Presentation on theme: "A Case Of Townships in South Africa IMPROVING LOCAL DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS THROUGH THE SYSTEMS OF INNOVATION APPROACH: A Case Of Townships in South Africa."— Presentation transcript:
A Case Of Townships in South Africa IMPROVING LOCAL DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS THROUGH THE SYSTEMS OF INNOVATION APPROACH: A Case Of Townships in South Africa Geci Karuri-Sebina, PhD Candidate, SARCHi Research Seminar 12 November 2011, SARChI – IERI – TUT - IDRC, Pretoria 1
2 Acknowledgement: Prof Muchie, for his continued support and encouragement to me, even to participate in this seminar in absentia.
Research Objectives 1. To explore the developmental dimensions and elements that are considered to be key to understanding the contexts and realities of township socio-economies; 2. To determine and describe the conceptual framework(s) and underlying planning theories informing conventional LDA of township socio-economies for purposes of township transformation; 3. By comparing these, to determine whether there are any differences or gaps in how the conventional LDA reflects and analyses township socio-economies for purposes of informing township transformation programmes; and 4. To model how the systems of innovation approach can be applied to address these gaps and/or offer value-adding conceptual frames for improving LDA in planning, and the prospects for township transformation What main elements and patterns can be observed and described as defining a township socio-economy in South Africa? 2. How has conventional LDA approached and defined these township socio-economies? 3. What differences or gaps exist between the township socio-economy observations and the LDA representations? 4. How can the systems of innovation approach contribute to (supplement, complement, or combine with) planning LDA to give an enhanced explanatory / analytical framework for township socio-economies?
3. Research Design: Appreciative Theorisation 4 Figure: An approach to appreciative study (adapted from Nelson & Winter, 1982; Nelson, 1997; Patrucco, 2005) Figure: Adaptation of the appreciative study framework (by Author) Qualitative study using the case study method with an application to South African townships.
3. Research Design: Conceptual framework 5
6 Research Question MethodsDescriptionData Processing 1)What main elements and patterns can be observed and described as defining a township socio-economy in South Africa? Appreciative observations 1.1) The study would begin by essentially “walking the area” to observe and take note of socioeconomic: activities, roleplayers, context, etc. Minimum 2 x 7- day weeks per area (14 days) Field diary and photographs organized into an “area file” to be systematically analysed to determine key and interesting features of the local area context Storytelling1.2) Collect local stories and narratives through in- depth, unstructured interviews with various community roleplayers. These will be identified through snowballing around a set of appreciative questions intended to establish and speak with the key persons / institutions who can help us understand the area’s development past, present, and future. ~3 interviews per area Narrative inquiry using narrative categories to understand the local issues and values (Riley and Hawe, 2005 adapted from K.G. Young 1984). Interviews, Surveys, Documentary analysis 1.3) Leads generated from the general observations and narratives will be followed up with more detailed investigations to collect specific data. These may include follow-up interviews, tallies (to quantify particular phenomena), short surveys, acquisition and review of specific documents, review of local media articles, etc. TBD Addition of qualitative and quantitative data to “area file”, analysed to elucidate key findings about what emerges as being important about the local socio-economic development context: E.g. actors, elements, structures, institutions, discourses, dynamics, visions, agency, etc. 3. Research Design: Methods (cont.)
7 Research Question MethodsDescriptionData Processing 2)How has conventional LDA approached and defined these township socio-economies? Content analysis2.1) Interrogate, as “LDA” proxies, the Status Quo analyses and resultant Business Plans submitted to NDPG for the 2 areas to identify: aims, process, results (analysis : response), [theoretical foundations ] 2 sets of programme documentation Thematic content analysis (manual or using Atlas.ti software) Key informant interviews 2.2) Semi-structured interviews with the planning professionals involved in the 2 LDAs to further establish their LDA: aims, process, results (analysis : response), [theoretical foundations ]. 2 interviews 2.3) Supplementary interviews with the ostensible “clients” of the LDA will be conducted, if necessary, to clarify any influences or specifications affecting the LDA methods employed or outputs. 2 interviews Thematic content analysis 2.4) Managers of 2 other long-ranging area-based initiatives will also be interviewed to establish their LDA approach in order to determine any significant differences with the LDA of the 2 cases chosen... 2 interviews Thematic content analysis Review of secondary data / documents 2.5) Other related documentation will be reviewed to further clarify the conventional LDA approach(es). This is envisaged to include: NDPG planning guidelines, programme evaluations, related academic works. Thematic content analysis
3. Research Design: Methods (cont.) 8 Research Question MethodsDescriptionData Processing 3)What differences or gaps exist between the township socio-economy observations and the LDA representations? Comparative concept mapping and analysis 3.1) The products of the thematic analyses from Questions 1 & 2 above will be examined and compared Manual / Atlas.ti / other mindmapping software 4)Can the systems of innovation approach contribute to planning LDA to give an enhanced explanatory framework for township socio-economies? Document review4.1) Derive key conceptual and analytical constructs from innovation systems literature, and compare with the findings of Question 3 Manual / Atlas.ti / other mind-mapping software 4.2) Theoretical exposition of the potential contributionNarrative and modelling
Preliminary Findings 9 Little innovative activity Tendency to fad-driven businesses (internet cafés, Cell C containers, public payphones, recycling) ; markets get saturated and negatively competitive Market is only local, but supply chains mainly external (little local procurement or value add); a reproductive economy Unique activities are mainly cultural and social (but are thereby discretionary and occasional rather than essential services, and have a culturally specific market) Not much evidence of expansion / scaling / adaptation innovation Weak human capital formation Little reference to education and training (only 1 FET college in area) Most skills-based enterprises are run by immigrants Entrepreneurial activity mainly informal and micro-scale
Preliminary Findings A challenge with informality Co-exist, but the formal draws higher value / profitability. Many informal have very small margins and view growth as formalizing (at least in terms of ownership of facilities) High cost of formality. Traders say they’re willing to pay, but there are issues of clarification of / satisfaction with what exactly is being paid for, and also of affordability. CoT says they refuse to pay because “it’s our government, why should we?” Most formal businesses surveyed have been running for years; Informal ones have been 6-24 months; higher turnover? CoT claims to view informal trade positively, however has consistently clashed with the sector & accused of displacing it. High level of conflict between City and communities around housing allocations, handling of traders, land issues. Informal trade association in Sauslville disbanding is interesting – no organized structure for engagement now, and some sense of intimidation by officials.
Preliminary Findings Land [control] issues are a major factor in townships Politics (councilors, party politics, organizational politics in municipality) seem to be affecting effectiveness Methods of LDA employed seem to be technocratic, silo- driven, and focused on physical developments. Economic and socail development are handled separately. What is the role of planning? Little focus on the role of LDA as playing a role communicatively – using planning to engage with negotiating plans and futures. No engagement with structural and institutional issues. Even where identified, not identified / prioritised for action. Even re: economic dev - No reference to role of SET, training, or research; focus more on entrepreneurship, employment, or public service delivery