children

46 Prevention of Periodontal Disease Regular brushing and flossing Regular dental exams and professional cleanings Eliminating tobacco use Reducing stress

47 Access to Oral Health Care 21% of children (0-17) and 35% of adults (18+) in CA do not have dental insurance (05 & 03 CHIS) Many employers do not cover dental insurance Lack of dentists and specialists accepting Medi-Cal County and community clinics overburdened Need more dentists to see young children and pregnant women Lack of dental specialists Regular threats by state to cut or eliminate Medi-Cal dental benefits for pregnant women & children

48 Take-home Messages Oral health is integral part of total health Dental disease is very common Dental disease is infectious and transmissible, but it is preventable in many ways Dental visit by age one Access to care barriers can be very significant, especially for low-income families

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